Catullus; Edited by Elmer Truesdell Merrill (2023)

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Catullus; Edited by Elmer Truesdell Merrill.


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FOREWORDThis reappearance of Merrill's Catullus perhaps calls fora word of explanation . A few years ago, when the book was allowed to go out of print, classical studies suffered a severe blow . For this was the only brief, sufficiently annotated edi tion available in English of the complete works of one of antiquity's most attractive poets.Admittedly, one may always find fault with notes written in the knowledge and taste of half a century ago. For example,one may now tend to deplore the emphasis given to matters concerned with the chronology of the poems. But a later generation may not. Then, too , some today may possibly,on grounds of aesthetic improbability, reject Merrill's in clination to " partition the poet's Muse,” so that two Catul luses emerge, the learned and the lyrical. More serious,certainly, is the considerable increase in our knowledge since1893 of Catullus' relation to his Greek models. But our chief need is to have such basic commentaries as those of Ellis orKroll brought up to date. Finally, some would inevitably have Merrill's text changed here and there. Still, in the case of so thorny a text quot doctores tot lectiones.The alternative, then , to reprinting would have been anovus libellus - a new recension and commentary - and tothat proposal the answer is simply nummi desunt. In any caseMerrill's notes furnish ample and pertinent assistance on allpoints that are likely to bother the student, and for the instructor they offer now and then the not wholly undesirablechallenge to differ from another scholar in interpretation and to try to supplement him in information . All in all, this edition indeed deserves to last plus uno saeclo, and one is veryglad to have it back.J. P. ELDERCAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS May, 1951silClanna Co19512CDopz PREFACE.>aTHE text of this edition of Catullus is constituted upon theconviction that only codices Sangermanensis ( G) and Oxoniensis ( O) are of ultimate authority in determining the readingsof the lost codex Veronensis ( V) , and that the readings of theother known MSS. ( except T') that differ from those of G andO have the value of conjectural emendations merely.In the Critical Appendix are exhibited in full the readings ofG and 0 , with the omission, however, of such as present onlyunimportant orthographical peculiarities. For the readings ofG I have depended mainly upon the published collations ofBaehrens, Ellis, and Schwabe (in his last edition ), together withthe photolithographic fac -simile of the MS. published at Paris in1890. For the readings of 0 I have followed a collation andcomplete transcript of that MS. made by me in July, 1889, bythe courtesy of the Librarian of the Bodleian. This collationwas carefully compared on the spot with the collations of Ellisand Schwabe, and is therefore, I trust, reasonably free from error.A fac - simile of a page of codex 0 , reduced one - third in size,follows this preface.My especial thanks are due to the editors- in - chief of thisSeries for their unfailing kindness and invaluable criticisms,and to my friend and associate, Mr. Frank W. Nicolson , forhis assistance in proof-reading and in the preparation of the Critical Appendix.E. T. M.MIDDLETOWN, CONN .Jan. I, 1893Tenericunit atan gre marmora pelagof warumpetårlle ainos Auginemoa feraI by Rempeeuutefpacius famuta funt o a magas abelle wadraduwancaDimul.imca nio At fir2oroera amo2 top.nge mandsabosage rapide1mftolanPellaro quioni janterinæpenus near Iyur yitoria autollaf.launtur laqurono neptumnafte půons po altoume afara afines æcimos attendiosJusueres humiles e å leca vidro argue iolai propre Jafon Teftus a urati optantes choichis aia pelle a ufi licualan alaaca axund rup c mula acritesabiisagia mums oüiqubziranës ilin übbemodeI på lcui Ant rol itāteAlarme amuPgimgungio mfleve texto come j la nae aurfu få unbutaphate pomenia uAmvacportio uetoli gapirerC Stags remigio fummo uicamaurima f mere fen candna ggiugite alite ilmottage. Gre miorini vereras innanton9 Wadauniuuemannas metales culinidad axperiphesn wui anuoekintus egungitecanno e a thetrou relensmaisfort and© thens bumanosnodefpei punane cůthetud pacyi ugaod pelea nda numas optato failogor naa 1 Cross Dalwete mi genus ohámai 9 og ogo Repe mounocarmieopallatoX beter toes whichad his full11.40PeeGODI018 O CATVLLIANI FOL. 21 P.See p . 130 - polas mot numbereds . 14 exeunte$ 12-22.5INTRODUCTION.EARLY LYRIC POETRY AT ROME.1. The beginnings of lyric poetry among the Romans reachback to the prehistoric period of the city, and were as rude and shapeless as was the life of her people. Amid the rough farmer- populace of the turf -walled village by the Tiber theArval Brethren and the Salii chanted their rude nies to therustic deities, – for even then religion was a prime cause in moving men toward poetry . In roughly balanced Saturnianverses men spoke regret and panegyric for the dead and praisesfor the valorous deeds of the living. The mimetic passion and rude wit of the Roman led him also into boisterous personal satire and into epigram more pungent than polished. But until the last few decades of the Republic these products of the Muse are either anonymous or connected with names well-nigh for .gotten, and the remnants that have come down to us display no striking poetic excellence .2. The progress of a national literature is perhaps rarely by fits and starts, even though it appears so to be. But the frontadvances in such a uniform line, that only now and then, when one wave sweeps out far beyond the rest, is the general advance of the tide remarked. So it would probably be unjust to theunknown poets of the Roman Republic to believe that their work did not mark a continual advance from period to period in lyric feeling and expression . Yet only in the first half of the last century before Christ did Latin poetry enter upon its first period of brilliancy. Amid the hot passions, the vigorous hatreds, the feasts and brawls, the beauty and the coarseness,xii INTRODUCTION .of life in the capital during this most active period in the his.tory of Rome, there arose a school of writers who, though oftenconservatives in politics, were radicals in poetry. The tendencies of the traditional Roman past were by them utterly disre garded. Inspiration was drawn from the stirring life into whichthey were plunged, as well as from the sympathetic study of the sources of poetic art among both the earlier Greeks andthe Alexandrians. As was to be expected, their models ofrhythm were not the rude hexameters and ruder Saturnians oftheir Roman predecessors, but the more polished versificationof the Greeks; and their subjects were sometimes their own personal experiences and emotions, and sometimes themes suggested by their Greek prototypes. So a new school of Roman poetry arose and flourished, to be superseded in turn by thepolished Augustans, who cultivated the niceties of elegance, butat the expense of verve.CATULLUS.3. Of this new school of poets the most prominent and interesting figure is Catullus. It is possible to know him personally as only now and then an ancient writer can be known to us, and yet he gives us but few definite biographical facts concerning himself, while still fewer are given by other authorsof his own and later ages. But the little body of poems that constitute his extant works is so replete with his intense personality, and shows forth so unreservedly his every emotion, thatthe man stands out before us as does no other man of the agewith the exception of two or three of its political leaders. And all this is true, even though we acknowledge, as we are bound to do, that in many questions of importance concerning his life we must be content with a working hypothesis instead of aseries of established facts, and that the biographer, as theinterpreter of the poems of Catullus, must be understood to be presenting probabilities, and not certainties.INTRODUCTION . xiiimann.4. With regard to his full name we are left in some doubt.He refers to himself by name in his poems twenty- five times,but in each case only by the cognomen, Catullus, while thebetter manuscripts of his writings are inscribed simply Catulli Veronensis Liber . Yet there is no difficulty in ascertaining hisgentile name from other writers. Varro (L. L. VII . 50) , Sue tonius ( Iul. 73) , Porphyrio ( on Hor. Sat. I. 10. 19) , Charisius ( 1. 97 ), Jerome ( Chron . a. Abr. 1930) , all give it as Valerius.There are fewer references to his prænomen. Four of the laterand interpolated manuscripts give it in their titles as Quintus,and until lately it was supposed that to this indication might be added the testimony of the elder Pliny ( N. H. XXXVII. 81 ) .Relying upon such authority Scaliger went so far as to emend6. 67. 12 so as to bring in for the unintelligible words qui te the prænomen of the poet in the vocative, Quinte; and hissuggestion won the approval of even so keen a critic as LachBut it is now universally conceded that the initial Q.prefixed to the word Catullus in the passage specified from Pliny is an interpolation, the best MS. , the codex Bambergensis, containing only the cognomen without prefix. There is,moreover, positive evidence in favor of a different prænomen .Jerome ( 1.c. ) , in speaking of the birth of the poet, calls him infull C. Valerius Catullus, and Apuleius ( Apol. 10) , whose ac curacy, however, in the matter of names is not above suspicion ,calls him C. Catullus. In the face, then , of the testimonyof interpolated manuscripts only, his prænomen must standestablished as Gaius.5. Concerning the birthplace of Gaius Valerius Catullusthere is abundant testimony. The titles of the best MSS. ofhis works call him Veronensis, and Jerome ( 1.c.) declares him born at Verona. In this testimony concur his admirers among the poets of the centuries immediately following ( e.g. Ov. Am.III . 15. 7; Mart. I. 61. I; X. 103. 5; XIV. 195; Auson. Op.23. I ); and his own writings furnish confirmatory evidence ofthe same fact. He calls himself (c. 39. 13) Transpadanus • hexiy INTRODUCTION .possessed a villa at Sirmio on the shore of Lacus Benacus nearVerona (c. 31 ); he was acquainted with Veronese society ( cc.67, 100 );; and he spent part of his time at Verona ( cc. 35,68 ' ) .DATE OF BIRTH AND OF DEATH .6. The year of his birth and that of his death are stated byJerome in his edition of the Chronicles of Eusebius, probablyon the authority of the De Poetis of Suetonius. Under date ofthe year of Abraham 1930 ( = B.C. 87 ) Jerome says, GaiusValerius Catullus scriptor lyricus Veronae nascitur, and underthat of 1960, or, according to some MSS. , 1959 (= B.C. 57, or58) , he says, Catullus XXX. aetatis anno Romae moritur.There is nothing to contradict Jerome's date for the birth ofthe poet, but unfortunately for our belief in his entire accuracy,a number of the poems of Catullus were clearly written laterthan B.C. 57, —some of them at least as late as the end of theyear 55 B.C. , or the beginning of the year 54 ( e.g. CC. II , 29, 53,113) . Jerome is, therefore, certainly wrong about the date ofthe poet's death, and hence about at least one of the two otherstatements, the date of his birth and his age at death. Theonly scrap of evidence from other sources on these points is thevague statement of Ovid that Catullus died young (Am. III. 9.62 obuius huic [ in Elysio ] hedera iuuenalia cinctus temporacum Caluo, docte Catulle, tuo).7 .The poems of Catullus himself furnish us, however, withsome good negative evidence concerning the date of his death .It probably occurred in the year 54 B.C. In the first place,there are no poems that clearly must have been written laterthan the close of the year 55 B.C. , or the earlier months of theyear 54, nor any that are even capable of more ready explana tion, if a later date for their composition be supposed. The remark about the consulship of Vatinius ( c. 52 ) , which did not take place till the end of the year 47 B.C., forms no exception to this statement ( cf. Commentary), and the prosecution ofINTRODUCTION . XVVatinius by Calvus, mentioned in c. 53, may well have takenplace in 56 B.C., instead of in the fall of 54. Furthermore,C. II , which was surely written toward the close of 55 B.C.,shows a decided change in the feeling of Catullus towardCæsar, and accords well with the statement of Suetonius ( Iul.73) , that after Catullus had angered Cæsar by his epigrams concerning him and Mamurra, a reconciliation with the poet took place, apparently at his father's house at Verona. It ishardly credible that if Catullus lived dụring the exciting yearsthat followed 55 B.C. , the only indication of his new feelingtoward Cæsar should be the reference in C. II , and that thiswas followed by silence. Such neutrality was not the fashionamong the young friends whom Cæsar was constantly winningto himself from the ranks of his political opponents. Thereseems, indeed, to be an indication in c. 11 that Catullus might be expecting some post under the great commander. But themost satisfactory conclusion is that death came within a shorttime after the close of 55 B.C. , and anticipated all hoped - foractivities ( cf., however, $ 50) .8. Whether Jerome is wrong in one or in both of his otherstatements, remains, and must always remain, in doubt. Allknown facts concerning Catullus harmonize well with thehypothesis that he was born in 87, and died in 54 B.C., at the age of thirty - three, or that he was born in 84, and died in 54, at the age of thirty; but nothing more definite can be likely to be ht said about the matter.FAMILY AND CIRCUMSTANCES.9. The only relative mentioned by Catullus is his brother,whose death was the occasion to him of such intense and lasting grief ( cc. 65 , 68, 101 ) . But Suetonius ( l.c.) speaks of the father as a host of Julius Cæsar even so late, apparently, as theclose of the poet's life. Why he ( to say nothing of the mother)is never mentioned by the poet, we cannot tell. Not improbably, however, he did not have the same active sympathy withхvі INTRODUCTION .the tastes and inclinations of Catullus as the father of Horacehad with those of his son. Catullus, moreover, was not theonly son, and was probably younger than the one whose untimely death in the Troad he records.10. Yet there was apparently wealth enough in the family toenable even the younger brother to enjoy the advantages thatwealth brought to the young Italian of that day. He was ableearly in his young manhood to go to Rome, and to make thatcity thenceforth his abiding-place (c. 68. 34 ff.). He owned avilla at Sirmio ( c. 31 ) , and another on the edge of the Sabine hills ( c.44) . And there is no indication that while at Rome hewas busy with any pursuit that could fill his purse, although,like many another young Roman, he later obtained a provincialappointment, and went to Bithynia on the staff of the governorMemmius in the hope of wealth ( cf. § 29 ff.) . The hope, hetells us ( cc. 10, 28 ) , proved abortive, but Catullus had yet money enough -perhaps even to purchase a yacht for hishomeward journey like any millionnaire ( cf. § 35 and introductory note to c. 4) - at any rate to continue his merry lifeat Rome, apparently without great pecuniary embarrassment.All these indications point to no financial inability or niggardliness on the part of his father. Possibly the villas, and an increase of income, came to him upon the death of his brother.11. Whether Catullus, like Horace, was accompanied to Rome by his father is doubtful. On the whole, it seemshardly probable that he was. To say nothing of the considerations possibly connected with the interests of the elderson, the father was apparently resident in Verona at the timewhen Julius Cæsar was governor of Gaul (Suet. Iul. 73 ) , andthis fact may indicate that at no time was the family home atVerona broken up in favor of a new one at Rome.-EDUCATION .12. Doubtless to the care of some friend of the familyat Rome the youth was entrusted .And there were manyINTRODUCTION . xviiTranspadanes at Rome, -some of them making great namesfor themselves in the literary world. With some of these certainly a man of station prominent enough in Verona to belater, at least, the friend of Julius Cæsar, might command interest. Under the charge of one of them he might have placed so promising a young man as his son doubtless was.To which one the trust fell cannot now be determined, but asCatullus later ( c. 1 ) addresses Cornelius Nepos as the friend and foster - father of his earlier poems, it seems not unlikely chat to his guardianship ( cf. § 63 ) Catullus owed his introduction into the society of Rome.13. The purpose of his coming thither is nowhere stated ,but may easily be divined. Rome was the school of Italy, atleast to all who could pay for her tuition. And a youth with apoet's soul burning within him could hardly have been contentwith such schooling as a Transpadane town afforded, even toher wealthiest inhabitants. But whether Catullus did muchstudying of a serious sort may well be doubted. It cannot bequite true that his only books were woman's looks, ' for hispoems show an ardent and sympathetic study of the Greekpoets. But his attainments in rhetoric and philosophy, if hehad any at all, were certainly not of a scholastic character, andhe apparently never cared to follow the students of the day toAthens or to Rhodes.14. Not books, but life, exercised over him the preëminentcharm. And this life was not the life of the past, but of thepresent, — the busy, delirious whirl of life in the capital of theworld. Into it he plunged with all the ardor of a lively and passionate nature. Rome was from that first moment hishome, the centre of all his beloved activities. Verona, his Sabine villa, and even Sirmio, became to him but hospitalsor vacation haunts. Once only did he leave Italy, and evenhis joy at reaching Sirmio again on his return ( c. 31 ) couldnot long detain him from Rome. And at Rome death methiin .6-xviii INTRODUCTION .15. In life at Rome, then, Catullus found his full development as a poet. Already from the donning of the toga uirilis,so he tells us (c. 68. 15 ff. ), he had been busied with love andlove- verses. But whether this period antedated or followed his coming to Rome cannot be decided, since the date of publicar tion of the Chronica of Nepos (c. 1. 8) is unknown, and on this alone could a decision of the other point be based . Suchpoems as those that concern Aufilena ( CC. 100, 110, 111 ) may possibly date from the Veronese period of the poet's life (though c. 82 cannot possibly do so ) , and yet it is just as possible that their scene was Rome ( cf. introductory note to C. 100 ), and the same may be said of the poems concerning Ameana ( cc. 41 , 43 ) . Much more likely is it, however, that of the other poems that show some connection with Veronese affairs cc. 17 and 67 date from his residence in his native city,while c. 35 was surely written during only a temporary visit there (cf. Commentary) .LESBIA .16. But whenever these poems were written , they springfrom experiences that did not touch deeply the soul of thewriter. A passing fancy, a moment's passion , an evanescenthumor brought them forth . But at Rome, and not long after he arrived at Rome, Catullus met the mastering passion of his life, and beside the verses to which it gave birth the melodiouschamber ditties of Horace and the elaborated passions of theelegiasts are but as tinkling cymbals. To the woman who exercised this wonderful power over him he gives the name of Lesbia.But more often he is not content with a name, and the familiarterms of endearment flow from his lips with a newer and deeper meaning; for he delights to feel that though his experience is on the outside like that of other men, his mistress is peerlessin virtues and his love for her a love passing that of women.On his side the passion was sudden and intense. He adopts the words of Sappho, and tells Lesbia ( c. 51 ) of the deadlyINTRODUCTION . xixfaintness that seizes upon him even while he feels himself agod, and more than a god, in sharing her smile and her voice.And with the swift passion comes the mad desire to win her love. Lesbia is a married woman (c. 83. I) , but that consider ation demands only additional care and diplomacy on his part,and is no bar to his efforts. He lays siege to her heart. His im portunate persistence, youth as he is, commands her attentioneven amid a throng of lovers, but apparently only irritates her.What does this youngster, lately come to Rome, hope for amidso many of his betters? He sees that victory must be won over this brilliant woman of the world by proving himself no meremoon - calf. Therefore he curbs his sentiment, and matches wit with wit. Even her own display of petulance is turned againsther in neat retort (cc. 83, 92) . And meanwhile Catullus waswinning his way in the Roman world. The unknown young man was becoming well known, and the haughty beauty finally sur rendered, doubtless influenced by vanity rather than by passion.17. Yet Catullus had no haunting fears concerning the genuineness of her love for him . He was so completely masteredby his own passion that he could not doubt hers. Their meetings, necessarily secret for the most part, on account of thelady's position, took place at the house of a friend (c . 68. 68 ).But not even the possibility of discovery restrained the ardor ofthe poet's soul. He poured forth his feelings most simply andunrestrainedly in a series of charming trifles. Mere childlikedelight in multitudinous kisses ( cc. 5, 7 ) , daintiest pretence oflover's jealousy at the favors accorded Lesbia's sparrow (c. 2) ,gentle, half-smiling sympathy with her over the untimely deathof her pet (c. 3) , flow from his pen with a perfect freedom ofmovement and yet with an exquisite grace and perfection inevery part. And the mere thought that any proud damsel couldonce claim comparison with his Lesbia rouses him to hot scorn(cc. 43, 86 ).18. The sight of this young poet at her feet may have beenattractive to Lesbia, but it could not take the place of all otherINTRODUCTION.attractions. The exclusive demand his love made upon hergrew irksome. He might be so wholly swallowed up in lovefor her as to disregard everything else, but she was not soin love with him. It flattered her vanity to hold him thusin thrall, but was tiresome if she also must have her freedomlimited by the same shackles. And so she gradually turnedaway from him toward other pleasures. He finally met hercoldness by an attempt to assert his own independence ( c. 8 ) .But even in his self - exhortation to firmness in meeting indifference with indifference, he cannot forbear to dwell upon thehappy days of the past, nor can he conceal his own hopefor a reconciliation. Strangely enough, he seems not even tosuspect infidelity on Lesbia's part with other lovers. Thoughhe himself had made her unfaithful to her husband, he istroubled by no fear that she may be entering upon fresh fieldsof conquest. Though he cannot explain her present action ,he is so utterly blinded by his own passion, that he evenwarns her to consider the desolate lot that awaits her, if shepersists in breaking with him (c. 8. 14 ff. ).19. However misplaced was the confidence of Catullus inthe force of his appeal to Lesbia, his independence of bearingwas persevered in till it conquered, —at least to a certain ex tent. Lesbia saw that she had carried her coldness too far,and was likely to lose forever a lover whose talents and devo tion were such that to be given up by him was a serious woundto her vanity. And with a shrewd calculation of the effect of such a course upon his wounded heart, she made her unex pected way into his presence, and prayed for reconciliation.As might be expected, the unsuspicious lover received her with a burst of rapture (c. 107) .20. But the relations of the two lovers never could berestored to their old footing. Neither of them felt precisely asbefore . Lesbia had no intention of confining herself to Catullusalone, but only of numbering him as still one of her slaves,Catullus, too, had won knowledge in a hard school, and theINTRODUCTION .xxiness.trustful confidence he had felt in Lesbia's full reciprocationof his love was gone. He does reproduce his former tone ofjoyous mirth in one poem celebrating the reconciliation ( c. 36) ,but when Lesbia appeals to the gods to bear witness to her pledge of eternal fidelity ( c. 109 ) , though he joins in her prayer, it is clearly not with hearty faith, but only with a somewhat reserved desire. And with more experience, his heart is becoming a little hardened. However jesting the tone may be interpreted in which he answers Lesbia's protestations ( c. 70) , astrain of cynicism begins to make itself heard that is foreign to his former songs, though it has not yet become settled bitterBut Catullus is fast learning to write epigram.21. It was useless to suppose that he could long remainignorant of the fact that Lesbia's favors were not confined tohim. No one but himself had ever been ignorant of the truestate of the case. Rumor now began to penetrate even his fast closed ears, and that which he perhaps had already begun toſear came with no less a shock when presenting itself in the garb of fact. The emotions it aroused apparently varied fromtime to time. At one moment his old passion is strong withinhim, and in dwelling upon the happiness of the past he determines, with a pretence of philosophic carelessness that is supported by the broken staff of mythological precedent, to overlookthe frailties of a mistress whose lapses from fidelity he believedwere yet but occasional ( c. 68. 135 ff. ). At another momenthe appeals in remonstrance and grief to the friends who have become his rivals ( cc. 73, 77, 90) .22. And his perturbed soul was still further wrenched byanother heavy blow that fell upon him at about the same time with these disclosures. His dearly loved brother was aead,and, to heighten the anguish of the moment, dead far away inthe Troad, without a single relative near him to close his eyes,utter the last formal farewell, and place upon his tomb the customary funeral offerings. The news either reached Catulluswhen on a visit to his father's house at Verona, or summonedXXII INTRODUCTION .-him suddenly thither from Rome. For a time this emotiondulled his sensibility to every other. He could think of noth ing else. He foreswore the Muses forever, save to express theburden of his woe ( cc. 68. 19; 65. 12 ) . To the request of theinfluential orator Hortensius for verses, he could send only atranslation from Callimachus, and the story of his tears. Hemust even deny ( c. 684) an appeal from his friend Manlius forconsolation on the death of his wife, —perhaps the same Manlius for whose happy bridal he had but a short time beforewritten an exquisite marriage- song (c. 61 ) . And even whenManlius sought to recall him to Rome by hints concerning thescandal aroused by Lesbia's misdoings, the only answer was asigh ( c. 68. 30 ) .23. Possibly other news also reached him concerning hisfaithless mistress. At all events when , shortly afterward, hedid return to the capital, his eyes were fully opened. Notthat he now ceased to love Lesbia, for that was beyond his power, and therein lay his extremest torture . He had lostall faith in her, he knew her now to be but an abandoned prostitute, and yet he could not break the chain of his oldregard. " I hate and love,' he cries, I know not how , butI feel the anguish of it ' ( c. 85 ) .24. Though he was condemned still to love Lesbia, theformer connection with her was now broken off, never to berenewed . Yet he has for her words of sorrow rather than ofEven now , as formerly ( c. 104 ) , he cannot malign her,although she has sunk so deep in degradation. In a simple,manly way he declares the fidelity of his love for her ( c. 87 ) ,and the condition to which he has now been brought by her fault and not his own (c. 75 ) . However difficult it be to asso ciate the idea of pure affection with a passion like his, there is, nevertheless, an appeal of truth in his solemn asseverationat this moment of bitterest grief that his love for Lesbia was not merely the passion of any common man for his paid mis tress, but was as the love of a father for his son (c. 72 ) . Notscorn .INTRODUCTION .XX111wholly evil, a heart that could feel such an impulse, even towarda mistaken object.25. But however gentle his treatment of Lesbia, the rivals ofCatullus found now no mercy at his hands. For them he hadbut bitter scorn and anger, since he mistakenly regarded them,and not Lesbia herself, as responsible for her downfall. Egnatius and his set of companions (cc. 37, 39 ) , Gellius ( cc. 74, 80,88, 89, 90, 116 ) , perhaps also Æmilius ( c. 97 ) , Victius ( c. 98 ) ,and Cominius ( c. 108 ) , and other unnamed lovers ( cc. 71 , 784 )suffer on this account from the stinging lash of his satire . EvenCælius Rufus, like Quintius an early friend of the poet (c. 100 ) ,and like Quintius the subject of remonstrance a short time before (cc. 77, 82 ) , now finds no such gentle treatment (cc. 69,71??) . Possibly, also , the apparent fling at Hortensius in c.95. 3, who was most kindly addressed in c. 65 , may have beenprompted by personal rather than by professional jealousy.Most significant, too ( cf. $ 28 ) , is the bolt aimed at a certainLesbius (c. 79) .26. The delights of vengeance were perhaps sweet, but theydid not bring Catullus peace. The torment of his passion wasstill raging within him, and from that he longed to find freedom, not again in the arms of his mistress, but in victory overhimself. For this he prayed most earnestly ( c. 76 ) , and this hefinally attained, aided partly, no doubt, by absence from thecountry (cf. $ 29 ) , but more by the persistency with which hekept up the struggle within himself. It may well be, however,that in these months of mental anguish are to be found thebeginnings of that disease that caused his untimely death. Butthe conviction evidently grew upon him that Lesbia had notbeen led astray by his false friends, but had always been deceitful above all things, and with the clearer insight came not only agentler feeling toward the men he had judged traitors to friendship ( cf. e.g. c. 58 to Cælius Rufus ), but a horror and contempt, now unmixed with pity, for Lesbia herself. And whenshe tried once more, in the day of his reconciliation with Cæsar,>xxiv INTRODUCTION .and the hope of budding fortune ( cf. § 41 ) , to win him backto her, his reply was one of bitter scorn for her, though joined with a touch of sorrowful reminiscence of departed joys.27. As part of the history of Catullus after the break withLesbia has thus been anticipated in order to indicate the courseof his struggle with himself, it may be well to pause here a few moments longer to ask who this Lesbia was. That we have inthe poems of Catullus a real and not an imaginative sketch ofa love- episode cannot be once doubted by him who reads.Lesbia is not a lay figure, a mere peg on which to hang fancies,like the shadowy heroines of Horace. That she was no libertina, but a woman of education and of social position, is equailyclear from the passages already cited. The name Lesbia, therefore, is immediately suggestive of a pseudonym; and not onlythe fashions of poetry, but the position of the lady herself,appear at once to justify this expedient on the part of her poetlover. To this antecedent probability is added the direct testimony of Ovid, who says ( Trist. II . 427 ) , sic sua lasciuo cantata est saepe Catullo femina cui falsum Lesbia nomen erat.Apuleius carries us a step further, saying ( Apol. 10 ) , eademigitur opera accusent C. Catullum quod Lesbiam pro Clodia nominarit. The name Lesbia is the proper metrical equivalentfor Clodia, as the pseudonym of a mistress should be on thelips of a Roman lover ( cf. Bentley on Hor. Carm . II . 12. 13;Acro on Hor. Sat. I. 2. 64) .28. It was reserved, however, for the Italian scholars ofthe sixteenth century to identify this Clodia with the sister ofP. Clodius Pulcher, Cicero's foe, wife of Q. Cæcilius MetellusCeler, who was prætor B.C. 63, then governor of CisalpineGaul, consul for the year 60 B.C. , and died in 59 , not withoutsuspicion that his wife poisoned him ( cf. Cic. Cael. 24. 60;Quint. VIII. 6. 53 ) . Among almost all Catullian scholars ofthe present century this view has found acceptance, in spiteof the express dissent of a few . The general character andcourse of life of this Clodia ' Quadrantaria ' ( cf. Cic. Cael. and&love affair bezan whoe Lohad a husband a before 59 Castells thun would ha 259103 Hall abrindes established as a man of sceirty - and a port?longer bestonarmaposed ". est . 64(cf. 1 )whom wereINTRODUCTION . XXVEpp. passim; Drumann II. p. 376 ff.) coincide with those of Lesbia, and many minor details of reference in the poems ofCatullus are thus explicable. Especially it may be noted thatM. Cælius Rufus ( cf. cc. 100, 77, 69, 58) was a lover of this Clodia ( cf. Cic. Cael. passim ) about the year 58 B.C., andwithin two years became her bitter enemy. There was all themore likelihood, then, of the reconciliation between him andCatullus marked by c. 58. And if Lesbia be this Clodia, thenthe Lesbius of c. 79 is her infamous brother, P. Clodius Pulcher,and the epigram becomes clear in the light of historic fact ( cf.Commentary ).JOURNEY TO BITHYNIA.p.215229. But the first date in the life of Catullus that can bedefinitely fixed by the aid of his own poems is that of his absence from Italy after the final rupture with Lesbia ( cf. § 24) . Mo - BuHe went to Bithynia (cc. 10. 7; 31.5; 46. 4) on the staff of the governor, Memmius ( c. 28. 9 ). Such expeditions on the part of # 1355 -young Romans of that day are so familiar that it is needless tocite other instances than those ( cc. 9, etc., 28 ) of Veranius andFabullus, the poet's friends. The ordinary motive was not onlya love of adventure, but the desire for acquiring wealth at theexpense of the provincials in one of the dozen ways possibleunder a friendly and not too conscientious official patron.Catullus apparently had not been poverty- stricken , howeverjestingly he claimed that common distinction of the society -manat the capital, though an increase of income may not have beenwithout attractions for him. He had up to this time, too,apparently loved Rome above all other cities, and had notcared to leave it for any considerable period of time, even thathe might visit Greece. But now there were two motives thatmight lead him to look with desire upon a journey to Bithynia.In the first place, it offered him an opportunity to visit theTroad and to pay the final offerings of love at the grave of hisXXVI INTRODUCTION .poems, andbrother ( cf. §$ 22 ) . In the second place, he had been passing through a terrible mental struggle that was perhaps not yet over,and Rome had become painful to him. In the distraction of travel and residence in a foreign clime he might find that absence from himself for which he sighed.30. How he obtained the appointment we do not know , forthere is no earlier reference to Memmius in hisnone but uncomplimentary references to him later. But it isnot strange that with all his circle of literary friends at Rome heshould command influence enough to secure such a post; noris it strange that C. Memmius, himself a learned man and averse-writer ( Cic. Brut. 70. 247; Ov. Trist. II . 433; Plin. Ep.V. 3. 5; Gell. XIX. 9. 7 ) , was pleased to have the company inhis province of such men as Catullus and his poet- friend, C.Helvius Cinna ( c. 10. 31 ) .31. Memmius was prætor in 58 B.C., and therefore in all→ probability ruled over Bithynia in 57-56 B.C., though this factcannot be substantiated from other sources. Of the journeyof Catullus to Bithynia and of his stay there we have no record up to the period of his approaching return to Italy,save in the one poem (c. 101 ) in which he commemorates the funeral- offerings at the grave of his brother in the Troad , and speaks the last farewell, a farewell of infinite sadness becausespoken with no hope of a future reunion. To make these offerings of pious affection was one of the motives of Catullus in coming to this distant land, and doubtless the sad duty wasnot long postponed after his arrival there. What were theother occupations of his life in Bithynia we cannot tell. No poems remain, at any rate, to mark the pleasures of socialintercourse, no squibs of raillery, no brilliant bits of fancy,such as distinguish the Roman days of the poet. The year is a long silence. Perhaps he was too sad to write; perhaps the irksomeness and dulness of his official life wore hardupon his Muse; perhaps, however, he was gathering inspira tion from their native scenery and legend for those poems ofINTRODUCTION . xxviihis matured genius, cc. 63 and 64, and had even then begunto block them out. When they were published cannot bedetermined .32. Life in Bithynia was surely unsatisfactory from a finan cial point of view . The cobwebs in the poet's pockets were not displaced by gold. Perhaps the shrewder men on the stafflearned better how to make hay while their brief sun was shin ing. Catullus, however, came back home poor, and blamedMemmius for it. But whether Memmius really deserved the exceedingly opprobrious epithets heaped upon him ( cf. cc . 10,28 ) may well be doubted. Virulence of language in invective,especially in the use of terms applied to sexual impurity, was by no means accompanied among the ancients by correspond ing intensity of feeling, and is often to be understood as formaland not literal.33. Yet some pleasures in his Bithynian life Catullus must have experienced; for when on the approach of spring ( 56 B.c. ) he bids his companions adieu, it is with a tribute to the delight he has taken in their company (C. 46.9 dulces comi.tum coetus), and a reference perhaps to the expected pleasure of a reunion with them in Italy ( c. 46. 10–11) .34. But the pain of parting was very insignificant in comparison with the overwhelming joy of home-coming. The exquisite grace of the two sparrow- songs of Catullus ( cc. 2 , 3)is matched by the most perfect delight that breathes throughthe pair of poems ( cc. 46, 31) that mark the beginning and the end of his homeward voyage. They stand supreme amongthe poems of home that have come down to us from antiquity,thrilling and quivering with purest and most childlike passion.With this pair of poems probably belongs a third ( c. 4) , whichfollowed speedily upon the two others.35. The third of the triad ( c. 4) indicates that Catullusmade this return voyage in a small vessel of Amastriac buildpurchased by him for this purpose. It almost seems from hisaccount as if it were built to his order, and that he embarked inxxviii INTRODUCTION .it at Amastris rather than at the seaport of Nicæa. And all thisindeed, may be true, in spite of the fact that c. 46 apparentlyspeaks of Nicæa as the point of his immediate departure homeward; for various reasons might be suggested to account for ajourney to the eastern part of the province after bidding Nicæaa final farewell.36. In c. 46. 6 the poet speaks of a plan of visiting claras Asiae urbes on his return voyage. He seems also to feel somejoy at the prospect; but this is the only passage in his writingsthat shows any susceptibility to the charm of historic associations connected with the ancient Greek cities. The course ofthe homeward voyage is but vaguely sketched in c. 4, and the only city actually mentioned there as visited on the journey isRhodes ( c. 4. 8 ) , though we may infer from c. 46 that other famous sites between the Hellespont and Rhodes were not neglected by him. He may even have visited Athens, for hislittle ship probably was drawn across the Corinthian isthmus bythe famous ship -railway instead of bravirg the dangers of thelonger and rougher passage around the Malean cape. Yet nosuch mention of Athens exists in his writings as would suggestthat he had ever visited, or cared to visit, that city. A similardoubt besets the question of his point of debarkation in Italy.If the expressions of c. 4 were to be taken literally, we mustunderstand that the phasellus carried its master actually up thePo and the little Mincius into the Garda-lake, even to the shores of Sirmio itself. But this is well-nigh impossible; andeven if possible, is it likely that the poet, so eager to reach home, would have submitted to the tedium of a tow-boat'svoyage ( for surely the phasellus could not sail up the Mincius) ,when a few hours by post from the mouth of the Po would havebrought him to his desired haven? Apparently both the begin ning and the end of the voyage of the phasellus as recountedin c. 4 are not to be interpreted with strict literalness. But therapturous joy with which Sirmio is saluted in c. 31 forbids usto suppose that the poet first visited Rome, and later made hisINTRODUCTION . xxix-way northward . Even the gaiety with which the dedicatoryinscription of the model of the phasellus ( c. 4) is struck off, -a poem after an entirely new style, —shows that at the timeof its composition the first enthusiasm of delight had not yetevaporated .LATER YEARS. RELATIONS WITH CÆSAR .37. But even Sirmio could not long detain him from his lovedRome. His reappearance among his old friends is marked bya single poem (c. 10) , whose gay and charming humor showsthat even the vicinity of Lesbia had lost its power constantlyto embitter his thoughts. And to the passion for Lesbia now appears to have succeeded that for a boy, Juventius, with thecharms of whose company Catullus perhaps attempted to driveout the thoughts of his former love. How the intimacy beganwe cannot tell. The Juventian gens sprang from Tusculum ,but inscriptions (C. I. L. vol. V. passim ) show that people ofthat name also lived in the neighborhood of Verona. It may be,therefore, that the boy came to Rome under the guardianship of Catullus, as perhaps Catullus, years before, under that of NeposBut nothing further is known of him beyond what may be inferred from the poems of Catullus that concern him (cf. intro ductory note to c. 15 ) . His history is interwoven with that ofa pair of friends, Aurelius and Furius, both at first friends ofCatullus, to the former of whom the poet at one time was ledto entrust temporarily the care of his ward ( c. 15 ) . The resultmight have been anticipated. Juventius learned to prefer themto Catullus, and in consequence Catullus vented his wrath uponthem in a group of bitter poems (cc. 16, 21 , 23, 26 ) , though forJuventius he had only sorrowful remonstrance ( cc. 24, 81 ) .38. Yet all this experience appears to have touched him inno wise deeply. It was but a passing diversion, and his jeal ousy not the bitter passion felt against his rivals with Lesbia.With far more earnestness did he throw himself into the politi cal quarrel of his time. The year of his return from BithyniaINTRODUCTION .1>the way( 56 B.C. ) had witnessed the so - called renewal of the triumvirate at Luca, and Cæsar appeared to have won everything. Inaccordance with the agreement made at the Luca conference,Pompey and Crassus were consuls a second time for theyear 55, and the senatorial party was at its wits' end . Catulluswas apparently not an active political worker, but he did not hesitate to join his political friends in personal attacks uponthe foe. Perhaps his earlier shafts were those aimed againstMamurra ( cf. § 73 ) , Cæsar's notorious favorite (cc. 29, 41 ,43, 57 ) , whom Catullus sometimes celebrates under the nick name of Mentula ( cc. 94, 105 , 114, 115 ) , and these opened for the direct attack upon Cæsar himself ( cc. 54, 93 ) .But whatever the order of attack, that Cæsar was piqued by itwe know from Suetonius ( Iul. 73 ) . That he made a successful effort to win over Catullus, as he did Calvus, we are alsoassured from the same source. Cæsar understood better thanmost Romans that political power in that city and that day must rest largely upon personal popularity, and he was notabove exerting himself to win the good will of individuals ofhigh or low degree. And aside from the fascination due tohis great political and military success, he had personal traits that gave him a power over young men. It was the mysterious influence of a natural leader of men; and in manymore than these two instances the number of his friends wasrecruited from the ranks of the younger of his fiercest foes.There was another element also that must have tended to promote the reconciliation between Cæsar and Catullus. Thefather of Catullus was resident at Verona within the limits ofCæsar's Cisalpine province. He may not have taken an activepart in politics, but at any rate he was a personal friend ofCæsar, and often his host ( Suet. l.c. ). This intimacy may wellhave led him to see clearly what the result of the approaching struggle for supremacy in Rome was likely to be, and to desire the more eagerly to see his son arrayed for Cæsar and notagainst him .1INTRODUCTION . xxxi39. At all events, the reconciliation was brought about, andthe lively pen of Catullus ceased to lampoon the great commander. Some have thought, however, that Mamurra was notincluded in the peace, and that the utmost Cæsar could effectin his favorite's behalf was that his personality should be there.after thinly veiled under the pseudonym Mentula.40. But Cæsar was not to profit greatly from his new ally. Upto the end of the year 55 B.c. Catullus displays only hostility to Cæsar and the Cæsarians. The reconciliation apparently tookplace at the house of the father of Catullus at Verona during thewinter visit of the governor to the nearer province in the earlypart of the year 54 ( Cæs. B. G. V. 1 ) . The only poem that shows the change of feeling toward Cæsar is c. 11, and this isconnected with another marked incident in the life of the poet.41. Catullus was now the friend of Cæsar. The great commander was entertained at his father's house, and perhaps eventhere was making his plans for future campaigns. The fortunes of the poet were rising. What might he not hope forfrom his great patron , and why should others not share in hissuccess? Furius and Aurelius, scorned by him since theirfaithlessness in the matter of Juventius, were eager to crawlback into his favor. And they fancied they could bring him amessage that would be joyfully greeted, and would secure themthe favorable reception they sought for their own advances:Lesbia was willing to recall her recalcitrant lover. She hadonce before been successful when making the first advancesherself ( cf. § 19) . Why should she fear defeat now? But bothshe and her ill- chosen emissaries were speedily undeceived.The broken chain of the old love could never be welded again.Catullus had won by absence, by self -discipline, and most ofall, perhaps, by real knowledge of facts in the case, the freedomfrom his passion for which he had prayed ( c. 76) . He couldonce more believe in the friendship of Cælius Rufus, and to him acknowledge, with pain, indeed, but no longer with unavailing torture, his true view of Lesbia's character ( c. 58) . And .xxxii INTRODUCTIONthese proffers now made to him through, and by, Furius andAurelius were definitely and disdainfully rejected (c. 11) ,with a manly, not a petulant disdain, for Catullus could noteven then forget that he had loved Lesbia.42. This manly utterance was almost the last of the poet's life . A few scattered verses there may have been, closing perhaps with the touching appeal written from Verona (cf. $ 56)to his brother-poet, Cornificius, for a word of cousolation, butthat was all; and sometime in the year 54 B.C., in his beloved Rome, so says the chronicler, the swiftly burning candle of hislife burned itself out.43. With him died the clearest, if not the richest, poet-voiceever lifted in Rome. He lacked the lofty grandeur of Lucretius, the polished stateliness of Vergil, the broad sympathiesof Horace. For on the one hand, he was no recluse to befilled with heavenly visions, and on the other, his personalitywas too intense to allow him to cultivate a tolerant spirit. Hedelighted in life with a vigorous animal passion. Not withou charm to him was nature in her sylvan aspect ( cf. e.g. c. 34. 9 ff.).yet his highest enjoyment was in the life of men. And this lifhe did not study, as did Horace, from the standpoint of aphilosopher. Indeed, he did not study it at all, but simply feltit. For he was not outside of it, but a part of it to the fullestdegree, swayed by its ever-changing emotions. Such a naturemust of necessity ever remain in many essential aspects thenature of a child. And such was the nature of Catullusthroughout his brief life, -warm in quick affections, hot inswift hatreds, pulsing with most active red blood.POEMS.44. The great majority of his verses - all the most sucacessful of them are the direct expression of his own heartat the moment. No poet was ever more unreserved , moreperfectly ingenuous. And yet, such is the facility of his geniusand the excellence of his taste, his verses show no ruggednessINTRODUCTION . Xxxiii

or roughness, but glide along with the utmost ease and swift grace toward their mark. But he was no precisianist in metrics. His hexameters are less perfect and flexible than those of P. Varro or of Lucretius, his elegiacs less harmonious and melting than those of the Augustans, his logaædics often less melodious than those of Horace. And nevertheless his rhythmical skill suggests constantly that it is the effect of great art fulness.45. He studied with admiration both the Lesbian and theAlexandrian poets, though it is not easy to determine the pre cise limits of the influence of either school upon his genius.Part of this difficulty arises from the meagreness of the remainsof these Greek writers that have survived the Middle Ages,and part from the intense fire of his own personality that has metamorphosed into its own likeness all the material that cameinto contact with it. Even when he is professedly translatingSappho or Callimachus ( cf. cc. 51 , 66 ) , his translation is full of original elements, and is worked out in a personal fashion .He is often Sapphic in his tendency to self -address, and inthe warmth and tenderness of his emotions, and often Alexandrian in his liking for episode, for richness of mythologicalallusion, for striking turns of phrase ( cf. especially cc . 63, 64,68 passim ); and yet he is, after all, never other than distinctively Roman.46. The speech Catullus employs is, as might be expectedfrom what has already been said, the speech of every -day life.It will not be necessary to discuss here its phenomena indetail. It approximates closely in general to the speech of Plautus and Terence and of Cicero's letters, and suggests insome respects that of Petronius and other writers of the SilverAge, abounding as it does in diminutives ( for the expression oftenderness, or of scorn, or even without any proper diminutiveforce ), in words of Greek or of provincial extraction , in alliteration and anaphora. Yet in many instances in epic passages, ofthose of a more elevated tone than the majority of his lyrics,XXXIV INTRODUCTION .he does not hesitate to employ words and figures that suggestthe earlier tragedians rather than the comedians.47. Cicero, in his later years, professed contempt for the whole tribe of these poetae noui ( like Catullus and his friends)who had forsaken all the traditions of Ennius ( Or. 161; Tusc.III. 45; Att. VII. 2. I ); and Horace mentions Catullus butonce, and then with definite disparagement ( Sat. I. 10. 19 );but even from these references it may ba fairly inferred thatche poetry of Catullus was well and acceptably known amonghis immediate generation of Romans, and had not to wait till the time of the elegiasts for a purely posthumous fame. Itwas, indeed, not so very long after his death that CorneliusNepos ventured to rank him in quality alongside Lucretius( Att. 12. 4) . His fame, then, was contemporary with himself. But even a cursory examination of his extant book of poems shows evidence that it was not published till after thepoet's death. For although it has come down to us mutilatedby the accidents of time in a most unseemly manner, no mutilation can account for the condition of c. 58 , which is clearly but a rejected trial- sketch for the poem afterwai elaborated asc. 55 , and not a misplaced part of c. 55 itself ( note the much greater frequency of dactyls in the second place in the verses ofC. 586 than of c. 55 ) . Would Catullus himself have publishedsuch a mere fragment? Still more, would he after the recon ciliation with Julius Cæsar have published, or republished, thepoems in which Cæsar is bitterly assailed? For this same reason ,if for no other, it is also impossible to suppose, with certaincritics, that Catullus himself arranged the book for publication ,but was overtaken by death before it was actually published.48. The only satisfactory hypothesis is that the book wasboth arranged and published, after the author's death, by some literary friend of his at Rome, where he ordinarily kept hisbooks and papers ( cf. c. 68. 33–36 ) . The posthumous editorarranged the poems in three general groups. First come sixty shorter poems on various themes, all in iambic or logavedicINTRODUCTION . XXX1>rhythms.. Then follows the group of longer poems ( cc. 61 68 ) , introduced by the three epithalamia ( cc. 61 , 62, 64) , withtheir Eros accompanied by the Anteros of c . 63; this group of poems begins with glyconics (c. 61 ) , continues with dactylichexameters ( cc. 62, 64) , divided by passionate galliambics (63) , and concludes with elegiacs ( cc. 65–68 ). It is followed by a third group of shorter poems ( cc. 69–116) , all in the elegiac metre, but as varied in theme as the first group. Thi:division was suggested entirely by the metres and length of the poems, and not at all by their subject-matter; for the third group contains poems agreeing in subject and date with otherin the first group ( cf. e.g.c.99 with c. 48, c. 81 with c. 24, 6. 93 with cc. 29 and 57) . Within each group poems on the same or similar themes occasionally stand together ( e.g. cc. 2 and 3; ci 61 and 62; cc . 88-91; 06. 110 and 111 ) , but more frequently are divided by one or more poems on another, and often: contrasted theme ( cf. cc. 5 and 7; Cc. 21 and 23; cc. 62 ani 64; cc. 69 and 71; cc. 70 and 72 ) .49. The editor certainly included one mere fragment (c58' ); and perhaps more of the poems whose condition wi attribute to the neglect of a later age ( e.g. cc. 2. 11-13; 14854; 786) may have been published by him in their presentform , on account of his anxiety to omit no scrap found amonghis friend's posthumous papers.50. Another possibility suggests itself. The editor certainlymust have disregarded what would have been the wishes ofCatullus in publishing, or republishing, the poems against Cæsar,especially if none had yet been written in his favor. The edi.tor was doubtless one of the circle of literary friends of thepoet at Rome, and so was, if not, like Catullus, a subject of sudden conversion , an anti - Cæsarian . Is it possible that hestill further used his discretion, and served his own sympathies,by refraining from the publication of later poems favorable to Cæsar, and that by this theory, and not by that of the speedy death of the poet, we are to explain the absence in his worksXxxvi INTRODUCTION .of all poems ( except c. 11 ) showing a change of personal, ifnot of political, feeling? But this question may be reservedfor another occasion.51. It is not to be supposed, however, that all of these poemssaw the light for the first time after the death of their author.The manifest point of most of the personal poems would have been utterly lost, had they not been published immediatelyafter their composition, and the passage already cited from Suetonius ( Iul. 73) shows clearly that Cæsar was acquainted before their author's death with some of the poems directedagainst him . One poem also (c. 16. 12 ) contains an evidentreference to the earlier publication of c. 48 ( or of cc . 5 and7?) . It seems likely, therefore, that many of the poems were published singly, at least among the circle of the poet's friends,while the extant dedication of a libellus to Cornelius Nepos suggests that a smaller collection of them was made and pub lished by Catullus himself (cf. introductory note to c. 1 ) .52. Catullus undoubtedly wrote other poems than thoseincluded in the extant liber, but of the fragments attributed tohim by the grammarians some are proved to have been falselyso ascribed , and the few remaining are , even if genuine, so slight as to be insignificant ( cf. Commentary on cc. 18-21: ).MANUSCRIPTS.53. The popularity enjoyed by Catullus among the Augustan elegiasts did not preserve his memory alive through the declining centuries of the Roman empire. The scholars and poets ofthe latter half of the first millennium after Christ had forgotteneven his name. Only Rather, bishop of Verona, in a sermondelivered there in 965 A.D., confesses that he had just becomeacquainted with his writings; and an anthology of Latin poets written at about the same time (now cod. Thuaneus, Parisinus 8071) contains a single poem of Catullus ( c. 62 ) . Then hedrops cat of ken once more till the opening of the 14th cen tury, when a writer of Vicenza, Benvenuto Campesani (whoINTRODUCTION . xxxviip . 262died before 1330) , celebrated in a few enigmatic verses ( cf.Critical Appendix ad fin .) the rediscovery of the text of Catullus under a bushel, ' apparently at Verona. From this MS. ,or from copies of it, numerous Italian scholars, among themPetrarch, early learned to know the poet. The original MS.soon disappeared, and has never been found; but two descendants of it, apparently not more than one generation removed ,are preserved to us, and form the basis of the present text ofCatullus. One of these copies, ordinarily called G (now No.14,137 in the National Library at Paris ) was made in the year1375, and the other, O ( No. 30 of the Canonici Latin MSS. inthe Bodleian Library) at about the same time. ( Cf. also introductory note to Critical Appendix. )54. The earlier editions of Catullus, however, were based apon interpolated MSS ., and though displaying great eruditionand classical taste left much to be desired in the way of true principles of textual criticism . The edition of Karl Lachmann( Berlin , 1829) first established the text of Catullus upon ascientific basis, though the two MSS. on which he mainlydepended, D and L (in the Royal Library at Berlin ), are farinferior to G and O. These became first known to the world,G in 1830 through I. Sillig ( Jahrb. für Philol. xiii . p. 262 ff. ),and O through Robinson Ellis in his first edition of Catullus(Oxford, 1867) . During the last quarter of a century , then,the constitution as well as the elucidation of the text of Catullushas made its most marked advances.?FRIENDS AND FOES.55. A few of the persons distinguished by the love or by thehatred of Catullus may conveniently be mentioned here . Somesuch persons, however, as Cæsar, Cicero, and Clodius, are sowell known otherwise to the ordinary reader as to need nobiographical notice in a work of this sort. Others, like Lesbia ,have been sufficiently noticed in previcus paragraphs of this Introduction . Still others are of so little present importance,Xxxviii INTRODUCTION .or are so little known to us outside the mention of them byCatullus, that the brief references to them in the commentaryon the individual poems may suffice. The names of all these,with references to the poems in which they are addressed or mentioned, may be found in the Index of Proper Names atthe end of this volume.56. It is a temptation to identify the Alfenus to whom theremonstrance of c. 30 is addressed with P. Alfenus Varus, consulsuffectus 39 B.C., especially if he, in turn , can be identified withthe Alfenus Varus who protected Vergil's property at Mantua( Ecl. 1 , 6, 9) , who was perhaps a native of Cremona ( thoughfalsely identified by the scholiasts on Horace with Alfenus uaferof Sat. I. 3. 130) . For if Varus was at Cremona during thewinter and spring of 55-54 B.C., while Catullus was at Verona ( cf. $ 40) , we perhaps have a key to the difference in tonebetween c. 30 and c. 38. From Cornificius at Rome the poetcould expect in his growing illness only written comfort, and thatis all he asks. Alfenus Varus at Cremona was within easy reaching distance of Verona by a direct highway, the Via Postumia,and might have visited Catullus in person, but did not. Henceche deeper feeling of slight with which Catullus addresses him.57. The ‘ Pollio frater ' of c. 12. 6 is very likely the only Pollio known to us from this period , C. Asinius, Cn. f. ( Jorn75 B.C. , died 5 A.D.) , who became prætor in 45 B.C. and consul in 40,, in which year he gained a triumph over the Parthini. Atfirst a Cæsarian, he might have been won over to the senato rial party after Cæsar's death, but finally cast in his lot with Antonius, from whom , however, he became alienated , butwithout entering the circle of the intimate friends of Augustus.As orator, dramatic and lyric poet, historian of the first triumvirate, and literary critic, he gained lasting fame, and is fre quently quoted by succeeding writers. Among his intimate friends were Vergil and Horace; cf. Verg. Ecl. 3. 84; 4; 8. 6;Hor. Carm . II. 1; Sat. I. 10. 42, 85 .58. Nothing further is known of the older brother of PollioaINTRODUCTION . xxxix>>.addressed in c. 12. The family of the Asinii sprang from Teate,the capital of the Marrucini, but it is doubtful whether Marru cine in c. 12. I is simply a distinguishing epithet. C. Asinius Pollio is the first of the family known to bear a cognomen, andperhaps that custom was introduced in his generation, his elder brother taking the cognomen Marrucinus from the seat of the family.59. The Cælius of c. 58 is probably identical with the Cæliusof cc. 82 and 100, and with the Rufus of cc. 69 and 77 ( and alsocc. 73 and 59?) , the names and circumstances suggesting M. Cælius Rufus, born, according to Pliny ( N. H. VII. 165 ) , onthe same day with C. Licinius Calvus, May 28, 82 B.c. ( thoughperhaps this date is too late, by a few years, for the birth ofCælius) . Cælius is well known as an ambitious politician andan orator ( Cic. Brut. 79. 273; Quint. Inst. VI. 3. 69; X. 1 .115; 2. 25; Tac. Dial. 18, 21 , 25 ) . He was at first a partisanof the optimates; but after filling the offices of tribune ( 52 B.C. ) , quæstor, and curule ædile ( 50 B.c. ) , and contracting immense debts by his extravagant life, he became a follower ofCæsar, and was by him made prætor for the year 48. But being shortly thereafter deposed for attempts at revolutionarylegislation, he tried to seduce certain of Cæsar's troops, andwas finally killed under the walls of Thurii. He was an activeand interesting correspondent of Cicero, by whom he was de fended ( 56 B.C. ) in the famous speech pro Caelio against thecharge of attempted poisoning brought by Clodia ( Lesbia) ,whose favored lover he had been. He himself appears to havebroken this connection, and perhaps to have opened the eyesof Catullus to Lesbia’s real character, after which the friend ship was again cemented between him and Catullus which had been severed by their rivalry ( cf. $ S 25 , 26 ) . The poemsaddressed to him were apparently written in about the follow ing order: cc. 100, 82, 77, ( 73 ) , 69, ( 59) , 58.60. C. Licinius Macer Calvus, apparently the most intimatefriend of Catullus, was the son of the annalist, Licinius Macer,xl INTRODUCTION .1.|1111.1and was born May 28, 82 B.C. ( cf. Plin . l.c.). He died in , ornot very long before, the year 47 B.C. ( cf. Cic. Fam . XV. 21 ,4) . He was renowned as a most able and skilful orator,though of low stature ( cf. 53. 5; Sen. Contr. VII. 4. 7; Ov.Trist. II. 431 ) , and as a writer of epic, lyric, and epigram (cf.Cic. Brut. 279, 283; Tac . Dial. 18; Quint. Inst. X. 1. 115;Plin . Ep. I. 16.5; Gell. XIX. 9. 7; Serv. on Verg. Ecl. 6. 47;8. 4) . On account of his intimacy with Catullus and the simi larity of their political principles (cf. Suet. Iul. 73 ) and oftheir writings they are often named together ( cf. with aboveHor. Sat. I. 10. 19, and indexes to Propertius and Ovid ) .The few extant fragments of his works are appended to theeditions of Catullus by Lachmann and L. Müller. The death ofQuintilia, apparently from the tone of c. 96 the wife of Calvus,gave occasion for one of the finest and most touching of thebriefer poems of Catullus.61. The Cornificius to whom Catullus addressed the pathetic appeal of c. 38 was a poet ( cf. vv . 7 and 8) , and is doubtlessto be identified with the Cornificius mentioned by Ovid ( Trist.II. 436) in connection with other verse- writers of the period ofCatullus. It is not so clear, though quite possible, that he is the Q. Cornificius to whom Cicero wrote friendly letters ( Fam .XII. 17-30) , dated between 45 and 43 B.C. This Cornificiuswas an active officer of Julius Cæsar, a member of the college of augurs, and later governor of the province of Africa,which he endeavored to hold against T. Sextius, the generalof the second triumvirate. His death is mentioned by Jerome under date of 41 B.C.: Cornificius poeta a militibus desertusinteriit, quos saepe fugientes ' galeatos lepores ' adpellarat. Ifthis be the friend of Catullus, he may perhaps be counted asanother of the group of young writers won over by Cæsar fromthe ranks of his political foes. His interest and activity inrhetorical studies are distinctly indicated by Cicero, and thereseems to be no good reason to doubt that he is the Cornificiusrhetor not infrequently quoted by Quintilian. With but slightly11INTRODUCTION .less probability may be attributed to him the work on the derivation of the names of the gods ascribed by Macrobius andPriscian to an author of his name: but the verse in criticismof a grammatical point in Vergil attributed by Cledonius (V. 43. 2 ) to Cornificius Gallus may ave been written , as somehave thought, by Cornelius Gallus. Only two fragments of the verses of Cornificius have been preserved, one a hendecasyllabic (Macr. VI. 4. 12) , and the other the latter part of ahexameter from his Glaucus (Macr. VI. 5. 13) . They areappended by L. Müller to his edition of Catullus.62. The Cato to whom c. 56 is addressed was probably notthat pattern of ancient Roman strictness, M. Porcius Cato ,later called Uticensis, but the grammarian, Valerius Cato, whowas a countryman of Catullus ( Suet. Gram . II ) , and whoseamatory poems are mentioned by Ovid ( Trist. II. 436) inconnection with those of Cinna ( cf. § 63) , Cornificius ( cf.§ 61 ) , and Anser.63. C. Helvius Cinna, a companion of Catullus on the staffof Memmius ( cf. c. 10. 30 and $ 30) , whose epic poem, the Zmyrna, is praised in c. 95, was probably the Cæsarian tribunemistaken for L. Cornelius Cinna, the anti- Cæsarian , in the riotsattending the funeral of Julius Cæsar, and killed by the popu lace ( Plut. Brut. 20, Iul. 68; Suet. Iul. 85; cf. Shakspere Jul.Cas Cæs. III . 3) . The insignificant extant fragments of his poemsare appended by L. Müller to his edition of Catullus.64. The Cornelius of C. I. I seems to be Cornelius Nepos, the historian; witness Ausonius, who says (XXIII. 1-3) Cui ...libellum ' Veronensis ait poeta quondam , inuentoque dedit statimNepoti. Nepos ( circ. 94–24 B.C. ) was certainly a provincialfrom Cisalpine Gaul ( Plin. N. H. III. 127 Nepos Padi accola ),and probably a native of Ticinum ( Plin. Ep. IV. 28. 1;Mommsen in Hermes III. p. 62 ) . His acquaintance withCatullus, though nothing certain can be traced concerning it,was doubtless fostered by their similarity of origin ( cf. $ 12) .Nepos was author not only of the work De Viris Illustribus, of.xlii INTRODUCTION .which a part, with lives of Cato and of Atticus, is still extant,but also of other historical works ( cf. c. 1. 6 n. ) and of poems( Plin . Ep. V. 3. 6 ) .65. Q. Hortensius Ortalus (114-50 B.C. ) , Cicero's greatest rival as an orator, was also somewhat of a historian ( Vell. II.16. 3 ) , and wrote erotic poems ( Ov. Trist. II. 441; Plin. Ep.V. 3. 5 ) , which the Greeks at the banquet of Antonius Julianus(Gell. XIX. 9. 7 ) characterized as inuenusta , though they admitted that Catullus and Calvus wrote some verses comparable with those of Anacreon. Presuming, perhaps, upon his owngifts as a poet, Hortensius asked Catullus for a poem ( c. 65 .18-19 ), and the poet complied with the request, though withan absence of compliment that indicates no intimate friendshipwith his petitioner, whose much greater age and high position gave him, however, the power to become an influential patron .That the friendship made no progress seems to be indicated by the uncomplimentary allusion to the verses of Hortensius in c . 95. 3 ( cf. however § 25 ad fin .) .66. The Varus of c. 10 is apparently identical with the Varus of c. 22, who is a friend of Catullus and a critic of poetry, if not a poet himself. This may well be the distinguished QuintiliusVarus, the Augustan critic (Hor. A. P. 438 ff.) and poet ( Acro and Comm. Cruq. on l.c.) . He is called a native of Cremona; and his death in 23 B.C. ( according to Jerome) drew from Horace a touching address of sympathy to Vergil ( Carm .I. 24 ) . Judged from the tone of the passage in the ArsPoetica , Quintilius must have been somewhat older thanHorace, while yet he could hardly have been born long, if at all, before Catullus. The attempt to identify the Varus of c . 10and C. 22 with Alfenus Varus of C. 30 is unsatisfactory.67. The Manlius Torquatus, whose marriage with Vinia Aurunculeia is celebrated in c. 61 , was perhaps the L. ManliusTorquatus whose father was consul in 65 B.C. ( cf. Hor. Carm .III. 21. I; Epod. 13. 6) , and who was himself prætor in 49.He allied himself with the Pompeians, and was killed in AfricaINTRODUCTION .in 47 ( cf. Bell. Afr. 96) . In 62 B.C. Manlius prosecuted P. Cornelius Sulla on the charge of conspiracy with Catiline.Cicero and Hortensius appeared for the defence and secured an acquittal. In Cicero's speech on that occasion ( ProSulla ) , and especially in his Brutus ( 76. 265 ) , Manlius is highly praised.68. A certain Veranius is mentioned in cc . 12, 28, and 47in connection with a Fabullus, evidently an intimate friend ofhis, as both were of Catullus. Beside these three references tothem jointly, c. 9 is addressed to Veranius alone, and c . 13 to Fabullus alone, the equal recognition thus scrupulously giventhem by Catullus suggesting the existence of a close bond ofintimacy between the two friends. Nothing more is known ofthem than can be gathered from Catullus himself. Veraniushas in c. 9 just returned from a residence in Spain, and in c. 12the presence there of Fabullus also is noted. The 13th poem,too, a jesting reference to a prospective dinner offered Fabullus,appears to have been written while Fabullus was absent somewhere, or had just returned, and may well refer to the same occasion as c. 9, the different tone of the individual poems, onesportive, and one affectionate, corresponding to characteristic differences in the dispositions of the two friends. In c .28 and 47 Veranius and Fabullus have been away from Rome as members of the retinue of a certain Piso, a provincial govcrnor. They returned to Rome apparently not long after thetime of the return of Catullus himself from Bithynia ( 56 B.C.; cf. $ 31 ff. ).69. If, then, there be such a connection as indicated between cc. 9 and 13 , the absence in Spain cannot have been thatwith Piso, and must have preceded it by several years; for thereference to Lesbia in c. 13. II clearly antedates the breakof Catullus with her, and that occurred before his journey toBithynia. But it is not incredible that two friends so intimately connected as Veranius and Fabullus should have beentogether on more than one journey after fortune; and thexliv INTRODUCTION .journey to Spain like the later one with Piso ( cf. $ 70) may well have been on the staff of a provincial governor, -probably about 60 B.C., as the reference to Lesbia indicates ( cf.6. 13. II n. ) .70. The Piso unfavorably commented upon in cc. 28 and 47( cf. § 68) is probably L. Calpurnius Piso Cæsoninus, consul in58 B.C. ( the year of Cicero's exile ) , and in 57-55 governor of Macedonia, where he made an honorable record. After his re.turn to Rome in 55 B.C. he attempted to reply to certain strictures of Cicero uttered in his absence, and drew down uponhimself the overwhelming invective power of his adversary inthe famous speech In Pisonem , in which the whole life, character, and actions of Piso were held up to undeserved obloquy.71. The service of Catullus on the staff of C. Memmius,governor of Bithynia, has already been discussed ( § 29 ff.).Concerning Memmius himself we may add further that neitherhis political nor his personal character was above reproach.He was in 54 B.C. party to a most barefaced attempt to securethe consulship by bribing the consuls of that year ( Cic. Att.IV. 18. 2 ) , and was charged with the seduction of the wivesof Lucullus ( Cic. Att. I. 18. 3) and Pompey (Suet. Gram .14) . He appears to better advantage as a scholar and the patron of literary men , especially of Lucretius, who dedicatedhis great poem to him. Cicero ( Brut. 70. 247 ) speaks wellof his Greek scholarship, and of his ability in oratory, thoughblaming him for lack of application. Accused of ambitus in 53 B.c., on account of the operations of the preceding year,he went into exile in Greece (cf. Cic. Fam . XIII. I ) , where he died about the year 49.72. Prominent among the invective poems of Catullus is agroup directed against a certain Gellius. This comprises cc. 74,80, 88, 89, 90, 91 , 116, but the poems are not arranged inchronological order. Apparently the earliest in composition is C. 116, and the second c.91, - the first indicating that Catullushad tried to avert the hostility of Gellius by sending him trans-INTRODUCTION . xly??lations from Callimachus, but declaring from that time open war, while the second asserts that Gellius had broken the bondof friendship with Catullus by becoming a lover of Lesbia. Inc . 80. I the youth of Gellius is indicated, and in all the series except c. 116 he is charged with various abhorrent crimes. Themost acceptable suggestion of his identity was originally madeby Pantagathus ( † 1578) , who judged him to be that son of L.Gellius Publicola (consul 72 B.C. ) who is said by ValeriusMaximus (V. 9. I) to have been accused before the senate ofin nouercam ( cf. c. 88. I , etc. ) commissum stuprum et parrici.dium cogitatum . This younger Gellius was himself consul in36 B.C., and his age therefore also accords with the intimationsof Catullus. The patruus of c. 74 is identified by some criticswith the Gellius Publicola attacked by Cicero in Pro Sestio 51 .110, while yet others have supposed, but with no sufficient reason , that this Gellius, and not the one of Valerius Maximus, isthe Gellius assailed by Catullus.73. The attacks of Catullus upon Mamurra have alreadybeen mentioned ( $ 38 ) . That he is identical with the ' Mentula ' of cc. 94, 105, 114, and 115 we may be tolerably certainon noting the use of that name for Mamurra in c. 29. 13, and on comparing the wealth and extravagance of the two men (cc.114 and 115 with cc. 29, 41 , and 43) , their literary preten sions (c. 105 with c . 57. 7) , and their licentiousness ( c. 94 and115. 7-8 with cc . 29. 7-8 and 57) . These latter indications,however, but support that of c. 29. 13, and would not independently establish the identity.74. A sufficient biography of Mamurra is given by Pliny( N. H. XXXVI. 6. 48) , who says he was an eques of Formiæand praefectus fabrum of Cæsar in Gaul, and quotes Nepos as authority for the statement that Mamurra first of the Romansincrusted the entire walls of his house on the Cælian with marble, and had within it none but solid marble columns. Cicero,too, mentions Mamurra's ill-gotten wealth ( Att. VII. 7. 6) , andin Att. XIII. 52. 1 ( written in 45 B.C.) refers to the calm wayxlvi INTRODUCTION .in which Cæsar received news of his death (so Nipperdey interprets the allusion ). The connection of Mamurra with the pro vincial Ameana (cc. 41 , 43) may be assigned to the time when he was in attendance upon Cæsar in his winter journeys to thenearer province.75. The poet Volusius of cc. 36 and 95 is probably not to be identified with Tanusius Geminus, as Muretus and other laterwriters would have it. The only ground for such identificationis a remark made by Seneca ( Ep. 93. II annales Tanusii scis quam ponderosi sint et quid uocentur ). But of all the namesthat appear in Catullus, Lesbia and Lesbius are the only onesknown to be pseudonyms ( for Mentula is hardly a name, but an easily recognized epithet) . And the quid uocentur of Seneca may readily refer to some other popular characterization of thework of the annalist, and not to the cacata charta of c. 36. I.METRES.>The metres employed by Catullus are as follows:76. DACTYLIC HEXAMETER ( CC. 62, 64) and ELEGIACS (cc. 65116 ) . The occurrence of spondaic verses is very frequent, anddoubtless is due to Alexandrian influence. In all , there are42 such verses , of which 34 end in a quadrisyllable. In onlyten instances is this a proper name. In c. 64 there is a succession of three spondaic verses ( vv. 78-80) . -- The tendencyto employ a succession of spondees in the same verse is striking.. Thus cc. 116. 3 is made up entirely of spondees, and 71 verses have spondees in the first four places. —The penthe.mimeral caesura is by far the favorite, though the hephthemimeral occurs occasionally; and the feminine caesura in thethird foot is not unknown, though it is entirely excluded from the fourth . - The hexameters end preferably in a dissyllable or trisyllable, but in the ending of the pentameters greater freedom is allowed. - Hypermeters are found in c. 64. 298and c . 115. 5. On hiatus, see § 86 d .INTRODUCTION . xlvii17. PURE IAMBIC TRIMETER ( C. 4) . Perhaps c . 29 is in thesame metre; but cf. note on Mamurram in v. 3 .78. IAMBIC TRIMETER ( c. 52, and perhaps c. 29) , with theoptional substitution of a spondee for the first iambus of anydipody. The scheme, then, is, –11 IULETU-SU- AII.79. CHOLIAMBIC or SCAZON (cc. 8, 22, 31 , 37, 39, 44, 59, 60) .The scheme is as follows: —ا ب ا اب - اب | اب: 3||Thrice also the thesis is resolved ( in cc. 22. 19; 37. 5; 59. 3,-unless in c. 37. 5 we read confūtūère as a quadrisyllable ) .80. IAMBIC TETRAMETER CATALECTIC, otherwise called Iambic Septenarius (c. 25 ) . The scheme is, –. ۸ - ا ا ا ب ا - - اب - ) ح( - اب -: = ||81. PHALAECEAN , often called Hendecasyllabic ( cc. 1-3, 5-7,9, 10, 12-16, 21 , 23, 24, 26-28, 32, 33, 35, 36, 38, 40-43, 4550, 53-58 ). The scheme is,II Sivul - ul - ulcu ll.-It may be remarked that while the verse most frequently openswith the irrational trochee (as always in Martial) , there arenearly seventy exceptions to this rule, and they are aboutevenly divided between the regular trochaic opening and thatwith the iambus. The peculiar experiment with this metretried in cc . 55 and 586 is noted in the introduction to c. 55 .82. GLYCONIC and PHERECRATIC series are combined byCatullus as follows:a. A second Glyconic catalectic followed by a second Phere cratic acatalectic forms the verse called PRIAPEAN , used in c. 17.The scheme is, –. -۸ا اب ا اا اا ابي- | |The first series in this verse ends with a complete word, andxlviii INTRODUCTION .does not allow hiatus after it: elision occurs there four times( vv. 4, II, 24, 26) .b. The stanza of c. 34 is composed of four verses, of whichthe first three are second Glyconics catalectic , and the fourtha second Pherecratic acatalectic . The stanza of c. 61 is similar,but with four, instead of three, Glyconics. The scheme of theGlyconics thus arranged is, –El vulculell,and that of the Pherecratics ,. ۸ - اگا-- | |Synapheia is observed throughout, as in the Priapean stanza.Once an irrational spondee takes the place of the cyclic dacty!( c. 61. 25) .83. GREATER ASCLEPIADIC verses compose c. 30. The schemeof each is as follows:. 8 ا ا با ما با ما | > - |Contrary to the praccice of Horace, caesura is not alwaysobserved between the successive series in each verse.84. The SAPPHIC stanza ( CC. II , 51 ) as used by Catullus hasthe following scheme:اب اب = ابیها ) 3 - )آب 3.2.1410CI AI.>In allowing a trochee thrice in place of the irrational spondee( cc. II . 6; 11. 15; 51. 13) , and in indifference to the caesura ,Catullus resembles Sappho more closely than does Horace.85. In c. 63 the GALLIAMBIC verse is used. It is said to haveoriginated as a lesser Ionic tetrameter catalectic, having, there.fore, the following scheme:lluvi - uul muuluulú .But as used by Catullus anaclasis always occurs (except in vvINTRODUCTION . xlix۸ - ا اه اه: ۶54 and 60? ), and the resultant trochees are often , the lastalmost always, resolved. The scheme may therefore be writtenas follows ( the regularly occurring caesura being indicated bya comma):lyrulourel , Yluulwul - A11 .This scheme is not, to be sure, true to the theory of the Ionicseries, but the result of anaclasis ( i.e. the substitution of dichorees for Ionics) seems to have been that the metre wastreated as trochaic, and the anacrusis, therefore, became ofnecessity irrational. On no other theory is rhythmical recita tion of the Galliambics of Catullus possible. The individual schemes of several verses of c. 63 are here given as specimensof the application of the general scheme:1. II wi- ul - UCI-, wl uluvul - AN 5. 1 > i: - ul- ulel-, wlauluvulA 14.IIwrzul- UILT- , wl - ul - ul - AR> I - uluvulAR23. IIwrúvul - ule-, wl uluvulcan 27. Ilwiculuvulkl-, wlauluvul10 63. Hwivuuluvulki- wlculuuul All 91. IIwrzuluuulll- , wluul- ul- Abut 54. Il wiki - ule-, wl - uluvulA!!and 60. Ilwidul - ule-, wleivul All۸ - ا ا - ا:|| اارا اب _اب: بی || 18.PROSODY.86. a. Catullus was unusually fond of ELISION, admitting it freely under almost every circumstance.b. On the other hand, he admitted DIAERESIS only fivetimes: 66. 2. 13 soluit; 61. 53 soluunt; 66. 38 dissoluo; 66.74 euoluam; 95. 5 peruoluent.C. SYNAERESIS occurs in cc. 40. 1 Rauide; 55. 10 Camerium;62. 57 conubium; 64. 120 praeoptarit; 82. 3 ei.1 INTRODUCTION .Sunder metrical accentd . HIATUS in thesis is found in cc. 66. II nouo auctus; 68.158 primo omnia; 107. I cupido optanti. In cc . 27. 4, 66. 48,and 97. 2 , it occurs in the MSS. , but not in the emended texthere presented. Hiatus in arsis occurs in cc. 10. 27 maneinquii; 55. 4 te in; 97. i di ament; 114. 6 domo ipse.(cambi) shattering e . SYSTOLE of final o is not uncommon , especially in verbs.In 10. 26 commodă ( imperative ) occurs.f. DIASTOLE occurs in cc. 64. 360 tepefaciet, and 90. 6 liquefaciens ( but cf. 68. 29 tepěfactet).8. In c. 116. 8 dabis final s does not make position with theinitial consonant following; and in c. 23. 27 the reading of V ,satis beatus, is probably correct, representing satis beatu's ( i.e.beatus es ). In cc. 62. 4, 64. 20, and 66. II a final syllableending in a single consonant is lengthened in thesis before hymenaeus. A final syllable ending in a short vowel is thricelengthened in thesis before a mute followed by r ( in cc. 4. 9Propontida trucem; 4. 18 impotentia freta; 29. 4 ultimaBritannia ); and it is noticeable that all these instances occurin pure (?) iambics. A similar syllable is lengthened in thesis before initial s followed by a consonant in cc. 17. 24 potestolidum; 22. 12 modo scurra; 44. 18 nefaria scripta; 63.13gelida stabula; 64. 186 nulla spes; 67. 32 supposita speculae.But Catullus is not careful to follow out this rule of position in all cases, any more than he is consistent in instances of systoleand diastole, or in such cases as cc. 43. 2 nīgris, but 68. 63nīgro; and especially 71. 2 podāgra, but 71. 6 podăgra. InÎn these minor matters he allows himself greater freedom than either Lucretius or the later poets, and the same liberty isseen in the greater matters concerned with his treatment ofmetres. His graceful command of rhythm was far removedfrom the fixed formalities adopted by the Augustans.CATVLLI VERONENSISLIBER.I.Cui dono lepidum nouum libellum Arido modo pumice expolitum?was1. A modest dedication to Cor- book; cf. 22. 6 noui libri; 78. anelius. The poem probably served lepidissima coniunx; Plaut. Pseud.originally as an introduction to a 27 lepidis litteris, lepidis tabellis,part only of the extant liber Catulli. lepida conscripta manu; Stat. Silu .The entire collection is too large, IV.9. 7 noster [ libellus] purpureus and too varied in contents, to be nouusque charta; Mart. IV . 10. Idescribed by the word libellus used dum nouus est, rasa nec adhuc mihi in v. 1 ( cf. Birt, Antike Buchwesen, fronte libellus. The tone is as if pp. 22, 291 , 401 ff.). The original the young author held in his handslibellus may have included, as Bent- his first completed volume, and were ley and others after him have charmed by its aspect; of its in thought, cc. 1-60, but more likely trinsic merits hespeaks modestly in of undeterminable content, vv . 8-10. — In 6. 17 lepidus refersbeing incorporated in the entire to the dainty character of the verse liber published shortly after the itself ( cf. Mart. VIII. 3. 19; XI.poet's death ( cf. Intr . 48, 51 ) . — 20. 9 lepidos libellos), and AusoniusMetre, Phalaecean. evidently understood it in that 1-3. With the rhetorical question sense here; Aus. 23. 1-4 ' cui ... and answer, cf. 100. 5 cui faueam libellum ' Veronensis ait poeta potius? Caeli, tibi: nam , etc. quondam at nos inlepidum ,1. cui: see Crit. App. — dono: rudem libellum . — libellum: espe the indicative present with future cially used of a book of poetry,meaning is sometimes used to ex- shorter than a prose liber; cf. Birt,press the imminence of decision in l.c.questions implying greatanxiety or 2. arido: a formal epithet of eagerness; cf. 63. 55; Plaut. Cas. pumex; cf. Plaut. Aul. 297 pumex 384 compressan palma an porrecta non aequest aridus quam hic est ferio? Cic. Att. XIII. 40 aduolone senex; Mart. VIII. 72. 2 morsu an maneo? Verg. Aen. IV. 534 en pumicis aridi politus. In 23. 12 quid ago? rursusne procos expe- ff. horn is mentioned as a typical riar? Sen. Contr . II . 3 ( 11 ) . 19 dry substance. — pumice: the ends carnifex dicat, ' agon? ' — lepidum of the papyrus-roll were rubbed nouum: of the external rather smooth with pumice-stone; cf. 22.than of the internal character of the 8 n.ICATULLUS. [ 1.3I. 53magnum opusCorneli, tibi; namque tu solebasMeas esse aliquid putare nugas,$ Iam tum cum ausus es unus ItalorumOmne aeuum tribus explicare chartis,Doctis, Iuppiter, et laboriosis!Quare habe tibi quidquid hoc libelli3. Corneli: i.e. Cornelius Nepos; chartis: single pieces of papyrus cf. Intr. 12, 64. —solebas: prob- prepared for writing: cf. 22. 6;ably in the way of private friendship. Hor. Ep. II . 1. 113 calamum et 4. aliquid , of some value: cf. chartas et scrinia posco; then of Cic. Tusc. V. 36. 104 eos esse aliquid the writings themselves: cf. 36. 1 , putare; Ov. Fast. VI. 27 est aliquid 20; 68. 46; Hor. Carm . IV. 8. 2i nupsisse Ioui; Prop. V. 7. I sunt si chartae sileant quod bene feceris; aliquid Manes; Juv. 3. 230 est Mart. V. 26. 2 aliqua cum iocarer aliquid unius sese dominum fecisse in charta; then of divisions of the lacertae; Vulg. Gal. 2. 2 qui ui. writings, books, as here: cf. Q. Ser. debantur aliquid esse. —nugas: Samm . 721 tertianamque Titi simulshort, slight, sportive poems: cf. et centesima Liui charta docet.Hor. Sat. I. 9. 2 nescio quid medi- 7. Iuppiter: with this use as tans nugarum; Mart. I. 113. 6 per an expletive, like edepol, ecastor,quem perire non licet meis nugis , mehercule, medius fidius, etc., cf. Aus. 26. 1. I latebat inter nugas 66. 30; Plaut. Merc. 865 Iuppiter,meas libellus ignobilis. estne illic Charinus? Aul. 241 sed5. iam tum cum, etc.: i.e. even pro Iuppiter, num ego disperii?then, at the beginning of my career, Ter. Ad. 757 0 Iuppiter, hancine when you were already well known witam!and engaged on your great work. 8. habe tibi: an expression of The reference is probably not to a the conveyance of rights in property ,direct mention of Catullus in the to the formal effect of which theprojected book. -- unus Italorum: preceding quare contributes: cf. other Romans had written only an- the formula of divorce quoted from nalistic histories of their own coun- the Twelve Tables in Plaut. Trin .try, or general histories covering 266 tuas res tibi habeto; Mart. X. limited periods. 51. 16 quae tua sunt, tibi habe;6. omne aeuum: i.e. the work quae mea , redde mihi; Plaut.was a history of the world from the Bacch. 1142 si quam debes, te con earliest period to his own time, – dono; tibi habe; Ter. Phor. 435 te probably the (lost) Chronica men- oblectet; tibi habe. The familiarity tioned by Ausonius in Ep. 16. I of the traditional order of the words Nepotis Chronica, quasi alios apolo- in these formulae may have given gos ( nam et ipsa instar sunt fabu- rise to the unmetrical tibi habe of larum ) ad nobilitatem tuam misi. V.- quidquid ... qualecumque:The Chronica was doubtless a said with modest self-depreciation;chronological work like the An- quare habe tibi, so take it, ' quid.nalium Libri III. of Varro, men- quid hoc libelli, ' tis all thine, ' qua tioned by Jerome, and the Annalis lecumque, “ such as it is . With of Atticus ( cf. Nep. Att. 18. 1 ) . — gridquid hoc libelli as a quantita6-2 . 2 ) CATULLUS.Qualecumque, quod, o patrona uirgo,Plus uno maneat perenne saeclo. 102.Passer, deliciae meae puellae,Quicum ludere, quem in sinu tenere,se , solet lytive expression, cf. 31. 14; 37.4( like 2. The poet envies Lesbia's pet quantum with a genitive in 3. 2; sparrow . This poem appears to 9. 10); Liv. XXIII. 9 iurantes per date from the heyday of Catullus'quidquid deorum est; Hor. Epod. connection with Lesbia ( cf. 3. 3 n .),5. I at o deorum quidquid in caelo concerning whose identity, see Intr.regit; Sat. I. 6. i Lydorum quid- 27 ff. — Metre, Phalaecean.quid Etruscos incoluit fines, nemo 1. passer: the occurrence of generosior est te; Verg. Aen. I. 78 this word and its diminutive as pet tu mihi quodcumque hoc regni con- names in the works of Plautus shows cilias; Tib. II . 2. 15 gemmarum that even much earlier than this the quidquid felicibus Indis nascitur. Romans were accustomed to make Est is to be supplied with hoc ( cf. pets of sparrows: cf. Plaut. Cas. I.Verg. I.c.), and then the quidquid 50 meus pullus passer; As. III. 3.clause is modified by qualecumque 74 dic igitur metuum passerculum .directly , in a politely deprecatory Other names of birds are used intone: cf. Hor. Sat. I. 10. 88 quibus the same way ( cf. ll. cc .), and other haec, sunt qualiacumque, adridere birds are mentioned as pets; cf. 68.uelim . 125 ( columbus ); Plaut. Capt. 1002 9. patrona uirgo: the muse of (monedula, anas, coturnix ); Ov.lyric poetry, to whom , as one of the Am. II. 6. i psittacus . . . occidit;guardians of song, the poet prays Stat. Silu . II. 4. I psittace ... dofor the long life of his book: cf. mini facunda uoluptas; Mart. I. 7 .Suet. Gram . 6 scriptores ac poe- i Stellae delicium mei columba ( cf.tae sub clientela sunt Musarum; VII . 14. 5 ); XIV. 73 (psittacus);Sulpicia 11 precibus descende clientis XIV. 74 (coruus); XIV. 75 (lusci et audi. With uirgo, of the Muse, nia ); XIV. 76 ' (pica), etc. Thecf. 65. 2; Prop . III. 30. 33 nec tu sparrow was sacred to Aphrodite,virginibus reuerentia moueris ora. according to Sappho, and so an But some critics, with Guarinus, un- especially fitting pet for Lesbia .derstand the reference of Pallas. deliciae: of aliving object of en10. plus uno saeclo: a modest dearment; cf. 6. 1; 32. 2; andstatement of an indefinite extent of the repetition of this verse, 3. 4.time: cf. Hor. Carm . I. 32. 2 quod Elsewhere in Catullus deliciae is et hunc in annum uiuat et plures. used of inanimate objects ( 69. 4)With the modest prayer of Catullus and of acts of endearment (45. 24;for abiding fame, cf. the proud reli- 68. 26; 74. 2) . —meae puellae:ance of Horace upon the judgment cf. 3. 3 n .of his patron ( Carm . I. 1. fin .), 2. quicum: for qui as ablative and, later, his assurance of immor- of the relative pronoun cf. 66. 77;tality ( Carm . III . 30 ). 69. 8; 116. 3; and for the sameCATULLUS. [2. 3SCui primum digitum dare adpetenti Et acris solet incitare morsus,Cum desiderio meo nitentiCarum nescio quid libet iocari(Et solaciolum sui doloris,Credo, ut tum grauis adquiescat ardorintimate6-form as interrogative 67. 17; 72. 7 . 7. et solaciolum: the general - in sinu tenere, etc.: pressing sense is, ' My love in playing with the sparrow to her bosom with one her sparrow finds amusement, —-yes,hand, she holds him confined while and comfort, too , for by this means teasing him with, and provoking she stills the torturing flames of her him to peck at the extended fore- passion . The play with the sparrow finger of the other hand. is indulged in both for its own sake 3. primum digitum, finger-tip. and as a distraction from fiercer- adpetenti: in hostile attack; cf. passion. Vv. 7 and 8 contain ,Plaut. Cist. 208 ita me amor therefore, a sort of rhetorical after agit adpetit raptat; Tac. Hist. thought, and may properly be con IV. 42 adpetitum morsu Pisonis sidered parenthetical; and while acaput. noun could not stand directly as the 5. desiderio: first of a passion- subject of libet, solaciolum may ate desire for something once en- yet, by virtue of the remote charac joyed ( cf. 96. 3; Hor. Carm . I. ter of its modification in the after 24. i quis desiderio sit pudor ), and thought, be allowed as an apposi then of the object of desire (cf. tive to the subject. See Crit. App.Hor. Carm . I. 14. 18 [ nauis] nunc - doloris: here used of the pain of desiderium curaque non leuis). love-longing: cf. 50. 17; Ov. Art.From this point the transition is Am. II . 519 litore quot conchae, tot easy to a mere pet name, as here; sunt in amore dolores , Prop. Cic . Fam . XIV. 2. 2 Hem , mea 20. 27 quicumque solent in amore lux, meum desiderium; Petr. 139 dolores.tu , desiderium meum.- nitenti: 8. ut tum: the constant confu of seductive beauty: cf. 61. 193; sion of t and c in the MSS. makes Hor. Carm . I. 5. 12 miseri, quibus entirely probable the emendation intemptata nites; Prop. 1. 2. 6 of cum of V to tum. The ut sinere in propriis membra nitere clause carries on with specificationbonis. the sol . sui dol. of v. 7, the repeti 6. carum: here an almost color- tion being made less tautological byless word, somewhat as the Homeric the emphasis laid upon grauis; cf. pllov often is . It modifies nescio 10. 7 , 8, and 96. 3 , 4, where there quid, the object of iocari, which are similar explications of preced takes this less marked sort of a cog- ing phrases. — grauis: cf. Prop:nate accusative; cf. Cic. Fam . IX. me longa graui 14. 4 haec enim iocatus sum; Hor. soluat amore uia . - ardor: the Sat. I. 5. 62 in faciem permulta fire of love; cf. 35. 15; 45. 16;iocatus. The infinitive -phrase is 64. 93; 100. 7; and often in the then the subject of libet.IV. 21 . 2 utpoets.radiant2. 13)CATULLUS. STecum ludere sicut ipsa possemIO Et tristis animi leuare curas!Tam gratum est mihi quam ferunt puellaePernici aureolum fuisse malum,Quod zonam soluit diu ligatam .9. ipsa: this demonstrative is thought in tecum ludere sicut sometimes used with even a more ipsa.remote reference, so that it is II. quam , etc.: the comparison equivalent to some such word as is, of course, a limited one, extend.dominus (cf. 64. 43 n. ) , but the ing only to the delight Atalanta reference to puellae v. I is here took in securing the apple. -puel.more immediate. —possem: op- lae pernici: for the familiar story tative of ungratified wish . of the victory of Hippomenes ( or 10. tristis animi curas: of the Milanion) over the beautiful Ata.painful passion of love, as v. 7 dolo- lanta in the foot- race by the help ris; cf. 64. 72, 95; 68. 18; Hor. of Aphrodite's golden apples, cf. Epod. 2. 37 quas amor curas habet. Apollod. III. 9. 2; Ov. Met. X. With animi modifyingcurascf. 64. 560 ff.; Hygin. Fab. 185. Catullus 372 animi amores; 68. 26 delicias means us to understand , as does animi; 102. 2 fides animi. Ovid ( Met. X. 610 ff.), that not Some critics have judged that vv . only was the beautiful apple at 1-10 form a complete whole, or tractive to Atalanta, but she her.that, at any rate, vv. 11-13 are the self was not altogether unwilling conclusion of some other poem and to be beaten .not of this ( cf. Crit. App. ) . But 12. malum: cf. 65. 19 n.there seems to be no good reason 13. zonam: for similar refer to doubt that the poem is not con- ence see 61. 52; 67. 28; and cf. cluded with v. 10, while a study of Paul. Fest. p. 63 cingulo noua nupta 65 shows how naturally such a picture praecingebatur, quod uir in lecto as that of vv. 11-13 may conclude a soluebat, factum ex lana ouis. The poem of warm emotion. Yet the figure is as old as Homer; cf. Od.change of mood from possem ( v. XI. 245. — soluit: on the diaeresis 9) to est (v. 11 ) makes it probable see Intr. 86 b. diu ligatam:that a lacuna exists here, though since she had long refused to marry:perhaps of only a single verse, con- cf. Anth . Lat. 1704. 48 Mey . te uo taining in the form of an infini. cant prece uirginespudicae zonulam tive-phrase some repetition of the ut soluas diu ligatam .not to seegeiverlove playing with her shonrow ( which I reene march hasonis Reeng megafent tan en lassen SA6 CATULLUS. ( 3. sa3.Lugete, o Veneres Cupidinesque Et quantum est hominum uenustiorum!Passer mortuus est meae puellae,Passer, deliciae meae puellae,3. The poet mourns the death of Latin tongue; cf. Hor. Carm . I. Lesbia's sparrow. —This daintiest 19. I; IV . 1. 5 mater sacua Cupi.of poems, a charming combination dinum; Ov. Am . III. 15. I tenero of gentle grace and half-smiling rum mater Amorum; Fast. IV. Isympathy for the sorrow of the geminorum mater Amorum .mistress, expressed under the outer 2. quantum, etc.: cf. 1. 8 n. form of pity for the fate of the quidquid hoc libelli. uenustio sparrow , is a fit companion - piece rum: on the meaning see note on to 2, and must be referred to the v. i Veneres, and cf. 13. 6; 22. 2 .same period in the author's life . So far as there is any comparative For imitations of this lament over idea in the word, it is that of comthe death of a pet, see the poems parison, not with other homines ue from Ovid, Statius, and Martial cited nusti, but with other homines, and in note on 2. I , and add the curious all ye men of any degree of grace.'titulus sepulcralis of a pet dog in 3. meae puellae: undoubtedly Wilmann's Exempla Inscr. Lat. 584. the Lesbia of the other poems: ( 1 )- Metre, Phalaecean. so Martial thought ( cf. VII. 14. 31. Veneres: the plural is to be plorauit amica Catulli Lesbia , ne explained partly, perhaps, as an in- quitiis passeris orba sui; XIV. 77 stance of a sort of attraction to the qualem dilecta Catullo Lesbia ploranumber of Cupidines, as Ellis and bat), though enal follows Catullus Schulze think ( cf. 13. 12 with 36. 3) , in mentioning no name (Juv. 6. 7 nec but more as resulting from the con- tibi, cuius turbauit nitidos exstinc.ception of the character of Venus tus passer ocellos); ( 2) in the few and of Lesbia . In the type of other places where Catullus speaks Venus were summed up all graces of his " puella, ' no other than Lesbia and charms of mind and body. is indicated ( cf. 11. 15; 13. 11; 36.Leshia was attractive for mental as 2; 37. 11); ( 3) stronger than all well as for physical endowments ( cf. other proof is the internal evidence 36 and 86 ); shetherefore possessed from the poems themselves, for omnes Veneres ( 86. 6); and Catul- Catullus surely loved but one woman,lus calls upon all to share her sor- and spoke of no other in words of row who by the possession of simi- such pure, tender, and all -absorbing lar characteristics ( quantum est passion as in 2 and 3.hom. uen .) can sympathize with 4. The initial epanalepsis gives her loss. Cf. Mart. IX . 11.9; XI. the mournfully iterative tone of a13. 6 Veneres Cupidinesque. Cu- dirge, while the identity of v. 4 with pidines: the conception already 2. I connects the two poems skil familiar to the Greeks of more than fully, and heightens the effect of one " Eows is here extended to the each by contrast with the other.

-3. 12 )CATULLUS. 7 .5 Quem plus illa oculis suis amabat;Nam mellitus erat, suamque norat se , dominan (10 )Ipsa tam bene quam puella matrem,Nec sese a gremio illius mouebat,Sed circumsiliens modo huc modo illucAd solam dominam usque pipiabat.Qui nunc it per iter tenebricosumIlluc unde negant redire quemquam .105. plus oculis suis amabat: suae plorabat sobrius idem ( wherocf. 14. I plus oculis meis amarem; puellae has preceded ).and similar expressions, 82. 2, 4 7. ipsa: modifying puella, with carius oculis; 104. 2 carior ocu- a reference back to suam. -pu.lis: Shakspere, Lear I. i I love you ella: i.e. Lesbia.dearer than eyesight. Although 8. illius: with short penult, as the figure in plus oculis amare is always in Catullus in the case of not common in Latin, Terence uses this and similar genitives, with the twice the same expression ( Ad. 701 exception of 67. 23 illius.magis te quam oculos nunc ego amo 9. modo huc modo illuc: cf. meos; 903 qui te amat plus quam 15. 7; 50. 5 modo hoc modo illoc;hosce oculos ), and so it is not alto- 68. 133 hinc illinc; Sen. Apoc. 9gether due to Alexandrian influence. modo huc modo illuc cursabat; Cic.6. mellitus: Catullus uses this Att. XIII. 25. 3 0 Academian uola word in but two other places (48. ticam modo huc modo illuc!1; 99. 1 ) , once of the kissable eyes II . tenebricosum: an unusual,of Juventius and once of the boy though Ciceronian, word for the himself, so that it is seen to be with poetical tenebrosum . On the con him exclusively a term of endear- ception of the shadowy journey to ment; Plautus uses it but once, and Orcus, cf. v. 13 tenebrae Orci; that sense ( Pseud. 180 quibus Carm . IV. 2. 22 nigro Orco; Verg .uitae estis, quibus . mammillae Geor. III. 551 Stygiis emissa tenemellitae ); Cicero uses it but once, bris; Prop. V. 9. 41 Stygias tene and in that sense ( Att. I. 18. I cum bras; Ov. Met. V. 359 tenebrosa mellito Cicerone); whiie in sede tyrannus exierat; I. 113 tene Varro it appears first in the literal brosa in Tartara; Calp. Buc. I. 52 sense ( R. R. III. 16. 22 melliti omnia Tartareo subigentur carcere faui) , as it does later in Horace bella immergentque caput tenebris.( Ep. I. 10. II pane egeo iam melli- 12. unde, etc.: quoted by Seneca tis potioreplacentis); Plautus also ( Apoc. 1. fin .) and imitated in twice uses the diminutive melli . Anth . Lat. 1704. 11 Mey. [ domustulus. suam: puellam is to be Auerni] unde fata negant redire supplied from the genitives of the quemquam . The conception is thor preceding verses, as shown by the oughly Greek, but fromthis time be puella of v. 7; cf. Tib. I. 4. 75 pa- comes common in Latin literature;reat ille suae (where coniunx has cf. Verg. Aen. VI. 425 ripam irres preceded); II. 5. 103 nam ferus ille meabilis undae; Hor. Carm . II. 38 CATULLUS. (3. 1315At uobis male sit, malae tenebraeOrci, quae omnia bella deuoratis;Tam bellum mihi passerem abstulistis.O factum male! io miselle passer!Tua nunc opera meae puellaeFlendo turgiduli rubent this poem ,.27 in aeternum exsilium; Prop. V. one! (in both instances of death );11. 2 panditur ad nullas ianua and the inscription cited in the nigra preces: Shaksp. Ham . III. I introductory note the undiscover'd country from whose Wilm. Ex. Inscr. Lat. 584. 4 Obourn no traveler returns. factum male, Myia, quod peristi!13. at: very rarely used in im- io: an interjection expressing precations in prose; but cf. 27. 5; deeper emotion than o, whether of 28. 14; 36. 18; Plaut. Most. 38 at joy (cf. 61 passim ), or of sorrow te Iuppiter dique omnes perdant! (as here ). – miselle: a colloquial Ter. Eun. 431 at te di perdant; word from Plautus down, used by Hor. Sat. II. 6. 54 at omnes di exa- Cicero only in his letters; especially gitent me; Verg. Aen. II . 535 at used of the dead; cf. Tertull. Test,tibi pro scelere . di praemia An. 4 cum alicuius defuncti recor .reddant debita . male sit: cf. Cic. daris, misellum uocas eum.Att. XV. 15. I L. Antonio male sit! 17. The poem ends with the Phaedr. App. I. 21. 11 at male tibi graceful turning of sympathy back sit! For indicatives with male and from the dead sparrow to the sor a dative see 14. 10; 38. 1. - -malae: rowing mistress, who is the chiefobserve the effect of the repetition object of the poet's thought. — tuaof malae after male, and below of opera: with gentle reproach, as if bellum after bella . the sparrow were responsible for 14. Orci: here not the god of causing his tender mistress so much the under- world, as in Hor. Carm. pain; cf. Ter. Andr. 689 sicin me II. 18. 34 satelles Orci; but the atque illam opera tua nunc miseros under -world itself, as in Hor. Carm . sollicitari!IV. 2. 22 mores aureos . . nigro 18. In spite of his fondness forinuidet Orco. tenebrae Orci is, diminutives, only twice elsewhere then, equivalent to tenebrosus Or. does Catullus use the diminutivecus , cf. v. Ii n. - devoratis: Orcus form of both noun and adjective;is ravenous; cf. Hor. Carm . II . 18. 25. 2 imula auricilla; 64. 316 ari.30 rapacis Orci. dulis labellis. The complaint about 15. mihi: another graceful touch disfigurement of the eyes is espe of tender sympathy; the grief suf- cially fitting, since one of Clodia's fered by Lesbia is Catullus' own chief charms was her brilliant eyes;grief. — abstulistis: of removal by cf. Cic . Att. II. 14. I de conloquio violence; cf. 62. 32; 101. 5 . Bootloos; Cael. 20. 49 flagrantia16. O factum male: cf. Ter. oculorum; Har. Resp. 18. 38 hosPhor. 751 male factum! Cic. Att. flagrantis [ oculos]; all references XV . 1a . I o factum male de Alexi- to Clodia .


  • No: it was possible ,see Svennung , Opuscula Romana ( 1954) 159.24

and Putnam , CP 59 ( 1962 ) 10 ff .-4.6 ] CATULLUS. 9baonnas4.Phasellus ille, quem uidētis, hospitēs,Ait fuisse nāuium celerrimus,Neque) ūllius nătantis impetum trabisNequisse praeterite, siue palmulis 5 Opus foret uolare siue linteo.Et hoc negat minacis Hadriaticiasome.4. A dedicatory inscription. - quem uidetis: sc. in effigy. - ho.On the return of Catullus from spites: the principal visitors at this Bithynia in 56 B.C. (see Intr. 33 ff.) private shrine would be guests of to his dearly loved home at Sirmio, the master of the estate,he suspended as a votive offering 2. celerrimus: an instance of shrine on his own property a model so - called attraction in case , moreof the yacht that had brought him common in Greek than in Latin ,safely through his perils by sea, but not so rare in the Augustan age and this poem is in the form of (especially in Ovid ) and later; cf. a dedicatory inscription appended Hor. Ep. I. 7. 22 uir bonus et sapi.thereto. It is needless, not to say ens dignis ait esse paratus. The impossible, to suppose, as adjective here is also attracted from have done, that the actual yacht the gender of nauium into that of

  • was brought up the Po and the phasellus; cf. Hor. Sat. I. 9.4 dul Mincio, or by an overland route, cissime rerum .

and beached in the Lago di Garda, 3. neque nequisse: cf. but the votive model is spoken of below negat negare. — trabis:as if the experiences of its prototype a ship, as is made plain by natan were its own. ( For a strong pre- tis: cf. Verg. Aen. III . 191 uastum sentation of a differentinterpretation caua trabe currimus aequor; Hor. of the poem cf. C. L. Smith in Har- Carm . I. 1. 13 ut trabe Cypria Myr.vard Studies in Classical Philology, toum secet mare.vol. III . , p. 75. ) Two other poems, 4. palmulis: cf. Fest. 220 Müll. 46 and 31, speak respectively of palmulae appellantur remi a simi the beginning and end of the home- litudine manus humanae; Verg. ward journey. A parody is found Aen. V. 163 laeuas stringat sine in Verg. Catal. 8 , and a number of palmula cautes; also 64. 7 palmis.interesting parallels in the address 5. uolare: of the swift, skimmingof Ovid on the vessel that carried motion of the ship: cf. 46. 6; Enn. him into exile ( Trist. I. 10 ) . – Ann. 379 Vahl. uolat super impetus Metre, pure iambic trimeter. undas; Verg. Geor. II. 41 pelago 1. phasellus: a small and light uolans da uela patenti; Ov. Her. 6.sail-boat, but large enough for cruis- 66 illa uolat, uentus concaua uela ing; cf. Hor. Carm . III. 2. 28 ue- tenet.tabo fragilemmecum soluat phase- 6 ff. Catullus retraces the course lon; Verg. Geor. IV. 289 circum of his homeward journey. hoc:pictis uehitur sua rura phaselis. - object of negare, referring to the10 CATULLUS. [4.710Negare litus insulasue Cycladas Rhodumque nobilem horridamque ThraciamPropontida trucemue Ponticum sinum,Vbi iste post phasellus antea fuit Comata silua: nam Cytorio in iugoLoquente saepe sibilum edidit coma.Amastri Pontica et Cytore buxifer,Tibi haec fuisse et esse cognitissimadoc .comam.good record of the ship just cited. 10. post: a construction of adverb minacis Hadriatici: a sea pro . with substantive common enough in verbially stormy; cf. Hor. Carm . I. Greek, but very rare in earlier Latin ,33. 15 fretis acrior Hadriae; III. though rather more frequent from 3. 5 Auster , dux inquieti turbidus the Augustan age down.Hadriae; III. 9. 22 improbo ira- 11. comata silua: the figure is cundior Hadria . The proper ad- as old as Homer; cf. Od . XXIII.jective is here used absolutely 195 απέκοψα κόμην τανυφύλλου 7. insulas Cycladas: a place of falns; Hor. Carm . IV. 3. 11 spis danger to the mariner; cf. Hor. sae nemorum comae; Verg. Aen .Carm . I. 14. 19 interfusa nitentes VII. 60 laurus sacra comam ser .uites aequora Cycladas. uata; Prop. IV. 16. 28 me tegat 8. Rhodum nobilem: in more arborea deuia terra coma; Tib. I.ancient times the island , with its 7. 34 uiridem dura caedere falce commandingposition and excellent But silua of a single tree,harbor, hadbeen a place of much as apparently here, is a rare use .commercial importance, and now its 12. loquente coma: cf. the sim .friendship with Rome, its delightful pler and better figure in Verg. Ecl.climate, and the residence there of 8. 22 Maenalus pinos loquentes sem .distinguished teachers of philoso- per habet.phy and rhetoric had attracted 13. Amastri: the city of Amas large numbers of Romans; cf. Hor. tris, so named from its founder, the Carm . I. 7. 1 ( and Mart. IV. 55.6) wife of Dionysius, tyrant of the claram Rhodon. — horridam Pro- Pontic Heraclea, was situated on pontida: another sea of bad repu- the Paphlagonian coast of the tation among sailors; cf. the early Euxine Sea, not far from Mt. Cyto.stories of the cruise of the Argo, and rus, and on the site of the HomericVal. Flac. Arg. II. 645 me fremens city of Sesamus ( II. II. 853) . The tumido circumfluat ore Propontis; younger Pliny praises its beauty also of the adjacent strait, Hor. ( Trai. 98 ) . – Cytore buxifer: cf. Carm. III . 4. 30 insanientem na- Verg. Geor. II. 437 iuuat undan .uita Bosporum temptabo. On the tem buxo spectare Cytorum . Thelengthening of the final syllable, see adjective is άπαξ λεγόμενον.Intr. 86 g 14. tibi: Catullus combines Amas.9. trucem Ponticum sinum: tris and Cytorus in a single idea,cf. Ovid's account of the inhospita- perhaps thinking of the city as built ble sea in Trist. IV. 4. 56-60. on the mountain; cf. v. 18 n .intus Euxinous-4.23 ] CATULLUS. 1115 Ait phasellus; ultima ex origineTuo stetisse dicit in cacumine,Tuo imbuisse palmulas in aequore,Et inde tot per impotentia fretaErum tulisse, laeua siue dexteraVocaret aura, siue utrumque Iuppiter Simul secundus incidisset in pedem;Neque ulla uota litoralibus diisSibi esse facta, cum ueniret a mari20a86 8.16. stetisse: i.e. when a tree; 21. pedem: the pedes (Gr. #bdes)imbuisse: i.e. when a ship. The were the sheets, or ropes attached course of the ship is now traced one to each of the lower corners of again, but in theoriginal direction , the square sail, whence they were from Cytorus to Sirmio. carried aft and belayed at either rail .18. inde: perhaps a case of po- They were used to stretch the sail etic freedom with fact, for Catullus taut, so as to secure the full effectwas more likely to start on his of the breeze. The pedes here stand homeward journey from Nicaea (cf. for the two halves of the sail itself,46. 5) , and not from the extreme and that was evenly filled only wheneastern boundary of the province; the vessel was sailing before the but cf. Intr. 35. impotentia: wind; cf. Cic. Att. XVI. 6 utrumquelacking self-control, raging; cf. 35. [sinum] pedibus aequis transmisi12; Ter. Andr. 879 adeo impotenti mus; Ov. Fast. III. 565 nancta ra esse animo; Hor. Carm . III. 30. 3 tem pede labitur aequo.Aquilo impotens. On the length- 22. neque, etc.: not that theening of the final syllable, see Intr. vessel scorned the gods and their power ( cf. vv. 26, 27), but her sea . 19. erum: Catullus himself. worthiness kept her out of positionslaeua siue dextera, etc.: whether of danger where appeals to themthe wind was on the starboard or were necessary. — litoralibus diis:port quarter or dead astern , it made vows were made by sailors to Nepno difference to the craft, which tune, to Castor and Pollux, and to sailed straight ahead. Venus Marina ( Hor. Carm . I. 5. 1320. uocaret aura: the fair wind ff.; I. 3. 1 , 2; IV. 11. 15) , as well • invites ' the vessel to pursue its as to lesser divinities; cf. Verg.course with hopes of a prosperous Geor. I. 436 uotaque seruati soluentvoyage; cf. Verg. Aen. III. 70 lenis in litore nautae Glauco et Panopeae crepitans uocat Auster in altum; et Inoo Melicertae.III. 357 aurae uela uocant; Ov. 23. sibi: dative of agent with Her. 13. 9 qui tua uela uocaret uen- the perfect participle, as in 22. 4;tus erat; and for the converse, Verg. 35. 18, etc. - a mari nouissimo, Aen. IV. 417 uocat iam carbasus from the most distant sea; cf. Ov. Iuppiter: here = aura; Trist. III. 13. 27 terrarum pars cf. Ov. Met. II. 377 nec se [ cycnus] paene nouissima, Pontus; Tac. Agar caeloque Iouique credit.610 oram nouissimi maris.auras.12 CATULLUS. [4. 240lk . 3125Nouissimo hunc ad usque limpidum lacum.Sed haec prius fuere: nunc reconditaSenet quiētě seque dedicat tibi,Gemelle Castor et gemelle Castoris.Sequested out of the5.Viuamus, mea Lesbia, atque amemus,Rumoresque senum seueriorumcean.24. limpidum lacum: i.e. the nomenon called still St. Elmo'slacus Benacus ( Lago di Garda) , [= Helena's? ] fires ’ for the stars into the broader, southern end of affixed in ancient art to the forewhich projects the peninsula of Sir- heads of the brothers; cf. 68. 65 mio ( cf. 31 ), now Sermione, where and other poets passim .stood thevilla of Catullus. In the 5. To Lesbia; an exhortation toepithet is a thought of the contrast enjoy love and despise censure. -between the dark and turbulent sea This utterance of the intoxicationover which the journey had been, of passion must date, like 2 and and the beautifully blue and clear 3, from the early days of the en waters of the quiet lake. tire confidence of Catullus in Les 25. sed haec prius fuere: i.e. bia. With its companion piece , 7,all toil and danger has now become it is cited by Ovid ( Am. I. 8. 58) ,but a matter of quiet retrospect. and by Martial ( VI. 34. 7; XI. 6.26. senet: a word of earlier 14; XII. 59. 3) . —Metre, PhalaeLatin for the later senescit. - se dedicat: sc . in effigy. —tibi: Cas- 1. uiuamus: the key- note of the tor and Pollux were proverbially whole poem is struck in the first united, and were often spoken of, word; with uiuere in this pregnant sometimes even as if they were a sense, ‘ to enjoy life,' cf. Verg. Copa single person , under one name, 38 mors aurem uellens ' uiuite ' ait,that of Castor beingmore frequently ' uenio '; Mart. I. 15. 12 sera nimis used, as in v. 27; cf. Hor. Epod. 17. uita est crastina; uiue hodie; and 42 Castor fraterque magni Casto- the proverbial dum uiuimus, uiua ris; Stat. Silu. IV . 6. 15 ab Elysiis mea Lesbia: So she is prospexit sedibus alter Castor; and called again in 75. I , but with athe famous witticism of Bibulus in different feeling ( cf. also 58. I ) .Suet. Iul. 10 euenisse sibi quod Pol- 2. rumores: here not of unau.iuci; ut enim geminis fratribusaedes thenticated report, but of direct in foro constituta tantum Castoris observation and remark; cf. Ter.uocaretur, ita suam Caesarisque Phor. 911 nam qui erit rumor, id munificentiam unius Caesaris dici: si feceris! senum seueriorum:but Éor. Carm . III. 29. 64 has ge- old men are proverbially censors of minus Pollux . —The Dioscuri were the young ( cf. Hor. A. P. 174 [ se invoked as dispellers of storms by nex ] castigator censorque mino sailors, who took the electrical phe. rum ), and this is one type of oldmus. --5.111 CATULLUS.13Corr5Omnes unius aestimemus assis.Soles occidere et redire possunt:Nobis, cum semel occidit breuis lux,Nox est perpetua una dormienda.Da mi basia mille, deinde centum,Dein mille altera, dein secunda centum,Deinde usque altera mille, deinde centum,Dein, cum milia multa fecerimus,Conturbabimus illa, ne sciamus,10man in Plautus and Terence; but cf. Cic. De Sen. 65 seueritatem in senectute probo, sed eam ( ut alia )modicam; acerbitatem nullo modo.With the comparative, cf. 3. 2uenustiorum .3. unius aestimemus assis:i.c. count as naught; cf. 42. 13 ( as sis facere); 10. 13; 17. 17 ( pili facere); and, in the same sense , 23. 25 ( parui putare ). Catullus is the first to use in such phrases assis and pili, where Plautus and Terence have flocci, nauci, pensi, nihili ( cf. however Plaut. Capt. 477 neque ridiculos iam terrunci faciunt).4-6. On the general conception see 3. 11, 12 n .; Prop. III . 15. 24 nox tibi longa uenit, nec reditura dies; Hor. Carm. IV. 7. 13 ff.damna tamen celeres reparant cae.lestia luna:; nos puluis etumbra sumus; and most beautifully in the Lament for Bion( Mosch. 3. 109 ff .), ' Ah me, when the mallows wither in the garden,and the green parsley, and the curled tendrils of the anise, on alater day they live again, and spring in another year; but we men, we the great and mighty, or wise, when once we have died , in hollow earthwe sleep,gone down into silence; a right long,and endless, and unawakening sleep.And thou too , in the earth wilt be lapped in silence ' ( Lang): R.Browning, Toccata of Galluppi,Death stepped tacitly and took them where they never see the sun.5. breuis lux: a very unusual rhythm with which to end theverse; cf. however 7. 7 tacet nox ,and note the antithesis betweenlux at the end of v . 5 and nox at the beginning of v. 6.7. basia: the word appears first here, but seems in later days to have supplanted entirely in the colloquial dialect both sauia and the more formal oscula, whence it made its way into the Romance languages. The lack of apparent congeners in Latin and Greek, and the occurrence of buss in early English , and of the nouns buss, busserl, and the verb bussen in early days in the conservative mountain dialects of SouthGermany and Austria, make it probable that this word was of Germanic origin, and made its way to Rome from the region of the Po.- deinde: the later, while dein is the earlier form of the word; in both ei is regularly contracted into a single syllable.9. usque, straight on.1o. fecerimus: with the origi nal quantity of the penult, as occa .sionally in the poets.II . conturbabimus: the confu sion of the count is already effected in the poem by the hurrying suc .lettinue? "E & N3-14 CATULLUS. C5. 17Aut ne quis malus inuidere possit,Cum tantum sciat esse basiorum .6.Flaui, delicias tuas Catullo,Ni sint inlepidae atque inelegantes,Velles dicere, nec tacere posses.Verum nescio quid febriculosiScorti diligis: hoc pudet fateri.Nam te non uiduas iacere noctesNequiquam tacitum cubile clamatS82. I.cession of mille and centum . - ne delicias: see 2. I n . - Catullo:sciamus: for if not even we our- the poet is fond of referring to him selves know the number, surely the self by name; cf. 7. 10; 11. I; 13.eye of envy cannot determine it. 7; 14. 13; 38. 1; 44. 3; 49. 4; 56.12. inuidere: i.e. to cast an evil 3; 58. 2; 68. 27, 135; 72. 1; 79. 3;eye , and so bring misfortune, upon a person or thing; cf. Accius ap. 2. ni sint uelles, granted Cic. Tusc. III . 9. 20 quisnam flo- that ( your love] is not . you rem liberum inuidit meum? The would surely be willing, etc. The belief in the evil eye ' is still wide- imperfect tense in both clauses spread among eastern nations, and would express at once a conclusion curious traces still survive among definitively arrived at after past demore highly civilized communities. liberation; the tenses as they here13. tantum , just so many; cf. stand convey the idea of a pause also 14. 7 tantum impiorum . From for deliberation after laying down ancient times down it has been be- the chosen proposition ( ni sint,lieved that a spell could be surely etc.) , and then a triumphant pounce based only on some mathematically upon the inevitable conclusion ( uel.exact enumeration of particulars les dicere, etc.). For other in .( cf. Hor. Carm . I. 11. 2 Babylonios stances of this construction cf. 586 numeros), and so it has been held and Draeger Hist. Synt. II. p. 721. unsafe to tell, or even to know, such inlepidae atque inelegantes: cf. details about one's precious things. similar phrases in 10. 4; 36. 17.6. Flavius is rallied about an in- 4. febriculosi: this word appearstrigue which he has in vain tried to first, and only once, in Catullus, and conceal. With the general theme but rarely 55 and Hor. Carm . I. 27; II. 6. uiduas noctes: cf. Ov. Ep.4. - Metre, Phalaecean . 18. 69 uiduas exegi frigida noctes;1. Flaui: otherwise unknown, and similarly 68. 6 in lecto caelibe.though Baehrens suspects him to be 7. nequiquam tacitum: i.e. itthe Fabullus of 12, 13 , 28, and 47. is to no purpose that the bed lacks6.17 ]CATULLUS.2510Sertis ac Syrio fragrans oliuo,Puluinusque peraeque et hic et illeAttritus, tremulique quassa lectiArgutatio inambulatioque.Nam nil stupra ualet, nihil, tacere.Cur? non tam latera ecfututa pandas,Ni tu quid facias ineptiarum.Quare, quidquid habes boni malique,Dic nobis: uolo te ac tuos amoresAd caelum lepido uocare uersu.15the power of speech, for it tells as emphatically and clearly (clamat)as though it could speak; cf. 80.7.8. Syrio, etc.: cf. 68. 144 fra.grantem Assyrio odore; and the lament of Berenice's hair in 66.75 ff.; Hor. Carm . II. 7. 8 corona tus nitentis malobathro Syrio capil los; II. 11. 14 rosa canos odorati capillos, Assyriaque nardo uncti.15. quidquid habes, etc.: cf. 1. 8 n .; Hor. Carm . I. 27. 17 quid quid habes, age, depone tutis auribus.16. nobis: mihi; the plural for the singular of the first person ( though never of the second ) often occurs in Catullus in personal and possessive pronouns and in verbs,sometimes with a change from sin gular to plural even in the same sen tence; cf. 77. 3-4; 91. 1-2. — uolo,etc.: the tone of the poem is cer tainly different from that of 55, and the raillery of the whole address thus far suggests that these conclud ing words are not spoken seriously,but after the spirit of Horace in the-odes cited in the introductory note.- amores: of a scortillum also in10. I and 45. I; cf. the same word of Juventius in 15. 1; 21. 4; 40. 7;but of love itself in 38. 6; 64. 27,etc.; and never of a mere petted friend, as in Cic. Att. XVI. 6. 4salutem dices Atticae, deliciis atqueamoribus meis.17. ad caelum uocare: phrases like ad caelum ferre, efferre, tollere are common enough in Latin, as is uocare with ad uitam , ad exitium ,ad salutem , and the like; but this particular phrase is rare, if not unique, and its strangeness adds to the mock-heroic, jesting tone of the sentence. -lepido: not of external character, as in 1. I , but of internal;cf. 36. io lepide; 12. 8; 16. 7; 50.7 lepor , etc.— uersv: = carmine;Cicero says uersum facere as well uersus facere; cf. also Verg.Geor. III. 339 quid tibi pastoresLibyae uersu prosequar; but the collective use of the singular did not become common till a later age.as16 CATULLUS. (7.87.Quaeris quot mihi basiationesTuae, Lesbia, sint satis superque.Quam magnus numerus Libyssae harenaeLaserpiciferis iacet Cyrenis,5 Oraclum Iouis inter aestuosia

7. To Lesbia, in answer to able to tell them; . . . so shall thy possibly somewhat petulant question seed be; Hom. I. II. 800 púl loco iv mentioned in vv . 1-2. The poem έoικότες ή ψαμάθοισιν; Hor. a companion-piece to 5 , and was I. 28. I numero carentis harenae;undoubtedly written at about the Ov. Art. Am. I. 254 numero cedet same time with it. — Metre, Pha- harena meo; I. 59_quot caelum laecean. stellas tot habet tua Roma puellas;1. quaeris: perhaps after the Calp. Buc. 2. 72 qui numerare uelit appeal in 5 for sundry thousands of tenues citius numerabit harenas.kisses. ~ basiationes: the word oc- 4. laserpiciferis: cf. Plin. N. H.curs in Catullus only here, and does XIX. 38 laserpicium , quod Graeci not appear again before Martial, ollolov uocant, in Cyrenaica prowho uses it twice ( II . 23. 4; VII. uincia repertum , cuius sucum laser 95. 17) . Abstract nouns in -io were uocant, magnificum in usu medica common in colloquial speech in the mentisque. The plant was doubtless time of Catullus. the ferula asafoetida, the exuded 2. tuae: subjective, as shown by juice of which is still widely used as comparison with 5.7 da mi basia; an antispasmodic. It held a promi cf. also 8. 18. — satis superque: nent place among the products and cf. the slight variation in v . 10; exports of Cyrenaica, and is reprealso Cic. Rosc. Com . 4. Il satis su- sented upon coins of the country.perque habere; Hor. Epod. 1. 31 Pliny notes, however, that in his satis superque ditauit; 17. 19 satis time it had ceased to be producedsuperque poenarum . there, and our supply comes from 3. quam: correlative with tam Persia and the East Indies. —Cyre.- numerus harenae, etc.: nis: Cyrenae (Gr. Kupnun ) washere is united a simplicity of fig- the capital of the district of Libya,ure that is even ante- Homeric with called Cyrenaica, that bordereda precision of geographical and upon the Syrtis major. It was mythological allusion that smacks founded, according to tradition,of the Alexandrian school. The about the middle of the seventhsands of the seashore, the leaves of century B.C. , by Battus, otherwise the forest, and the stars of the heav- called Aristotle , a Greek from theens, are the first types of infinite island of Thera, and attained great number that occurred to early man; reputation as a centre of trade, andcf. 61. 206 ff.; Gen. 13. 16 I will as the birthplace of Eratosthenes,make thy seed as the dust of the Aristippus, and; 15. 5 look now toward 5. oraclum Iouis: the Egyptian heaven and tell the stars, if thou be deity Ammon, or Hammon , origiin v.9. -8.2] CATULLUS. 17Et Batti ueteris sacrum sepulcrum,Aut quam sidera multa, cum tacet nox ,Furtiuos hominum uident amores,Tam te basia multa basiareVesano satis et super Catullo est,Quae nec pernumerare curiosiPossint nec mala fascinare lingua.1313Wartacountendto do moeite things thing?8. 76 for this one , seeMiser Catulle, desinas ineptire,Et quod uides perisse perditum ducas.tanally worshipped in Thebes under osus nemost quin sit maleuolus.the form of a ram, or of a human mala lingua: cf. Verg. Ecl. 7. 27 figure with a ram's horns, had his baccare frontem cingite ne uati most famous temple and oracle in noceat mala lingua futuro.the oasis of Siwah in the Libyan 8. The poet, somewhat vainly,desert, 400 miles from Cyrene ( Plin. appeals to himself to return Les l.c.). He was identified by the bia's coldness with coldness. TheGreeks and Romans with Zeus and puella of this poem is undoubtedly Jupiter; cf. Prop. V. 1. 103 hoc Lesbia, for of no other does Catul.neque harenosum Libyae Iouis ex- lus speak as in v. 5 ( see note) ,plicat antrum . aestuosi: of nor, indeed, as in the whole poem.glowing heat, as in 46. 5 Nicaeae Catullus had evidently fallen in the aestuosae; cf. Hor. Carm . I. 22. 5 favor of his inconstant mistress, andper Syrtes aestuosas; I. 31. 5 aestu . was ill able to put up with her cold osae Calabriae, ness in a dignified manner. While,6. Batti: see v. 4 n. Cyrenis. therefore, he complains of the unsacrum sepulcrum: the tomb ofthe reasonableness of her treatment of founder stood in the city of Cyrene, him, he seems to have one eye open where he was reverenced as a god. for a reconciliation. Far different 7. tacet nox: with the rhythm is the swift and brief-worded bitter cf. 5. 5 n. ness that characterizes the poems 9. tam: correlative with v. 3 written after he had become con quam. - te: subject, not object of vinced of Lesbia's utter unworthi.basiare; cf. v. 2 n . -basia basi- ness. This was evidently written in are: with the cognate accusative the time of temporary estrangement cf. 61. 117 (gaudia gaudere ), and, which was ended by the voluntary less precisely, such expressions as act of Lesbia ( cf. 37, 107, 36, and 14. 3 odissem odio, etc. Intr. 18, 19) . — Date , about 59 B.C.10. uesano: of the mad passion Metre, choliambic.of love also in 100. 7 uesana flamma. 1. Catulle: the poet is fond of11-12. Cf. 5. 11-13 n. curi. soliloquy in the form of self- address,osi: cf. Plaut. Stich . 208 nam curi- and of speaking of himself in themana in laqué eleganSurats shoes onlen ially18 CATULLUS. ( 8.35What fees we und!Fulsere quondam candidi tibi soles,Cum uentitabas quo puella ducebatAmata nobis quantum amabitur nulla.Ibi illa multa tum iocosa fiebant,Quae tu uolebas nec puella nolebat.Fulsere uere candidi tibi soles.Nunc iam illa non uult: tu quoque, impotens, noli,Nec quae fugit sectare, nec miser uiue,Sed obstinata mente perfer, obdura.Vale, puella! iam Catullus obdurat,Nec te requiret nec rogabit inuitam:At tu dolebis, cum rogaberis nulla.IOgrit teeth sour.mea .third person (cf. 6. i n. ); but es- Ter. Andr. 634 ibi tum eorum im pecially noteworthy in this poem is pudentissuma oratiost; Cic. Caec.the change from the second to the 10. 27 ibi tum Caecinam postulasse.third person ( v. 12) and back again Ibi is used alone in the temporal(v. 19) . — ineptire: a colloquial sense in 63. 4 , 42, 48, 76; 66, 33.word , occurring twice in Terence - iocosa: cf. Ov. Trist. II. 354( Ad. 934; Phor. 420 ), not at all in uita uerecunda est, Musa ' iocosa Plautus, nor in any classical writer after Catullus. 9. impotens: if the emendation 2. perisse perditum: cf. Plaut. impotens noli be correct, the ad Trin . 1026 quin tu quod periit jective must mean 'weakling,' the periisse ducis prey to his own passions; differ 3. candidi soles: days of good ent from its meaning in 4. 18 and fortune and happiness; cf. Hor. 35. 12. Carm . IV. 5. 7 gratior it dies et 10. nec quae fugit sectare: cf. soles melius nitent; and the oppo- Theocr. 11. 75 τί τον φεύγοντα διώ site figure in Sat. I. 9. 72 huncine KELS; which passage Catullus may solem tam nigrum surrexe mihi! have had in mind, though in Theoc 4. cum uentitabas, etc.: not of ritus the words retain more of their a definite place, as into the house literal meaning.of Allius (cf. 68. 68), but in gen- 11. perfer, obdura: cf. Ov. eral, when you were submitting to Trist. V. 11. 7 perfer et obdura;her rule and guidance. Hor. Sat. II. 5. 39 persta atque ob5. amata nobis, etc.: cf. 37. 12 dura . The asyndeton adds to the and 87. 1 , 2 for the same expres- tone of rugged determination.sion of his love for Lesbia , and 14. rogaberis: as in v. 13, with for similar comparisons of affec- out the accusative of the thing detion, 3. 5 n.sired. - nulla: a somewhat collo .6. ibitum: temporal, contrasted quial and emphatic use for non; of with v. 9 nunc iam; cf. Plaut. Curc. 17. 20; Plaut. Asin . 408 is nullus 648 tum ibi nescio quis me arripit; uenit; Mil. Glor. 786 nam cor nonrenable to control his hassilas in GCATULLUS. 1915You wicked witch! 4. 3.13 H.Scelesta, uae te! quae tibi manet uita!Quis nunc te adibit? cui uideberis bella?Quem nunc amabis? cuius esse diceris?Quem basiabis? cui labella mordebis? At tu, Catulle, destinatus obdura.9.Verani, omnibus e meis amicisAntistans mihi milibus trecentis,labris notam; Tib. 1. 6. 14 quemfacit impresso mutua dente Venus.19. As the verses that contain thehistory of the past were closed by the refrain in v. 8 which repeatedthe opening in v. 3, so those that declare the purpose of the future close with the refrain in v. 19 inrepetition of the opening in v. II .destinatus: the word first oc curs here in the sense of obstinatus;it gives, as compared with obstinata of the corresponding v. 11 , the same slight varietythat is secured in vv . 3and 8 by the change from quondam to uere. A similar effort after variety can be observed in other passages;cf. proponis and promittere in 109.stir's to itpotest quod nulla habet ( i.e. be cause she has none ); Ter. Hec.79 si non quaeret, nullus dixeris;Cic. Verr. II. 2. 43 hereditas ea ,quae nulla debetur.15. scelesta: Catullus fans his anger and waxes more indignantly reproachful, and yet so immediately runs into the details of past happi ness that in spite of his uale, puella he almost seems to be wishing to tempt Lesbia back to himself. Ob serve also from the rhetorical ques.tions that he has yet no notion that Lesbia's coldness to himself is con nected with other intrigues.te: though the dative is commonly used in connection with uae ( cf. 64.196 n. uae miserae ), yet the accusa tive of exclamation is sometimesfound; cf. Plaut. Asin. 481 uae te;Sen. Apocol. 4 uae me. - tibi manet: i.e. will from now on continueto be yours ( cf. 61. 229; 76. 5 );while te manet would mean willcome upon you in the future ' ( cf. Prop. III. 28. 58 mors sua quemquemanet).17. cuius esse diceris, who will call you his own?18. cui labella mordebis: cf. Plaut. Pseud. 67 teneris labellis mol les morsiunculae; Hor. Carm . 1 .13. 12 impressit memorem dente- uaeI and 3.9. An expression of joy over the return of Veranius from Spain. On the date of composition and the personality of Veranius, see Intr.68, 69. With the poem, cf. Hor.Carm . II. 7 on the safe return to Italy of Pompeius. – Metre, Pha laecean.1-2. omnibus, etc.: i.e. whoalone of all my friends art dearer to me than all the rest put together,however many they be. The abla tive phrase is used in its ordinary partitive sense, modifying the voca tive directly, while milibus depends20 CATULLUS. [ 9.305Venistine domum ad tuos penatesFratresque unanimos anumque matrem?Venisti! o mihi nuntii beati!Visam te incolumem audiamque HiberumNarrantem loca, facta, nationes,Vt mos est tuus, applicansque collumIucundum os oculosque sauiabor.O, quantum est hominum beatiorum,Quid me laetius est beatiusue?10upon antistans, amicis being read ily supplied from the partitive phrase. — mihi, in my feeling. -milibus trecentis: two numerals commonly used independently of indefinite multitude ( for milia see 5. 7 ff.; 35. 8, etc.; for trecenti, ii .18; 12. 10; 29. 14) are here com bined for additional emphasis, as in 48. 3; cf. also 95. 3 milia quin genta .4. unanimos: the word occurs in Plautus only once ( Stich. 729 ) ,but was apparently a favorite with Catullus, occurring thrice ( 9. 4; 30.1; 66. 80 ), though it is not used by Horace, the elegiasts, or Martial. Vergil, however, employs it thrice.- anum: cf. the adjectival use also in 68. 46; 786. 4. Plautus uses the word as an adjective only once, but the elegiasts and later prose writers more frequently,5. nuntii: plural, though of asingle message; cf. also the neuter plural in 63. 75.6. Hiberum: possibly used as a general term for Spaniards,but more likely indicating that Veranius had been in the nearerprovince.7. loca, facta, nationes: the country, its history, and the tribeswhich inhabit it.8. ut mos est tuus: as this wasnot the last, so perhaps it was notthe first time that Veranius had vis ited foreign shores, and he appar.ently had some reputation among his friends as a raconteur. - appli cans collum: i.e. pulling your face toward mine, with arm around the neck.9. os oculosque sauiabor: the union of the two nouns is common;cf. Cic . Phil. 8. 7. 20 ante os oculos que legatorum; Verg. Aen. VIII.152 ille os oculosque loquentis lustra bat lumine; also the English saying,before my very face and eyes. On the kissing of the eyes, cf. 45. 11 12; 48. 1-2; ( Q.) Cic. Fam . XVI.27. 2 tuos oculos dissauiabor .10. o: the interjection is used,not with the quantum -clause as avocative, but with the exclamatory clause following; cf. 31.7. With asimilar triumphant appeal are closed 9 and 107, and with an indignant appeal, 29, 47, 52, and 60. - quan tum, etc.: a partitive clause modi fying quid; cf. Plaut. Capt. 835 0mihi quantumst hominum optumo rum optume; and similar passages cited in 1. 8 n . quidquid hoc libelli.II . quid, etc.: the neuter is not very rare in Latin in similar sweep ing appeals. With the general ex pression , cf. 107. 7; Ter. Eun.103! ecquis me hodie uiuit fortu .natior?

. 10.8]giCATULLUS.

  • scortium of. com un

10.acute{: ༠ ན ན ༣ ཆུ་Varus me meus ad suos amoresVisum duxerat ē foro otiosum,Scortillum , ut mihi tunc repentě uisum (est,Non sānte inlepidum neque) inuenustum.Hūc ut uēnimus, incidere nobis Sermõnēs uarii, in quibus, quid esset Iam Bithynia, quo modo se haberet,Ecquonam mihi profuisset aere.bonis channVenus allure '12.42025 venia--amo10. Catullus tells at his own expense how neatly he was shown up when attempting to put on airs about his supposedwealth acquired in Bithynia, whither he went in 57 B.c. in the retinue of the governor Memmius (see Intr. 29 ff. ). Asmight be expected, the forms of expression are thoroughly collo quial. —Date ofcomposition, about 56 B.C. Metre, Phalaecean.1. Varus: cf. Intr. 66. -res: cf. 6. 16 n.3. scortillum: άπαξ λεγόμενον.- repente, at first sight. He pro fesses to have changed his opinion later (see v. 33).4. Cf. similar phrases in 6. 2 and 36. 17 . 6-8. The three particular ques.tions are given in a conversational asyndeton. The first concerns the general character of the province,and is carried on with specification ( cf. 2. 8 n. ) by the second, which concerns its particular condition,and by the third, which narrows the discussion down to the real point of interest, the influence of the prov ince upon the purse of Catullus.6. quid esset iam Bithynia ,what sort of a place Bithynia is nowadays. Cf. Hor. Ep. I. II . 7scis Lebedus quid sit; Gell. IV, 1.12 hoc enim quis homo sit ostendere est, non, quid homo sit dicere.7. iam: not that the questioners had any precise knowledge of, or interest in , the past history of Bithynia,but only that the news at hand is from a freshly returned traveler.Bithynia: the country was be queathed to the Romans by Nico medes III . in 74 B.C. , and organizedas a province. Western Pontus was added to it in 65 B.C. , on the over throw of Mithradates by Pompey.The united province was governed by propraetors till 27 B.C., when it was placed in the list of senatorial provinces, where it remained till the time of Trajan. Under the republicit could in no wise compare in im portance with the neighboring prov.ince of Asia, being but thinly settled in the interior, and having only ascanty fringe of Greek culture along the coast. -quo modo se habe ret, how it is getting on. Cf. Ter.Phor. 820 ut meae res sese habent;Cic . Att. XIII. 35. 2 scire aueo quo modo res se habeat; Tac. Ann. XIV.51 ego me bene habeo.8. ecquonam, etc. , whether 1had made any money out of it Ecquis with an enclitic -nam ty both Plautine and Ciceronian; cf. also 28. 6. The question is a coma.222 CATULLUS. [ 10.910intRespondi id quod erat, nihil neque ipsisNec praetoribus esse nec cohorti,Cur quisquam caput unctius referret,Praesertim quibus esset irrůmator . 28.10 . , 16.1Praetor nec faceret pili cohortem .• At certe tamen ' inquiunt, ' quod illic but ruma' -13) Natum dicitur esse comparasti,Ad lecticam homines.' Ego, ut puellaemon bant,hert 2 , '..Larpepiasema rumen6' tia 15as a cause .mentary on the frequent character of Roman provincial administration .9. nihil neque ipsis, etc.: the three classes mentioned are the in habitants themselves ( ipsis ), the governors (praetoribus ), and the governor's staff ( cohorti), and the order is that of logical emphasis:not even the inhabitants have any thing; how then can governors, to say nothing of staff, ever get anything?ni. cur, etc.: the indirect ques tion depends upon nihil regarded -caput unctius refer ret: i.e. be rolling in wealth on his return; a colloquial figure de rived from the expensiveness of fine ointments, which, therefore,only the rich could use; cf. 6.8 n .; Plaut. Pseud. 219 numqui quoipiamst tuorum tua opera hodie conseruorum nitidiusculum caput?Cic. Verr. II . 2. 22. 54 ita palaes tritas defendebat ut ab illis ipse unc tior abiret; and an extension of the same figure in 29. 22 uncta pa trimonia. With the comparativeunctius sc. than those of men in general '; cf. 3. 2 n. uenustiorum;9. 10 beatiorum .12. quibus: with oblique refer ence to quisquam, as though apartitive eorum had preceded.irrumator, a scurvy fellow; the word, like many others of similar antecedents, has come to be usednot always in a literal sense , but as a mere term of abuse; cf. v. 24; 28.9, 10; Intr. 32.13. faceret pili: cf. 5. 3 n.14. at: i.e. in spite of the gen .eral poverty of the province, -challenging the sweeping character of the preceding statement.15. natum: if Catullus means that the custom of riding in a litter originated in Bithynia, he tells us what we learn from no other source,for the grammarian Probus, in making a similar statement, prob ably borrowed it from him; butthe custom was common there;cf. Cic. Verr. II. 5. II . 27 ut mos fuit Bithyniae regibus, lectica octaphoro ferebatur. Cappadocians and Syrians, men of proverbially great stature and strength, are often mentioned as litter-bearers, as are less frequently Thracians, Liburni ans and Moesians (Juv. ) , and in later days Gauls (Clem . Alek .) and Ger mans ( Tertull.); cf. Mart. VI. 77. 4quid te Cappadocum sex onus esse iuuat? Juv. 6. 351 quae longorum uehitur ceruice Syrorum .16. lecticam: a covered litter,borne on the shoulders of slaves ( lecticarii ), and used in Rome at first by women and children, but later by men also, as a vehicle in the city (where carriages were not allowed) , and for short journeys into the country.-10 . 26 )CATULLUS.2320Vnum me facerem beatiorem ,Non ' inquam, mihi tam fuit maligne,Vt, prouincia quod mala incidisset,Non possem octo homines parare rectos. 'At mi nullus erat neque hic neque illicFractum qui ueteris pedem grabatiIn collo sibi conlocare posset.Hic illa, ut decuit cinaediorem,Quaeso ' inquit, mihi, mi Catulle, paulumIstos commoda: nam uolo ad Sarapim25-moSexo117. unum beatiorem , the one nan whowas blest above his fellows;or Catullus had said (vv. 9-13)that no staff -- and especially not chat of which he was a member made anything out of the province;cf. 37. 17 une. me facerem , pass myself off as; cf. Cic. Flac. 20. 46 cum uerbis se locupletem faceret.18. mihi fuit maligne: cf. male esse with the dative of the person in14. 10; 38. 1 .20. homines rectos, straight backed fellows( as lecticarii). Eight appears to have been the maximum number of carriers, while six was common; cf. the citations fromCicero and Martial on v. 15, and Martial often .21-23. A confidential aside of the poet to the reader. — at mi nullus, etc.: i.e. but I hadn't, and never had had, a single one. —- hic:¿.e. in Rome now. -- illic: i.e. in Bithynia then. grabati: (Gr.κράββατος ) a Macedonian word fora bedstead. It is sometimes men tioned as a possession of poverty,and such seems to be the ideahere; cf. Cic. Diuin. II . 63. 129 utrum sit probabilius deosne im mortalis concursare circum om.nium mortalium qui ubique sunt non modo lectos uerum etiam gra .batos, etc.; Sen. Ep. 20 . 10 leue argumentum est bonae uoluntatisgrabatus aut pannus, nisi apparuit aliquem illa non necessitate pati sed malle. And here not only is thecouch a miserable thing to start with, but old and broken as well.No rich lectica had Catullus, -onlya wretched bedstead as the nearestapproach to it, - and no slave at all, far less eight.the24. ut decuit cinaediorem , like as saucy jade she was; cf. v . 12 n . the chumbaThe girl saw through the trick of Catullus ( perhaps he intended she should), and took this witty way of flirt compelling him to acknowledge himself a pretender.26. commoda: with the short final a, cf. Plaut. Cist. 573 com .moda loquelam tuam (at the be ginning of a trochaic septenarius);so also more commonly in collo quial usage such pyrrhic impera .tives as ama, puta , roga , etc. Sarapim: an Egyptian deity, ap parently at first identical with Osi.ris, and often later connected in worship with Isis. From Alexan.dria, where the great Sarapeum stood, the cult spread through Greece and Italy, reaching Rome perhaps as early as the time of Sulla , though it met there with

24 CATULLUS. ( 10. 2730Deferri .' • Mane, ' inquii puellae,Istud quod modo dixeram , me habere,Fugit me ratio: meus sodalisCinna est Gaius; is sibi parauit.Verum, utrum illius an mei, quid ad me?Vtor tam bene quam mihi pararim .Sed tu insulsa male et molesta uiuis,Per quam non licet esse neglegentem .'(salsus)strand slipol bus trinque3es.great opposition, and did not attain subject has become painfully em its height till the end of the first barrassing to the speaker.century after Christ. In 58 B.C. , 29. fugit me ratio , I did notonly about two years before this think; a colloquialism; cf. Plaut.poem was written, the worship of Amph. 385 scibam equidem nullum the Egyptian divinities had been esse nobis nisi me seruum Sosiam;banished without the city walls. fugit te ratio; Auctor ad Herenn.Upon the Campus Martius, how- II. 25. 40 in mentem mihi si uenis ever, Isis and Sarapis found a rest- set, hoc aut hoc fecissem; sed me tum ing - place, and their temples were haec ratio fugit: but fugere is more much frequented by the lower class- common in phrases of similar mean Courtesans especially flocked ing, either absolutely or with other to Isis, and invalids to Sarapis, subjects than ratio; cf. 12. 4 fugitte.whose priests were reputed to have 30. Cinna Gaius: i.e. C. Hel wondrous powers of healing. But vius Cinna, on whom see Intr. 63.Sarapis may stand here for both The reversal of the formal order ofdivinities, and there is no need to nomen and cognomen is common suppose the girl was ill because of enough in Latin, but the following her professed destination or of her here of the praenomen , added hastily request for the use of a lectica. The after the familiar cognomen , indicatesspelling Sarapis instead of Serapis the embarrassment of the well supported by inscriptions 31. quid ad me: sc. attinet; cf. and by Greek usage. Cic. Att. XII. 17 uelim appelles pro 27. mane, hold on there; not so curatores, si tibi uidetur; quanfast. On the hiatus in arsis ( with quam quid ad me? Mart. XII. 30.shortening of the final vowel, as i sobrius est Aper; quid ad me?always in Catullus) see Intr. 86 d . 32. quam mihi pararim: i.e. 28. istud: an accusative of speci. quam si mihi eos parauerim; cf. fication, with which me habere is the ordinary comparative clauses in apposition. Cicero in his letters introduced by tamquam without si.generally uses a quod -clause with- 33-34. Catullus has been stam.out antecedent in such construc- mering out his lame explanationtions. Note that not only with with increasing embarrassment, andhabere, but each case below now detects, possibly by the ill-con .( parauit, illius an mei, utor, para- cealed merriment of his auditors,rim ) the word definitely indicating that the whole thing was a joke atthe lecticariï is omitted, since the his expense; hence the sudden11.6 ] CATULLUS. 231. addregezes2. against(15-24)3. who is amalla és?4. cricumstances?5. mandan nasl, cometeoII .hot his freundef7. metin - ch.51b 16,23,24 Furi et Aureli, "comites Catulli,Siue in extremos penetrabit Indos,Litus ut longe resonante EoaTunditur unda,5 Siue in Hyrcanos Arabasue molles,Seu Sacas sagittiferosue Parthos,- .Ep. I. 1. 45 impiger extremos curs ris mercator ad Indos; Prop. II . 929 quid si longinquos retinerer miles ad Indos; Stat. Silu . III. 2.91 uel ad ignotos ibam comes impi.ser Indos.6change to humorous petulance with which he closes. —male: the wordhas a detractive force which neu tralizes, like a negative, words of goud signification ( cf. 16. 13 male marem , ' no man at all ’; Ov. Trist.I. 6. 13 male fidus, ' faithless '), and emphasizes words of bad signification , as here; cf. 14. 5; Ter. Hec. 337 male metuo, “ I'm horribly afraid ';Hor. Sat. I. 4. 66 rauci male, ' out rageously hoarse' ( with similar anas trophe to that here ) . — uiuis: with almost the bare sense of es; cf.Plaut. Men . 908 ne ego homo uiuo miser ( cf. 8. 10 nec miser uiue);Tib. II. 6. 53 satis anxia uiuas;and similarly Tac. Ann. IV. 58. 4ceterorum nescii egere.11. A final answer to a proffer of reconciliation from Lesbia, and an offer of service from Furius andAurelius; see Intr. 41.— Date, the end of 55, or beginning of 54 B.C. ( cf. v. 11 ). Metre, lesser Sapphic .1. comites: the technical wordfor members of the cohors of a provincial governor; cf. 28. 1; 46. 9;as Catullus may now hope to be acomes of Caesar, Furius and Aureliushave offered to be his humble and useful friends, that they may profit by his good fortune, and Catullus ironically terms them his comites.2. With vv . 2-12 cf. Hor. Carm .I. 22. 5–8; II . 6. 1-4; Epod . 1. 11 14. - extremos Indos: cf. Hor.3. ut: the rare locative use; cf. 17. 10; Plaut.' Bacch . 815 in eopse astas lapide , ut praeco praedicat;Verg. Aen. V. 329 labitur ut forte [ sanguis] humum super madefece rat, —- longe resonante, far -echo ing: Eoa unda: i.e. the all encircling ocean -stream at the ex treme East; cf. Ov. Fast. VI. 474uigil Eois lucifer éxit aquis; Tib.IV. 2. 20 proximus Eois Indus aquis; Verg. Geor. II . 122 quos Oceano propior gerit India lucos.5. Hyrcanos: a people dwelling by the southern end of the Caspian Sea (Mare Hyrcanum ), joined by Vergil with the Arabians and Indi ans as distant enemies of Rome;cf. Aen. VII. 605 [siue bellum ]Hyrcanis Arabisue parant seu ten dere ad Indos. - Arabas molles:so called from their proverbial riches and luxury; cf. Verg. Geor. I. 57 molles sua tura Sabaei (mittunt ];Tib. II. 2. 3 urantur odores quostener mittit Arabs.6. Sacas: a nomadic people,called Scythians by the Greeks,dwelling far to the north - east of Parthia and Bactria; cf. Plin. N. H. VI. 17. 50 celeberrimi corum [ Scy.was overRichardson (ep sa, iz - ict [1963 ) engines that co - 13 will hand thenwhen written at any time after lossn's first companiqros ( 58 6.6.); leffair C.Sauget 26 CATULLUS. (11.7 Commission with Mermins. Descaseswhat ench Turentries , Aunting & Farins .Siue quae septemgeminus coloratAequora Nilus,Siue trans altas gradietur AlpesCaesaris uisens monimenta magni,Gallicum Rhenum, horribile aequor, ultimosque Britannos,Omnia haec, quaecumque feret uoluntasCaelitum, temptare simul parati, "13 Pauca nuntiate meae puellaeNon bona dicta.Іо.tharum ] Sacae, etc. —sagittiferos 11. Gallicum: the Rhine is so Parthos: with reference, as very styled since it was the boundary of often in Latin literature, to the tra- Caesar's great conquests, and not ditional weapon and manner of fight- with reference to his passage of the ing of these most dreaded enemies river from Gaul into Germany ( cf. of Rome; cf. Hor. Carm . II. 13. 17 Caes. B. G. IV. 16 ff.). -horribile miles ( timel] sagittas et celerem fui aequor: the proverbially rough gam Parthi; Ov. Rem . Am. 157 English channel. — ultimos: cf. 29.uince Cupidineas pariter Parthas- 4, 12; Hor. Carm . I. 35. 29 serues que sagittas; Stat. Theb. VI. 575 iturum Caesarem in ultimos orbis [credas] Parthorum fuga totidem Britannos; Verg. Ecl. 1. 66 penitus exsiluisse sagittas. toto diuisos orbe Britannos. The 7. septemgeminus: as having preliminary invasion of Britain took seven mouths; cf. Verg. Aen. VI. place in the late summer of 55 B.C. 800 septemgemini ostiaNili; Ov. 13–16. Apparently Furius and Met. I. 422 ubi deseruit madidos Aurelius, at the suggestion of Les septemfluus agros Nilus; V. 187 bia, tendered their services in bring genitum septemplice Nilo. — colo- ing about a reconciliation with her;rat aequora: by its muddy waters, but Catullus thoroughly despises which, in their overflow, still fertil- them for their actions in the past ize the fields of Egypt; cf. Verg. (cf. Intr. 37) , and employs them as Geor. IV. 291 [ Nilus] uiridem comites on only one, and that aAegyptum nigra fecundat harena. final, errand, — to convey to Lesbia 10. In this and the two following his decision against her appeal.verses is a trace of the reconcilia 15. meae puellae: in half- scorn .tion of Catullus to Caesar; cf. Intr. ful, half-mournful reminiscence of 38 ff. The poet could not yet such passages as 2. i and 3. 3; cf. sing Caesar's praises unreservedly, the tone of58. Possibly Lesbia in though he might have done so had this appeal had called herself by the he lived longer; but he has already endearing name that her lover used yielded from his earlier position of un- to apply to her.mixed censure.— monimenta: the 16. non bona dicta: the clearly.places mentioned are themselves the worded and stinging, but controlled reminders of Caesar's greatness. bitterness of his reply carries the

-12. 3]CATULLUS.20Cum suis uiuat ualeatque moechis,Quos simul complexa tenet trecentos,Nullum amans uere, sed identidem omniumIlia rumpens;Nec meum respectet, ut ante, amorem,Qui illius culpa cecidit uelut prati Vltimi flos, praetereunte postquamTactus aratro est.12.Marrūcīne) Asinī, manū sinistrāNon belle) ūteris in ioco atque uino:Tollis lintea neglegentiorum .eat the symbosiumexpression of unalterable determina- reus ueluti cum flos succisus aratrotion that is in marked contrast to languescit moriens, though Catullusthe tone of 8. secures greater delicacy of expres.17. uiuat ualeatque: a decisive sion by introducing ultimi prati,atterance of farewell; cf. Hor. Ep. and by using tactus instead of suc 1. 6. 66 uiuas in amore iocisque; cisus.uiue, uale . 12. On Asinius Marrucinus, a few ofbels d.Adriater18. tenet, holds in thrall; cf. 55. napkin -thief, concerning whom see 17; Verg. Ecl. 1. 31 me Galatea Intr. 58. For the theme cf. 25 , and tenebat; Mart. XI. 40. I formosam the well -known epigrams on Her.Glyceram Lupercus solus tenet. mogenes, Mart. XII . 29, and on an trecentos: colloquially used of unnamed thief, VIII. 59. — On the indefinite multitude; cf. 9. 2 n.; date of composition, see vv. 9 n.Plaut. Mil, Glor. 250 trecentae pos- and 15 n . Metre, Phalaecean .sunt causae colligi (but Trin. 791 1. sinistra: as the right hand sescentae causae possunt colligi); was given token of friendship,Hor. Sat. I. 5. 12 trecentos inseris! the left was proverbially the one End often elsewhere. devoted to theft; cf. Plaut. Pers.21. respectet: i.e. hope to win 227 illa altera furtifica laeua;back; cf. Cic. Planc. 18.45 ne parab Ov. Met. XIII. i ( nec clipeus]iis munus in sua petitione respectent. conueniet natae ad furta sinistrae:ut ante: i.e. at the time men- the word occurs in 47. I in the fig.tioned in 107 and 36. 4, following urative sense of accomplices' in upon the break that prompted 8. thieving.22. uelut, etc.: love then lan. 2. in ioco atque uino: cf. 50.guished only, but is now dead and 6; 13. 5.cannot be recalled to life; with the 3. lintea: no clear line seems to figure, cf. Verg. Aen. IX. 433 purpu- have been drawn between handker.628 CATULLUS. [12.4Hoc salsum ) esse putas? Fugit te, ineptě!5 Quamuis sordida rēs et inuenusta (dst.Non credis mihi? Crēde PollioniFrātrī, qui tua furta uel talentoMūtārī uelit; est enim leporumDisertus puer ac facētiārum .Quarte) aut hendecasyllabās trecentosExspecta, aut mihi linteum remitte,Quod mē non mouet aestimātione,laibas10but Romanceshowstrigood tastenem .chiefs, napkins, and even towels, for 9. disertus: i.e. Pollio has the lintea, mantelia, mappae, and suda- feelings and training of a gentle ria are used indiscriminately of all man; for disertus implying, as here,these articles. Sometimes the map- distinctness of mental vision rather pae are mentioned as a part of the than of speech , see Ter. Eun. 1009 regular table-furnishing ( cf. Varr. L. numquam pol hominem stultiorem L. IX. 47; Hor. Sat. II. 4. 81 ) , and uidi nec uidebo; at etiam primo sometimes each guest provides his callidum et disertum credidi homi own, as here , and in Mart. XII. 29. puer: frequently used someII attulerat mappam nemo, dum what loosely of a young man , asfurta timentur. puella is of a young woman; cf. 45.4. fugit te, that's where you're II; 62. 47; 78. 4; Hor. Carm . İ.wrong; cf. 10. 29 n . – inepte, 5. I quis te puer urget, Pyrrha?dunce, since you apparently think Cic . Phil. 4. I. 3 nomen clarissimi this business funny; cf. 25. 8 n ., adulescentis, uel pueri potius (of where the same word is used with Octavianus at the age of 19); Sil.slightly different application to char- Ital . XV. 33 non digne puer (of Sci acterize a similar thief of clothing. pio at the age of 20); cf. also 63.5. quamuis, utterly; used by 63 n. As Pollio was born in 75 B.C.,Catullus in this sense only here; he might have been called puer up but cf. Plaut. Pseud. 1175 qua- to the end of Catullus's life; butmuis pernix hic homost, and else- the date of this poem is estab where. lished within narrower limits by 6. Pollioni fratri: see Intr. 57. vv. I4 ff.7. talento: of an indefinitely 10. hendecasyllabos: iambicslarge sum of money; cf. Plaut. like those of Archilochus were theEpid. 701 in meum nummum, in traditional weapons of satire; cf. 36.tuom talentum , pignus da . 5; 40. 2 n.; 54.6; but Catullus used8. mutari uelit: as if it were a hendecasyllables for the same pur business transaction; Pollio is so pose, as in 42; yet cf. Plin. Ep. v. chagrined at your conduct that he trecentos: cf. 9. 2 n.; II.would give a talent to change the facts. — leporum ac facetiarum: 12. non aestimatione, etc.: i.e. cf. the union of the same or similar the associations, and not the in words in one expression in 50. 7, trinsic worth, of the napkin make 8; 16. 7. it valuable .10. 2.18 n.13.4]CATULLUS. 2915Vērum ( est mnēmosynum mei sodālis.Nam sūdāria Saetaba) ex HibērisMiserunt mihi muneri FăbullusEt Verānius: haec amem necesse estEt Verāniolum meum ) et Fabullum.ver?faba bean ' catilinecatulus feralo slatu cathus13 lato clean (catus)Truthnee Tutt cies?Cenabis bene, mi Fabulle, apud mePaucis, si tibi di fauent, diebus,Si tecum attuleris bonam atque magnamCenam, non sine candida puella memento13. mnemosynum: a Greekword, used only here for the pure Latin monimentum , as in Verg.Aen. V. 536 cratera quem Anchisae Cisseus sui dederat monimentum .mei sodalis: the singular isused since the two friends, Veranius and Fabullus, are identified in the affections of Catullus; note also how in vv. 15-17 all expression of preference is avoided by reversal ofthe order of two names, and by the reduction of Veranius to the diminutive form to correspond with Fa bullus ( cf. Intr. 68; 28. 3 n. ) .14. sudaria Saetaba: cf. 25. 7;Saetabis ( now Jativa) was a city of Tarraconensis near the easterncoast of Spain, and was noted forits manufacture of flax; cf. Flin .N. H. XIX. 9.15. miserunt: not far from 60 B.C. ( cf. 9, and Intr. 68, 69) , within acomparatively short time after which year, this poem, then, was probably written.13. To Fabullus, an invitation to a dinner, where the guest is,however, to furnish the meal him self. Perhaps the dinner was to celebrate the return of Fabullusfrom Spain with Veranius; cf. 9and Intr. 68, 69. - On the date of composition see v. Ii n . Metre,Phalaecean .1. cenabis: to add to the humor.ous effect of what follows, the first two verses of invitation are phrased in a tone of lofty condescension,almost as if Catullus were confer .ring a munificent boon upon ahumble friend. The verse is imitated in Mart. XI. 52. I cenabis belle, Iuli Cerealis, apud me. 2. The tone of dignity and con descension is kept up by the absurd twist of the modest phrase si mihi di fauent, and the effect is aug mented by the extreme indefinite ness of the time set. Catullus hasnot quite yet determined the impor tant question when he will offer his Barmecide feast. But some criticsunderstand paucis diebus to imply that Fabullus is not yet in the city,and the time of his arrival is uncer ,tain.3. bonam atque magnam ce.nam: i.e. a dinner of fine quality and many courses.4. candida puella: i.e. a psal tria , as in the invitation of Horace30 CATULLUS. [ 13.55 Et uino et sale et omnibus cachinnis.Haec si, inquam, attuleris, uenuste noster,Cenabis bene; nam tui CatulliPlenus sacculus est aranearum.Sed contra accipies meros amoresSeu quid suauius elegantiusue est:Nam unguentum dabo, quod meae puellae Donarunt Veneres Cupidinesque,Quod tu cum olfacies, deos rogabis Totum ut te faciant, Fabulle, nasumaTO82. 2, Hirpinus, Carm . II. 11. 21-24. amores: a term implying a perfec With the adjective cf. 68. 134 can- tion of charm; cf. Mart. XIV. 206.didus Cupido; 35.8 candida puella; I collo necte, puer, meros amores, 68. 70 candida diua; 86. i Quin- ceston .tia est candida; Hor. Epod. 11. 27 10. seu quid, etc.: = uel si quid,ardor puellae candidae. etc.; i.e. or if there be a term im.5. et uino, etc.: cf. 12. 2 n. — plying greater delightfulness, it is sale, wit, as in 16. 7; 86. 4. that. With the form of expres omnibus cachinnis: cf. 31. 14 sion, cf. 22. 13; 23. 13; 42. 14;quidquid est domi cachinnorum .6. uenuste: the word indicates 11. unguentum: when fine, one the possession of a certain charm of of the most expensive accompani society breeding, as in 3. 2; 22. 2. ments of feasts; cf. 6. 8 n. MartialCf. the similar vocative iucunde in (III. 12) , apparently inspired by50. 16. —noster: also used in the this poem, chides a Fabullus for fur.vocative for mi in 44. I. nishing his guests with good oint 7. cenabis bene: now that the ment, but nothing else. meaccondition has been stated, the words puellae: undoubtedly Lesbie.; cf. have a different expression from that 3. 3 n.; the lack of anything but in v. 1.- tui Catulli: cf. 14. 13 ad happy feeling in the memory indi tuum Catullum; 38. I male est, cates that this poem was written Cornifici, tuo Catullo. while the love of Catullus for Lesbia 8. plenus aranearum: denoting was still untroubled by disagreement utter abandonment and emptiness; or suspicion, therefore about 60 cf. 68. 49; Plaut. Aul. 83 nam hic apud nos nihil est aliud quaesti furi- 12. Veneres Cupidinesque: cf. bus; ita inaniis sunt oppletaeatque 3. I n.; Prop. III . 29. 17 adflabuni araneis; and more precisely Afran . tibi non Arabum de gramine odores,412 R. tamne arcula tua plena est sed quos ipse suis fecit Amor manie aranearum? R. Browning, Ring bus.and Book V. 49 when the purse he 14. Ellis quotes Ben Jonson, Cyn deft held spider -webs. thia's Revels V. 2 you would wish 9. contra, in return; cf. 76. 23 yourself all nose for the love on't (acontra ut me diligat illa . – meros perfume).B.C.14-7] CATULLUS u14.Ni te plus oculis meis amarem,Iucundissime Calue, munere istoOdissem te odio Vatiniano:Nam quid feci ego quidue sum locutus,Cur me tot male perderes poetis?Isti di mala multa dent clientiQui tantum tibi misit impiorum.5Ci was bosgining of aaite hain14. To Calvus, on a Saturnalian joke played by him upon Catullus.- It was not uncommon for poets to dedicate and send new writingsof their own to some friend as agift on the Saturnalia, or on a birthday; cf. Mart. X. 17; Stat. Silu .IV. 9 and pref.; II . 3. 62. Calvushad sent a book to Catullus, who,supposing it to be a choice bit ofnew poetry of his friend's composi tion, sat down eagerly to read it,but found, to his whimsical disgust,that it was made up of wretchedspecimens of some poetasters. On the personality of Calvus cf. Intr. 60 .The allusion in v. 3 suggests that the poem was not written till afterthe great speech of Calvus against Vatinius, recorded in 53. It can.not, therefore, be assigned to an earlier date than the year 58 B.C.,and probably was written on the Saturnalia of 56 B.C. ( cf. introduc tory note to 53) . On the Saturnalia of the year 57, Catullus was appar ently in Bithynia , and on that of 55 ,quite possibly in Verona, while this poem appears to have been written inor near Rome. - Metre, Phalaecean.1. ni te, etc.: cf. the opening verses of the address of Maecenasto Horace quoted by Suetonius Vit.Hor.: ni te uisceribusmeis, Horati,plus iam diligo, etc. — plus oculis:2. iucundissime: in about the same sense as carissime; Calvus is addressed as iucunde in 50. 16; cf. also 62. 47; 64. 215.3. odissem , etc.: i.e. I would hate you as roundly as does Vati nius. Calvus had on more than one occasion acted as the prosecutor of Vatinius; cf. introductory note to 53. With the collocation odissem odio, cf. Psalms 139. 22 I hate them with perfect hatred .5. male perderes: cf. 10. 33 n. ,and the converse in Hor. Sat. II. 1 .6 peream male.6. di mala multa dent: a fa .miliar formula of imprecation;cf. 28. 14; Plaut. Most. 643; Ter.Phor . 976 malum , quod isti di deae que omnes duint, and the prayer for blessing in Plaut. Poen. 208 multa tibi di dent bona. — clienti:under the earlier Roman feudal system, cne duty of the patronus was to act as the legal representative of the cliens; the same terms were used to denote the legalcounsel and the man for whomhe incidentally appeared; cf. Hor.Ep. II. 1. 104 clienti promere iura .7. tantum impiorum , so many scoundrels , such abominable poetsmust be men of depraved character ( but of himself in 16. 5 pium poe tam ); with the partitive expressionnow-cf. 3. 5 5. 13.38CATULLUS. [ 14. &IOQuod si , ut suspicor, hoc nouum ac repertumMunus dat tibi Sulla litterator,Non est mi male, sed bene ac beate,Quod non dispereunt tui labores.Di magni, horribilem et sacrum libellum,Quem tu scilicet ad tuum CatullumMisti, continuo ut die periret,Saturnalibus, optimo dierum! 15But the pro8. nouum ac repertum , newly discovered, for surely no one but aschoclmaster ( litterator) would ever think ofpayingthe honorarium of his legal counsel with books; but Sulla evidently thought he had found a kin dred spirit in the poet-lawyer Calvus.9. munus: the relation between lawyer and client was still construed to be that between the patronus and cliens of the earlier social system.Hence, as the patronus was bound to defend the cliens before the courts without the exaction of a special con tribution of money from him, so the lawyer was still forbidden to accept a fee from his client.hibition was usually evaded under the guise of gifts and legacies. —Sulla litterator: of this school.master nothing further is known.10. est mimale: cf. 38. 1; 3.13 n . -- bene ac beate: with thealliterative coupling cf. 23. 15 bene ac beate; 37. 14 boni beatique; so Cicero often, especially with an ethi cal meaning ( = καλώς κάγαθώς) .II . non dispereunt,etc.: school masters were proverbially poverty stricken (cf. of a later date Juv. 7.203 ff.), and Calvus was lucky to get from Sulla even so much in re turn for his legal services.12. di magni: the same words are used as an exclamation in 53. 5also, but as a true invocation in 109.3. —sacrum , accursed, as in 71. I.14. misti: formisisti; cf. 66. 21 luxti; 66. 30 tristi; 77: 3 subrep sti; 91. 9 duxti; 99. 8 abstersti;110. 3 promisti. — continuo die,on the very next day; cf. Ov. Fast.V. 733 auferet ex oculis ueniens Aurora Booten, continuaque die sidus Hyantis erit; VI . 719 tollet humo ualidos proles Hyriea lacertos,continua Delphin nocte uidendus erit. continuo cannot be, as somesuggest, an adverb, —if for no other reason, because die Saturnali bus alone is not Latin. The passage from Plaut. Poen . 497 die bono Aphrodisiis, is not in point, for die is there modified by an adjective. But the arrangement heremakes improbable the direct modi fication of die by optimo and dierum .Calvus had evidently despatched thebook the evening before, so that it might reach Catullus the first thing next morning.15. Saturnalibus: a very ancient Latin festival, in commemoration of the golden age when Saturn dwelt among men. The especial day of the festival was Dec. 17 of each year, but the celebration was by popular usage extended over the week following. Presents were ex changed between friends, slaves were temporarily treated as if equals of their masters ( cf. Hor. Sat. II .7) , and the utmost freedom and jor lity prevailed..14. 23 ]CATULLUS.33Non, non hoc tibi, false, sic abibit:Nam, si luxerit, ad librariorumCurram scrinia, Caesios, Aquinos,Suffenum , omnia colligam uenena,Ac te his suppliciis remunerabor.Vos hinc interea ualete, abite Illuc unde malum pedem attulistis,Saecli incommoda, pessimi poetae.20sons .16. non, non: with this emphatic standing on end. - Caesios, Aqui repetition , cf. Ter. Phor. 303 non, nos: the plural denotes such poets non sic futurum est, non potest! as those mentioned. The change Prop. II. 3. 27 non, non humani to the singular in Suffenum ( v. 19 )partus sunt talia bona.-- non tibi is but for variety, or perhaps because sic abibit, you shall not get off so Suffenus personally was an object of casily; cf. Ter. And. 175 mirabar greater attention to Catullus ( see hoc si sic abiret; Cic. Att. XIV. 1. I 22) . Caesius is otherwise unknown;non posse istaec sic abire. — false: Aquinus only through Cic. Tusc. V. keeping up the tone of humorously 63 adhuc nemineni cognoui poetam simulated indignation; the emenda- ( et mihifuit cum Aquino amicitia )tion to salse misses the point. qui sibi non optimus uideretur.17. si luxerit, as soon as the mor- 19. omnia uenena: i.e. everyrow dawns; the conditional form thing that exists in the line of poipoints the restless impatience that can almost believe the morrow will 21. uos interea, while as fornever come. The day is spoiled for you, i.e. not to make you wait too Catullus; but he must drag along a long for my commands while I amwretched existence throughthe tedi- busying myself with other matters;ous hours till next morning, when cf. 36. 18; 101.7 n. —ualete abite:the shops of the booksellers will be asyndetic, as in Hor. Ep. I. 6. 67 opened once more, and he can take uiue uale. With this dismissal ofrevenge in kind. — librariorum: worthless literature cf. Verg. Catal.generally used throughout this and 7. I ite hinc, inanes, ite, rhetorum the Augustan period of a mere copy- ampullae, inflata rore non Achaico ist ( scriba; cf. Hor. A. P. 354 scrip- uerba .tor si peccat idem librarius usque), 22, illuc: i.e. in malam rem, asbut here of a copyist who is also a is made clear by the common formbookseller; in later Latin it is used of objurgation in the comedians. -of a true bookseller ( bibliopola ), malum pedem: with a play uponwho, however, usually employed a the meaning of pedem; cf. Ov. Trist.staff ofcopyists; cf. Sen. Ben . VII. I. 1. 16 uade, liber, uerbisque meis 6. I libros dicimus esse Ciceronis; loca grata saluta; contingam certeeosdem librarius suos uocat. quo licet illa pede. — attulistis: cf. 18. scrinia: cylindrical boxes 63. 52 n . tetuli pedem .provided with a cover and used to 23. saecli incommoda: pre hold cach a number of MS. rolls eminent types of boredom.vergel34CATULLUS. ( 14 .146.Si qui forte mearum ineptiarum Lectores eritis manusque uestrasNon horrebitis admouere nobis,15Commendo tibi me ac meos amores,Aureli. Veniam peto pudentem ,arum.SC .14b. This fragment is so brief reuoluant nostrarum tineas inepti.that it is almost impossible to deter mine its original character, though 2. manus admouere: utit is probably a modest and grateful uolumen reuoluatis; with friendly ,recognition of attention at the hands not hostile intent; cf. Ov. Met. X. of the public. By different critics it 254 manus operi admouet.has been taken to be: the protasis 3. non horrebitis, shall not dis to which 2. II - 13 is the apodosis, the dain; cf. Hor. Ep. I. 18. 24 quem whole thus forming a second, and diues amicus odit et horret. Others, general, introductory poem, while i who believe that 146 is really the is a special one; a fragment of the first three verses of 16, thus strangely prologue to a libellus comprising 15- misplaced, would understand these 60, while I is the prologue to the words to mean shall have the im libellus comprising 2-14; a fragment pudence. ” ofthe original epilogue to the libellus 15. To Aurelius, entrusting to 2–14, while I is a prologue written his care a young boy, a favorite of expressly for the extant liber. Other the poet. Evidently a poem of the less plausible theories have also Juventius cycle, which comprises found supporters. But as it seems also, directly or indirectly, 16 (?) ,more likely that the existing liber 21, 23, 24, 26, 40 (? ) , 48, 81, 99; Catulli is a rearranged complex of all of these poems are probably to earlier libelli of undeterminable con- be attributed to the later period of tent, and was published by an un- the residence of Catullus in Romeknown editor after the death of the (56–54 B.C.); see Intr. 37. — Metre, author, it is quite possible that this Phalaecean . scrap was found among his papers 1. commendo tibi: for somein its present condition, and was reason , perhaps the temporary ab inserted in this arbitrary position sence of Catullus from town, Juven upon the publication of the liber . tius is to be entertained by Aurelius. See also Intr. 47 ff. meos amores: cf. 6. 16 n. tuos 1. ineptiarum: cf. 1. 4 nugas; amores.Mart. II. 86. 9 turpe est diff- 2. Aureli: see Intr. 37,41 . Ifnot ciles habere nugas et stultus labor an intimate and warm friend, Aure est ineptiarum; XI. 1. 13 qui lius must have been at this time on3-15.19 ) CATULLUS. 35SSOVt, si quicquam animo tuo cupistiQuod castum expeteres et integellum ,Conserues puerum mihi pudice,Non dico a populo: nihil ueremurIstos qui in platea modo huc modo illucIn re praetereunt sua occupati;Verum a te metuo tuoque peneInfesto pueris bonis malisque.Quem tu qua libet, ut libet mouetoQuantum uis, ubi erit foris paratum:Hunc unum excipio, ut puto, pudenter.Quod si te mala mens furorque uecorsIn tantam impulerit, sceleste, culpam ,Vt nostrum insidiis caput lacessas,Ah tum te miserum malique fati,Quem attractis pedibus patente porta Percurrent raphanique mugilesque.isgood terms with Catullus, or Juven- 16. nostrum, etc.: i.e. a breach tius would not have been entrusted of chastity toward Juventius would to his care. And, allowing for tra- be a treacherous crime against Catul ditional grossness of language ( cf. lus himself; cf. 21. 7 insidias mihi Intr. 32) , there is no tone of un- instruentem . nostrum caput:friendliness in this poem. But i.e. nos ( = me) , but with a more Aurelius ( and his friend Furius; definite reference to peculiar and cf. 23 and 24) betrayed the trust, cherished interests; cf. 68. 120 caputand from this occasion dates the seri nepotis ( = serum nepotem );enmity of Catullus toward them.- Plaut. Capt. 946 propter meum ca. ueniam pudentem , a modest favor. put; Hor. Carm . I. 24. 2 tam cari 4. integellum: with the mean- capitis; Sat. II. 5. 94 cautus uti ing of integri in 34. 2. uelet carum caput; Prop. II. 8. 16 in 6. non dico ... uerum: cf. 16 . nostrum iacies uerba superba caput.Io non dico .. sed . 17. te: accusative of exclama.for the first person singular, as not tion . -- mali fati: with this geni infrequently also nos for ego, and nos- tive of characteristic cf. 17. 7 mu.ter for meus ( cf. v. 16, and 6. 16 n .). nus maximi risus; Juv. 3. 4 litus 7. modo huc modo illuc: cf. amoeni secessus.g. 9 n. 18–19. On this punishment foi 11. qua libet: locative, while ut adultery cf. C. I. L. IV. 1261; Arist libet is modal; but cf. 40. 5; 76. 14. Nub. 1083; Hor. Sat. I. 2. 133:14. mala mens, infatuation . Juv. 10. 317.ueremur:36 CATULLUS. ( 16.1416 .5Pedicabo ego uos et irrumabo,Aureli pathice et cinaede Furi,Qui me ex uersiculis meis putastis,Quod sunt molliculi, parum pudicum .Nam castum esse decet pium poetamIpsum, uersiculos nihil necesse est,Qui tum denique habent salem ac leporem,Si sunt molliculi ac parum pudiciEt quod pruriat incitare possunt,Non dico pueris, sed his pilosis,Qui duros nequeunt mouere lumbos.Vos quod milia multa basiorumLegistis, male me marem putatis?Pedicabo ego uos et irrumabo.IOEp. 114. 3. — pium poetam: cf,the contrary epithet applied to worthless poets in 14. 7 impioTuin .uerum .16. Against Furius and Aurelius,who judge Catullus from his verses to be as bad as themselves. —The reference in v. 12 seems to fix thedate of composition within the later period of the life of Catullus (see Intr. 37) Metre, Phalaecean .1. pedicabo, etc.: the verbs are here not to be understood in theliteral sense , but only as conveyingvague threats, in the gross language of that day; cf. also Intr. 32 .5-6. With the sentiment cf. Ov.Trist. II . 354 uita uerecunda est,Musa iocosa mea; Mart. I. 4. 8lasciua est nobis pagina, uita pro ba; Hadr. apud Apul. Apol. 11 la sciuus uersu, mente pudicus eras;Sen. Contr . exc. VI. 8 quid tu pu tas poetas, quae sentiunt, scribere?Vixit modeste, castigate; Plin . Ep.IV . 14.5: Rob. Herrick To his book's end this last line he'd have placed,Focund his Muse was, but his life was chaste; and per contra Sen.7. salem ac leporem: cf. 12. 8leporum ac facetiarum; 50.7 lepore facetiisque.10. non dico . sed: cf. 15.6 non dico12. milia multa basiorum: with reference to 48, and perhaps to other poems like it, addressed to Juven.tius, but not included in the final liber Catulli. The words are a pre cise repetition of those in 5. 10 , but there is no indication that Aureliusand Furius were at this time inter ested in the Lesbia episode (but for a later date cf. 11 ) , while they were interested in Juventius (cf. 15, 21 ,23, 24, and 81 ) . That the reference is to Juventius rather than to Lesbia is further indicated by the comparison of v. 13 male marem with Ov.Art. Am. J. 524 et siquis male uis-17.6 ] CATULLUS.3717.O Colonia, quae cupis ponte ludere longo,Et salire paratum habes, sed uereris ineptaCrura ponticuli assulis stantis in rediuiuis,Ne supinus eat cauaque in palude recumbat,Sic tibi bonus ex tua pons libidine fiat,In quo uel Salisubsili sacra suscipiantur,5quaerit habere uirum . On this useof male see 10. 33 n.14. The last verse is identicalwith the first also in 36, 52, and 57.17. To the village of Colonia; awish for the violent waking up ofan indifferent old Veronese who had agay young wife. Very possibly writ.ten at Verona before Catullus cameto Rome to live ( cf. v. 8 n. ) The frequency of alliteration is noteworthy.• Metre, Priapean.1. Colonia: usually identifiedsince Guarinus with the modernvillage of Cologna, a few miles east ward from Verona, the marshy situ ation of which fits well with the description in the text. pontelongo: not the desired bridge, but the existing ponticulus ( v. 3) itself.The village folk would fain holdtheir solemn ceremonials on theirbridge, but fear its rottenness, and inability to bear the weight of so many people at once. Pons, often modified by longus, was the ordinaryterm for a causeway constructed across a morass, part bridge, and part corduroy road; cf. Hirt. B. G.VIII. 14.4 pontibus palude constrata legiones traducit; Tac. Ann. 1. 61 ut pontes et aggeres umido paludum et fallacibus campis imponeret; I. 63monitus pontes longos quam ma turrime superare. ludere:the religious ceremonials ( cf. v. 6 )connected with the bridging ofstreams by the early Latins, seePreller Röm. Myth . II . p . 134 ff.The custom had apparently been carried northward by the Latin colonists.2. salire: of the dance, at firstpriestly, but afterward popular. Cf. the rites of the Salii at Rome ( Prel ler I. pp. 347, 355 ff.). — paratum habes: the use of habere almost asa simple auxiliary is not rare in any stage of the Latin language; cf. 60.5; 67. 31; and Draeger Hist. Syn tax2 I. pp. 294 ff. inepta crura,shaky legs; the noun is unique in this humorous application to inani mate objects, pes being commonly used in such connections.3. ponticuli: the diminutive implies the general worthlessness of the whole structure. - assulis redi.uiuis, second -hand sticks.4. supinus eat, tumble flat; ap parently a colloquial expression;the adjective is used in this sense of the sea in Plin. N. H. IX. 2, and of the alluvial plains of Egypt in Plin. Pan . 30. caua, deep; cf. 95. 5; Ov. Met. VI. 371 tota caua submergere membra palude.5–7 . sic fiat, da: with thisform of conditional wish cf. Hor.Carm . I. 3. I ff. sic te diua regat, Vergilium reddas; Verg. Ecl. 9.30 ff. sic distendant ubera uaccae,incipe. Martial imitates in VII. 93.8 perpetuo liceat sic tibi pontefrui. 6. Salisubsili: the word is notfound elsewhere, unless the quotaon38 CATULLUS. ( 17.7Munus hoc mihi maximi da, Colonia, risus.Quendam municipem meum de tuo uolo ponteIre praecipitem in lutum per caputque pedesque,10 Verum totius ut lacus putidaeque paludisLiuidissima maximeque est profunda uorago.Insulsissimus est homo, nec sapit pueri instar Bimuli tremula patris dormientis in ulna:Cui cum sit uiridissimo nupta flore puella15 (Et puella tenellulo delicatior haedo,tion from Pacuvius given by Guari- II . liuidissima: of a dark gray nus on this passage be genuine, pro or bluish black color; cf. Verg. Aen.imperio salisubsulus si nostro excubet. VI. 320 uada liuida; Hor. Carm .Here Salisubsulus apparently means II. 5. 10 liuidos racemos.Mars; the derivation of the word is 12. insulsissimus est homo,evident. The rites of the Salii at he's the biggest ass of a man.Rome were accompanied by violent 13. tremula: of the tremulous dances apparently survivals of the or- ness of age, as in 61. 51; 61. 161;giastic rites of most ancient times ( cf. 64. 307; 68. 142. Precision is not Preller 1.c. ), but even such rites as attempted, or an aged man would these are not to shake the new bridge. not be represented as the father of 7. maximi risus: with this geni- so young a child; but, as in 61. 51;tive of characteristic cf. 15. 17 n. 64. 350; 68. 142, the poet empha 8. municipem meum: evi sizes the traditional contrast between dently, then , a Veronese; the keen age and youth by the juxtaposition interest of Catullus in this local of the two extreme adjectives bimuli affair ( and perhaps even the metre, and tremuli.used only here) point to a time 14. uiridissimo flore, in har when he was yetresidingat Verona; freshest bloom; cf. similar figures in cf. introductory note to 67. 24. I flosculus Iuuentiorum; 61.57 9. per caputque pedesque: i.e. floridam puellulam; 61. 193 ore over head and ears, soused com- floridulo nitens; 63. 64 gymnasi pletely under, — and that too (vv. flos; 64. 251 florens Iacchus; 68. 16 10-11) in the deepest part of the iucundum cum aetas florida uer slough. This marks the end of the ageret; 100. 2 flos iuuenum; Ter.movement begun by ire praecipi- Ěun. 318 anni? sedecim , flos ipse;tem . Yet per caput in Liv. Per . and more detailed similes in 61.XXII. is explained in XXII. 3. II by equus consulem super caput effu- 15. et, and that too , adding an dit to be equivalent to praeceps ( cf. emphatic explanatory phrase; cf. Ov. Ib. 255 ab equo praeceps deci- Cic. Verr. II . 2. 21. 51 hostis, et dit), and the Gr. Katwkápa has the hostis nimis ferus, and often .same meaning delicatior, livelier, implying a ten 10. ut: locative; cf. 11. 3 n. dency toward wantonness or sensu totius lacus putidaeque paludis, ality; cf. Cic. N. D. I. 36. 102 pu the brimming, stinking swamp. eri delicati nihil cessatione melius22 n..-17. 26 ] CATULLUS. 39Adseruanda nigerrimis diligentius uuis),Ludere hanc sinit ut libet, nec pili facit uni,Nec se subleuat ex sua parte, sed uelut alnusIn fossa Liguri iacet suppernata securi,20 Tantundem omnia sentiens quam si nulla sit usquam ,Talis iste meus stupor nil uidet, nihil audit,Ipse qui sit, utrum sit an non sit, id quoque nescit.Nunc eum uolo de tuo ponte mittere pronum ,Si pote stolidum repente excitare ueternum Et supinum animum in graui derelinquere caeno,Ferream ut soleam tenaci in uoragine mula.25- UC.[ existimant]; Att. I. 19. 8 odia illa libidinosae et delicatae iuuentutis.16. nigerrimis: i.e. dead-ripe,and so needing the most careful protection from thieves, as theyoung wife from lovers.17. pili facit: cf. 10. 13; 5. 3 n.; Petr. 44 nemo Iouem pili facit.uni: on this genitive form see Neue Formenlehre II.2 p. 254.18. se subleuat, trouble himself;i.e. he feels no decent jealousy, and no regard for the honor of his family.19. fossa: perhaps a water-way constructed to float logs off; for Liguria abounded in ship -timber according to Strabo 202 éxovol ύλην ενταύθα παμπόλλην ναυπηγή σιμον και μεγαλόδενδρον. - Liguri securi: by transfer of epithet from alnus; cf. 31. 13 Lydiae lacus un dae; 37. 20; 51. 11; Hor. Carm .I. 31. 9 premant Calena falce qui bus dedit fortuna uitem; III. 6. 38 Sabellis docta ligonibus uersare glae bas; Verg. Aen . II. 781 Lydius arua inter opima uirumfluit Thybris.20. tantundem , etc.: i.e. withno more feeling than if it had no existence at all. — nulla: cf. 8. 14 n. 21. meus: ironically; cf. Phaedr.V. 7. 32 homo meus se in pulpito totum prosternit (of a conceitedtibicen ). -stupor: for homo stupi.dus, the abstract for the concrete; acommon usage in colloquial speech from Plautus down.23. pronum: with no more pro cise reference to attitude than in v.4 supinus.24 pote (sc. est) = potest, as al ways with this word in Catullus, ex.cept in case of the compound utpote;cf. 45. 5; 67. II; 76. 16 ( twice );98. 1. On the lengthening of the final syllable see Intr. 86 g . -ternum: cf. v. 21 stupor .25. supinum: with a play upon the actual position of the man in the mud.26. soleam: there is no indica tion in ancient monuments or writ.ers that the shoes were nailed on,though mules used as draught-ani.mals, or on journeys, are several times mentioned as shod. Probably the metal sole ( which in cases of great display was of silver, or even of gold; cf. Suet. Nero 30 soleis mularum argenteis; Plin. N. H. XXXIII . 140 Poppaea, coniunx Neronis principis, soleas delicatiori bus iumentis suis ex auro quoqueinduere iussit) was attached to asort of sock of leather or wovenfibre, which was in turn fastened40 CATULLUS. [21. I21.Aureli, pater esuritionum,Non harum modo, sed quot aut fuerunt Aut sunt aut aliis erunt in annis,Pedicare cupis meos amores.Nec clam: nam simul es, iocaris una,Haerens ad latus omnia experiris.Frustra: nam insidias mihi instruentemTangam te prior irrumatione.5laecean. by thongs about the fetlock . Such if it be disregarded . - Metre, Phao a shoe might readily be lost in strongly adhesive mud. 1. Aureli: see Intr. 37, 41. –18-20. In the MSS. , 17 is im- pater: such a preëminent type ofmediately followed by 21; but the starvation is Aurelius that he mightearlier editors, influenced by the well pose as the parent, or preidentity of metre, inserted as 18 siding genius, among all similarlythe fragmentary address to Priapus afflicted persons: cf. Mart. XII. 53beginning hunc lucum tibi dedico, 10 huic semper uitio [ rapacitati ]and followed as 19 and 20, with pater fuisti. - esuritionum: thetwo poems of similar character, be- word apparently occurs first in Catulginning hunc ego iuuenes locum , and lus (cf. also 23. 14); it is also found ego haec ego arte fabricata rustica. in Petronius and Martial. With the The first fragment is quoted by use of abstract for concrete , cf. 47. 2Terentianus Maurus (v . 2754) and scabies famesque mundi, and often.ascribed by him to Catullus, though 2. non harum modo, etc.: cf.there is no other reason for connect- 24. 2, 3; 49. 2, 3; Cic. Red. Quir,ing it with his name. It is published 7. 16 Cn . Pompeius, uir omnium in Anthol. Lat. 1700 Meyer, and by qui sunt, fuerunt, erunt, uirtute,many editors of Catullus among his sapientia, gloria princeps.fragmentary poems. The other two 4. meos amores: cf. 15. I; 6 .poems are generally acknowledged to be spurious. They are published 5. simul: sc . cum eo; una, thein Anthol. Lat. 1699, 1698 Meyer, common supplement (cf. Plaut.775 , 774 Riese; App. Verg. VI. 3, 2 Most. 1022 i mecum una simul) ,Baehrens; Priap. 86 , 85 Buecheler, follows in a second clause; cf. 50.85,84 Mueller.— But the numbering 13 ut tecum loquerer simulque ut of the genuine poems as disturbed by these interpolations has become 7. frustra nam: cf. the sametraditional, and is here followed . collocation in Hor. Carm . III. 7. 2121. The appeal made to Aure- frustra: nam uoces audit integer.lius in 15 for a chaste guardianship insidias mihi instruentem:of Juventius has apparently proved cf. 15. 16; and with the precise exineffective, and this is a final remon- pression , Liv. VI. 23. 6 insidiis in strance with a threat of punishment struendis locum .16 n.essem .-22. 5]CATULLUS. 41IOAtque id si faceres satur, tacerem:Nunc ipsum id doleo, quod esurire,Ah me me, puer et sitire discet.Quare desine, dum licet pudico,Ne finem facias, sed irrumatus.22.Suffenus iste, Vare, quem probe nosti,Homo est uenustus et dicax et urbanus,Idemque longe plurimos facit uersus.Puto esse ego illi milia aut decem aut plura 5 Perscripta, nec sic, ut fit, in palimpsesto3. idem, at the same time, not.withstanding this; to point an un expected contrast; cf. v. 15; 25. 4;30. 9; 62. 43; 103. 4. — longe plurimos, i.e. an absolutely un precedented number; longe is rare in the sense of multo before Cicero,but occurs frequently in his writ ings, and in later prose and poetry;cf. Caes. B. G. I. 2 apud Heluetios longe nobilissimus fuit et ditissimus Orgetorix , Hor. Sat. I. 5. 2 Helio dorus, Graecorum longe doctissimus.Il . ah me me: an exclamationof commiseration for Juventius. –discet: Aurelius is pater esuritio num (v. 1 ) , and the boy will of course be taught bad habits by him;i.e. if the affection of Juventius is won away from Catullus so that theboy will not return to him, but pre fers to live as the protégé of Aure lius, he will perforce have to share the privations that exist in the houseof Aurelius. It sounds as if the poem were meant to toll back Ju ventius as much as to score Aurelius.22. On Suffenus, a conceited andvoluminous poetaster, though a good fellow in other relations. Metre,choliambic.1. Suffenus. mentioned as a bad poet in 14. 19, but otherwise un known.— Vare: probably Quintilius Varus of Cremona, mentioned also in 10. 1; cf. Intr. 66. — probe nosti:apparently a colloquialism; cf. Ter.Heaut. 180 hunc Menedemum nos tin? Probe; Cic. De Or. III . 50. 194 Antipater, quem tu probe meministi.2. uenustus, dicax, urbanus:see Quintilian's definition of these three qualities in VI. 3. 17, 18, 21;and cf. Sen. Const. Sap. 17. 3.4. milia: cf. 9. 2 n. - aut aut: when correlatives, usually in troducing mutually exclusive alter natives, as in 12. 10-11; 64. 102;69. 9-10; 103. 1-3; while only asingle aut is used in the sense of or even ,' as in 29. 14; and this is apparently the only instance wherethe latter aut of two correlatives has that meaning.5. sic: with a strongly demon.strative force, pointing to what pre cedes, ‘ such being the case, though the verses are so many '; cf. Liv.I. 5. 4 crimini maxime dabant in Numitoris agros ab iis impetum fieri: sic ad supplicium Numitori642 CATULLUS. [ 22. 6Relata: chartae regiae, noui libri,Noui umbilici, lora, rubra membrana,Derecta plumbo et pumice omnia aequata.Remus deditur. -ut fit, as com- called, and later to have received monly; for mere scribbling, notes, successively the names hieratica and first drafts, wax tablets were and Augusta (Marquardt, p . 810;generally used , or, especially when Birt, p . 247). — noui libri: i.e. no the writing was considerable in cheap palimpsest, but the best of amount, parchment, on account of paper, and that brand-new, ' new the facility with which writing on books of royalpaper '; and the em .these substances could be erased. phasis effected by the parathetic Surely the enormous amount of the construction is supported by the verses of Suffenus must indicate that asyndeton preserved throughout the they are but a first draft, to be greatly following two verses.reduced by revision , and therefore 7. umbilici: the rods, tipped calling for the use of cheap mate- sometimes with bosses, on which the rials. But, behold, he actually pub- rolls were wound ( cf. the rollers with lishes them all just as they stand , bosses at the lower edge of modern and regardless of expense . - pa- wall-maps); the name came origi limpsesto: writing -fabric from nally from the central position of the which previous writing has been tip of the rod at the end of the roll.erased, from a motive of economy, - lora: probably the soft and elab to make room for later. Parchment orately decorated straps used instead lent itself most readily to such eras- of common cords to fasten the roll ure by washing, or erosion of the in shape when properly wound on the surface, thoughpalimpsests of papy- umbilicus. - rubramembrana:the rus were certainly not unknown ( cf. cover of brightly colored parchment Marquardt Privatleben der Römer 2 in which the completed roll was en p. 815; Birt Antike Buchwesen pp. closed for greater protection; cf. 57, 58, 63); but it is by no means Ov. Trist. I. 1. 5 nec te ( librum ]certain that they are referred to here. purpureo uelent uaccinia fuco; Tib .6. relata: with especial refer- III. [ Lygd.] 1. 9 lutea sed niueum ence to the form , as perscripta (v. inuoluatmembrana libellum; Mart. 5 ) to the fact, of the writing. Re- III . 2. 10 te [ libellum ] purpura ferre commonly takes in thismean- delicata uelet; X. 93. 4 carmina ing the accusative with in; but for purpurea culta toga .the ablative with in see Cic. N. D. 8. derecta plumbo: for securing 1. 12. 29 Democritus imagines greater regularity, a thin, circular carumque circuitus in deorum nu- plate of lead guided by a ruler was mero refert; Rosc. Com . 2.5 nomen used to draw lines for the writing,in codice accepti et expensirelatum and to mark off the space reserved (edd. in codicem ); and the ablative for margins. derecta , like ae.may be justified by the fact that quata, modifies omnia, and ishere relata does not refer to techni- written rather than directa because cal entry in a book, but simply to motion in a single, fixed direction is writing in general. — chartae re- indicated; cf. 63. 56 derigere aciem .giae: the best quality of paper pumice omnia aequata: the appears to have been originally so poet enumerates in detail and in

-22. 17] CATULLUS. 4310Haec cum legas tu, bellus ille et urbanusSuffenus unus caprimulgus aut fossorRursus uidetur: tantum abhorret ac mutat.Hoc quid putemus esse? Qui modo scurraAut si quid hac re tritius uidebatur,Idem infaceto est infacetior rureSimul poemata attigit, neque idem unquamAeque est beatus ac poema cum scribit:Tam gaudet in se tamque se ipse miratur.15mem6logical order (chartae . . se; with the absolute use cf. Cic. Debrana ), as if with the author's own Or. II . 20. 85 sin plane abhorrebit et delight, the materials of this édition erit absurdus; Or. 31. 109 an egode luxe, and then sums up the par- tragicis concederem ut crebro muta ticular operations upon them by rent?mentioning the first and the last; 12. modo: on the lengthening

  • the whole thing ruled with the lead of the final syllable, see Intr . 86 g .

and smoothed off with the pumice. ' scurra, a wit, in the older Eng On the last operation cf. 1. 2 n.; lish sense of a polished town gen Hor. Ep. I. 20. 2 [ liber ] pumice tleman as distinct from a countrymundus; Prop. III. 1. 8 exactus booby; cf. Plaut. Most. 14 tu , urba tenui pumice uersus eat; Tib. III . nus uero scurra, deliciae popli, rus (Lygd.) 1. 10 pumicet et canas ton- mihi tu obiectas?deat comas [ libelli ]; Ov. Trist. I. 13. aut si quid: cf. 13. 1o n . -1. Il nec fragili geminae poliantur tritius: if the emendation be corpumice frontes; Mart. I. 66. 10-12 rect, the meaning must be more pumicata fronte si quis est non polished , more fastidious in taste ';dum , nec umbilicis cultus atque cf. Cic. Fam . IX. 16. 4 ut Seruius membrana, mercare ( and I. 117. facile diceret . hic uersus Plauti non 16; IV. 10. 1; VIII. 72. I ) . est; hic est ' quod tritas aures habe 9. legas: subjunctive of general ret consuetudine legendi.statement ( tu being unemphatic) , 14. infaceto rure, the stupid as in Plautus and Cicero, and less country, as contrasted with the ur.commonly in other writers. — bel- banitas of the city; cf. 36. 19;lus: apparently here with no un- Plaut. Nlost. 1.c .; Hor. Ep. II. 1. 158– complimentary meaning'; but cf. 160 graue uirus munditiae pepu the satirical definition of a bellus lare, sed . . . hodie manent uestigia komo in Mart. III . 63. ruris. With the collocation infa 10. unus, a mere; cf. Cic. Att. ceto infacetior cf. 27.4 ebrioso ebriIX. 10. 2 me haec res torquet quod osioris; 39. 16 inepto ineptior; 99.non Pompeium tanquam unus ma- 2 dulci dulcius; 99. 14 tristi tristius.nipularis secutus sim; from this use 15. simul: for simul ac, as in developed the indefinite article of 51. 6; 63. 27 , 45; 64. 31 , 366; 99.the Romance languages. 7; and often in poetry.11. rursus, on the contrary; cf. 16. aeque est, etc.: with the 67. 5. -abhorret ac mutat: sc. a sentiment cf. Hor. Ep. II. 2. 10644 CATULLUS. [22. 18Nimirum idem omnes fallimur, neque est quisquamQuem non in aliqua re uidere SuffenumPossis. Suus cuique attributus est error,Sed non uidemus manticae quod in tergo est.2023Furi, cui neque seruus est neque arca Nec cimex neque araneus neque ignis,Verum est et pater et nouerca, quorumbankrupt, as were many of the young men about town at that day,had become notorious among hisacquaintances for fruitless attempts to negotiate a small loan, and in his despair was trying to enlarge his constituency by placating Catullus;cf. the similar attempt at a later date commemorated in II . Withthe first verses cf. Mart. XI. 32. 1-4nec toga nec focus est nec tritus cimice lectus, nec tibi de bibula sarta palude teges, nec puer aut senior,nulla est ancilla nec infans, nec sera nec clauis nec canis atque calix (and XI. 56. 3-6).– Metre, Phaante se,laecean .ridentur mala qui componunt car mina; uerum gaudent scribentes etse uenerantur.18 ff. Catullus falls here into anunusually reflective vein, quite in the style of Horace.20. attributus: i.e, in the act of creation. error: i.e. some mentalidiosyncrasy.21. Cf. Hor. Sat. II. 3. 299 dixe rit insanum qui me, totidem audiet atque respicere ignoto discet penden tia tergo; and Porph. on the pas sage, Aesopus tradit homines duasmanticas habere, unamalteram retro: in priorem aliena uitia mittimus, ideo et uidemusfacile; in posteriorem nostra, quae abscondimus et uidere nolumus.Hoc Catullus meminit. To this Persius refers in 4. 23 ut nemo in sese temptat descendere, nemo, sed praece denti spectatur mantica tergo. The fable of Æsop is told in Babrius 66 and Phaedrus IV. 10.23. An epigram of coarse irony on the poverty of Furius, with whom, as with Aurelius, Catullus was now on no friendly terms, since they had disregarded his injunctions concerning Juventius ( see Intr.37, 41). Perhaps the immediate inspiration to this poem came from the fact that Furius, being utterlycf. 24. 5.a1. neque seruus:Even a poor man could own slave, as, for instance, Horace, who,when representing the extreme sim plicity of his life, yet speaks of his dinner as served by three slaves ( Sat. I. 6. 116) . — neque arca: for Furius has no money to keep in it .2. nec cimex: for there is not abed to conceal one . —neque araneus: for there is not a roof underwhich he may spin his web. -neque ignis: for there is no hearthon which to build one.3. uerum: with strongly con trasting adversation; the things Furius has are precisely those most-23.15 ] CATULLUS. 455Dentes uel silicem comesse possunt,Est pulchre tibi cum tuo parenteEt cum coniuge lignea parentis.Nec mirum: bene nam ualetis omnes,Pulchre concoquitis, nihil timetis,Non incendia, non graues ruinas,Non furta impia, non dolos ueneni,Non casus alios periculorum.Atqui corpora sicciora cornuAut si quid magis aridum est habetisSole et frigore et esuritione.Quare non tibi sit bene ac beate?IO15nouerca:embarrassing to have in the absenceof what he has not.proverbially an unpleasant relative;cf. Verg. Ecl. 3. 33 iniusta nouerca;Hor. Epod. 5. 9 quid ut nouerca me intueris?4. dentes, etc.: their fangs are so sharpened by perpetual hunger.5. est pulchre tibi: cf. v. 15 ,and 14. 1o n.6. lignea: the meaning is prob ably like that of sicca (v. 12) , dry,withered, and so forbidding; cf. Lucr. IV. 1161 neruosa et ligneaDorcas.7. nec mirum: cf. 57. 3; 62.14; 69. 7.9. non incendia, etc.: becausethere is no house to burn or collapse. On the dangers in Rome at a later date from such causes, cf.Juv. 3. 6–8, 190–202.10. non furta impia: because there is nothing to steal: so Juve nal ( 14. 303–310) celebrates the happiness of those who need take no precaution against fire andthieves, while other writers men tion the torments that accompanywealth; cf. Hor. Sat. I. 1. 76 ff, an uigilare metu exanimem , noctesquediesque formidare malos fures, in cendia , seruos, ne te compilent fugi.entes, hoc iuuat? Mart. VI . 33. 3furta, fugae, mortes, seruorum, ina cendia , luctus adfligunt hominem.11. casus alios periculorum:cf. Cic. Fam. VI. 4. 3 ad omnes casus subitorum periculorum obiectisumus.12. atqui: not like v. 3 uerum to introduce a counterbalancingaffirmation , but to add a final par ticular that caps the climax; Furius and his family are happiest of all in their own bodily constitution, and not by reason of external circumstances: with this use of atqui cf. Cic. Sen. 19. 66 quae aut plane neglegenda est aut etiam op tanda . atqui tertium certe nihilinueniri potest.— sicciora: cf. v. 6lignea; but siccitas is sometimes an agreeable quality in a woman; cf. 43. 3; Plaut. Mil. 787 ( puellam )siccam et sucidam . - cornu: cf.1. 2, where pumice- stone is men tioned as a typical dry substance.13. aut si quid, etc.: cf. 13. 10 n.14. frigore , etc.: cf. Mart. XII. 32 7 frigore etfame siccus.15. bene ac beate: cf. 14. 10 De.46 CATULLUS. [ 23. 1620A te sudor abest, abest saliua,Mucusque et mala pituita nasi.Hanc ad munditiem adde mundiorem ,Quod culus tibi purior salillo est,Nec toto decies cacas in anno;Atque id durius est faba et lapillis,Quod tu si manibus teras fricesque,Non unquam digitum inquinare possis.Haec tu commoda tam beata, Furi,Noli spernere nec putare parui,Et sestertia quae soles precariCentum desine: nam satis beatu's.2524 .O qui flosculus es Iuuentiorum,Non horum modo, sed quot aut fueruntAut posthac aliis erunt in annis,Mallem diuitias Midae dedissessome25. nec: the negative is repeated as if noli spernere were ne sperne;cf. Plaut. Poen . 1129 mirari noli neque me contemplarier, and elsewhere. — putare parui: cf. 5. 3 n.26. sestertia centum:what less than $ 5000, no great sum for a young man at that time to bor row , when one remembers the fabulous amounts owed by such men as Caelius, Curio, and Caesar. pre cari: construed ånd KOLVOÛ withsoles and desine.27. satis beatu's ( for beatus es):cf. Hor. Carm . II . 18. 14 satis beatus unicis Sabinis. See Crit. App.24. To Juventius, a remonstrance on his intimacy with Furius; cf. Intr. 37, - Metre, Phalaecean .1. flosculus: cf. 17. 14 n. -Iuuentiorum: perhaps with a play upon the apparent etymology, as it the word were equivalent to iuuenum.2. quot, etc.: cf. 21. 2 n.4. Not that Juventius was rich,nor that Furius had also tried toborrow money from him , but simply that the wealth of a Midas was tothe mind of Catullus small in comparison with what Furius asked .Midae: Midas shared withCroesus among the more ancient worthies, and Attalus among the more modern, the honor of stand ing as the typical possessor of boundless wealth: cf. 115. 3 diui tiis Croesum superare; Mart. VI.86. 4 heres diuitis esse Midae; Ov.Ex Pont. IV. 37 diuitis audita est-25. 2 ] CATULLUS 47 .5 Isti cui neque seruus est neque arca,Quam sic te sineres ab illo amari.Quid? Non est homo bellus? ' inquies. Est:Sed bello huic neque seruus est neque arca.Hoc tu quam libet abice eleuaque:10 Nec seruum tamen ille habet neque arcam .25 .Cinaede Thalle, mollior cuniculi capilloVel anseris medullula uel imula auricillacui non opulentia Croesi? Hor.Carm . I. 1. 12 Attalicis condicionibus nunquam dimoueas.5. isti cui, etc.: i.e. Furius; cf. 23. I.-7. quid: this familiar expression of surprise occurs also in 67. 37, and in slightly varied form in 62. 37 quid tum? 52. I, 4 quid est? - homobellus: cf. 22. 9 n. est: bellusoften refers to mere superficial at tractiveness, and the sarcastic echobello huic ( v. 8) precludes the idea that Catullus was acknowledging in earnest any real excellence of Furius( cf. also note above); he means Yes, he is a fine fellow , forsooth ,this starveling beggar.'9. hoc tu , etc.: i.e. excuse and extenuate the thing as you please,the ugly fact remains, and you , as well as he, must acknowledge it;and Catullus in the last verse re hearses the charge again to give it due effect.25. On the thievery of a certain Thallus: cf. 12 on a similar subject.- Metre, iambic tetrameter cata lectic.1. Thalle: nothing further is known of him, though unsatisfac tory attempts have been made toidentify him with Asinius Marruci.nus of 12, by reason of the similar charge against him, and even with Juventius, by reason of the charac terization in vv . 1-2. His thievingmay have been carried on at the baths ( cf. the Vibennius of 33) , but to judge from the articles taken, he more probably, like Asinius and Hermogenes, found his opportunity at a dinner where he was a guest.- mollior: the traditional adjec tive to characterize the peculiar unmanliness here charged uponThallus; cf. also 16. 4; Tac. Ann .XI. 2 Suillio postremum mollitiam corporis obiectante.-cuniculi: the Spanish rabbit described by Martial in XIII. 60; cf. also Varr. R. R. III. 12. 6 tertii generis est, quod in Hispania nascitur, similis nostro lepori ex quadam parte, sed humi lis, quem cuniculum appellant. ... cuniculi dicti ab eo, quod sub terracuniculos ipsi facere solent, ubi late ant in agris; Plin. N. H. VIII.217. Catullus had doubtless beeninstructed in Spanish matters by Veranius ( cf. 9. 6–7) .2. anseris medullula: the deli cate inner feathers of the goose; cf.Priap. 64. I quidam mollior anse ris medulla . imula auricilla:the lobe of the ear; cf. Cic . Q. Fr.48 CATULLUS. [ 25. 3Vel pene languido senis situque araneoso,Idemque Thalle turbida rapacior procella,5 Cum t diua mulier aries ostendit oscitantes,Remitte pallium mihi meum quod inuolastiSudariumque Saetabum catagraphosque Thynos,Inepte, quae palam soles habere tanquam auita.II. 13. 4 auricula infima mollio- the arrangement of its folds, and rem ( written in June, 54 B.C.); Bü- often brightly colored. —inuolasti,cheler conjectures that Cicero cop- pounced upon, when the wine went ied the expression from the liber round, and the pallium had been Catulli, which must, therefore, have thrown back from the shoulders of been published before the middle the wearer; cf. Mart. VIII. 59. 9-10 of the year 54 B.C. But the com- lapsa nec a cubito subducere pallia parison is of precisely the homely nesci-, et tectus laenis saepe duabus sort that might be proverbial; cf. abit.for example Amm. Marc. XIX . 12. 7. sudarium Saetabum: cf. 12.5 ima quod aiunt auricula mollior , 3 n. , 14 n.; perhaps this was one of where it is unsafe to judge that quod the set there mentioned. - cata aiunt points to a proverbial com- graphos Thynos: the formerword parison that spread from a mere is so little used as to make impos invention of Catullus. auricilla sible its sure interpretation here;is a dimninutive from auricula, itself nor is it certain even which of the a diminutive, as ocellus ( 3. 18, etc.) two words is noun and which is ad from oculus. With the diminutive jective. But as catagraphi is used forms of noun and adjective in the of outline drawings ( in Plin . N. H. same phrase cf. 3. 18 turgiduli XXXV. 56 ), and as tablets were ocelli; 64. 316 aridulis labellis. commonly made of box ( Prop. IV.4. idem: cf. 22. 3 n. -- rapa- 23. 8 uulgari buxo sordida cera fu cior: indicating bold robbery; cf. it ), a Bithynian wood ( cf. 4. 13 n.) ,Cic . Pis. 27. 66 olim furunculus, it is quite possible that the ob nunc uero etiam rapax. jects referred to here were pugil.5. diua, etc.: the verse is unin- lares, carved or otherwise decorated telligible, and no satisfactory emen- on the outside, and so more valu dation has yet been suggested. The able and tempting to a thief than general meaning seems to be that was the ordinary kind. Perhaps Thallus does his thieving boldly,- they were a memento of the journey because there is nothing to fear, of Catullus himself to Bithynia. It since he chooses an occasion when would not be strange for the poet no one watches against thieves. If to bring his tablets to some dinner oscitantes be the correct reading, parties (cf. 50. 1-6) . — Thynos:it must mean off their guard, rather rif. 31. 5 n .than half-asleep, as the thefts were 8. inepte, stupid, in expecting to probably committed at dinners (see be able to escape detection while V. I n .) .flaunting his spoils openly: by the 6. pallium: a Greek garment, same word Asinius is addressed inresembling somewhat the Roman 12. 4, but with a slightly differenttoga, but square -cornered, freer in application.-26 . 2]CATULLUS.4910Quae nunc tuis ab unguibus reglutina et remitte,Ne laneum latusculum manusque mollicellasInusta turpiter tibi flagella conscribillent,Et insolenter aestues uelut minuta magnoDeprensa nauis in mari uesaniente uento .26 .Furi, uillula uestra non ad AustriFlatus opposita est neque ad Fauoni-- manus:9. reglutina: as if whatever was flinching from the lash . — ueluttouched by a thief's fingers stuck to etc.: the poem, like several others them; cf. Lucil. XXVIII. 58-59 M. in Catullus, ends with acomparison.omnia uescatis manibus leget, omnia - minuta nauis: so Cic. Att. XVI.sumet, crede mihi; presse ut dicam , 1. 3 minuta nauigia.res auferet omnis. 13. deprensa in mari: i.e. un.10. laneum: a figure derived able to make harbor before thefrom the softness of wool; the storm breaks; cf. Verg. Aen. V.meaning is doubtless the same as 52 Argolico mari deprensus; Hor.that of mollicellas, with a sneer at Carm . II. 16. I in patenti prensusthe unnatural mollitia of Thallus Aegaeo. — uesaniente uento: ob (v. 1-2) , to which the sarcastic serve the effect of alliteration anddiminutives lend effect . final he tries with them to cover his 26. By itself this poemmight wellback from the blows. be taken as a mere jest at a friend's 11. inusta: so Horace speaks of expense, or, if, with G, nostra bethe burning of the lash in Epod. 4. read in v. 1 , at the expense of Catul.3Hibericis peruste funibus latus; lus himself. But all other referencesEp. I. 16. 47 habes pretium , loris to Furius are distinctly hostile in non ureris. turpiter: i.e. with tone (cf. i1; 16; 23; 24 ), and the punishment of a slave. - con- there is no reason for premising ascribillent: perhaps with a play period of friendship in which Catul. upon the word, in that the lashes lus might jest with Furius. Vestra threatened are really those of satiric should therefore be read , and the verse ( cf. 12. 10–11; 42. 1–6; and poem grouped with 23 and 24 asthe figure in Hor. Carm. III . 12. 4 satirizing the extreme poverty into patruae uerbera linguae ), and not which Furius had doubtless broughtthose at the hands of the law; cf. himself. — Metre, Phalaecean . Plaut. Pseud. 544-545 quasi quom 1. Furi: see Intr. 37 . uestra:in libro scribuntur calamo litte- i.e. of Furius and the two unpresentrae, stilis me totum usque ulmeis able members of his family whomconscribito. On conscribillo beside Catullus does not mean to have himscribo see Lachmann on Lucr. I. 360. forget, his father and step -mother;52. aestues: i.e. bend into all cf. 23. 5-6.sorts of shapes, like a school- bov 2. opposita: with a play upos50 CATULLUS. [ 26. 30Nec saeui Boreae aut Apeliotae,Verum ad milia quindecim et ducentos.3 O uentum horribilem atque pestilentem!27 .Minister uetuli puer FalerniInger mi calices amariores,Vt lex Postumiae iubet magistrae,Ebrioso acino ebriosioris.the meaning of to mortgage'; cf. 2. inger: for ingere; the only Plaut. Pseud. 87 uix hercle opino instance of the shortened imperative [me posse mutuam drachumam form of this verb ( unless conger be unam dare ], etsi me opponam right in Mart. VIII. 44. 9), though pignori; Ter. Phor. 661 ager oppo fer is the regular form both in the situstpignori decem ob minas. simple verb and in composition; cf. 3. Apeliotae: cf. Plin. N. H. II. also dic, duc, fac. Ellis quotes 119 ab oriente aequinoctiali subso- other drinkers' abbreviations from lanus illum Apelioten Graeci Meineke Anal. Alex . p. 131 , tîv foruocant. πίνειν and πώ for πώθι. amari,4. milia, etc.: the sum was no ores, more pungent, i.e. with nogreat one, when 10,000 sesterces longer any admixture of water; so was a reasonable rent for merely at the feast of Hor. Carm . I. 27a house in Rome ( cf. Cic. Cael. 7. the drinking came at last to pure 17); but as Furius was at the bot- wine ( cf. I. 27. 9 seueri Falerni)tom of his pocket, it is probable apparently by decree of the master that he had mortgaged his house of the feast: cf. a similar figure for for all that he could raise on it. unmixed wine in Hor. Carm . II.Catullus is scornfully indicating, Il . 19 pocula ardentis Falerni.therefore, the meanness of the 3. lex magistrae: a ruler of thehouse itself. feast was chosen (usually by lot) ,5. o uentum, etc., O awful, fatal and his decrees were absolute con.draft. cerning the proportion of water to 27. A drinking- song: the only, wine in the mixing, and the pro and a very admirable, poem of Catul- posal and drinking of toasts; cf. lus in the vein afterward so success- Hor. Carm . I. 4. 18 nec regna vinifully worked by Horace. Metre, sortiere talis. Here, in the un Phalaecean . wonted abandon of the occasion, a1. minister: so Horace ( Carm . woman was ruler.I. 38. 6) calls the puer (I. 38. 1 ) 4. ebrioso, etc.: i.e. fuller ofwho serves him with wine. —Fa. grape -juice than the grape itselflerni: generally esteemed by the is; so Damalis ( Hor. Carm . I. 36.ancients as one of the best of the 13) was multi meri. With theItalian wines; cf. Hor. Carm . II. collocation ebrioso ebriosioris cf. 3. 8 interiore nota Falerni. 22. 14 n ..-28. 5)CATULLUS.515 At uos quo libet hinc abite, lymphae,Vini pernicies, et ad seuerosMigrate: hic merus est Thyonianus.28 .Pisonis comites, cohors inanisAptis sarcinulis et expeditis,Verani optime tuque mi Fabulle,Quid rerum geritis? Satisne cum isto5 Vappa frigoraque et famem tulistis?-5. at: introducing an impreca tion; cf. 3. 13 n.; 28. 14; 36. 18.-quo libet hinc abite: cf. Plaut.Mil. 974 quin tu illam iube abs te abire quo libet. Baehrens suggests that quo libet is but politeness for in malam rem; cf. 14. 21 ff. With the sentiment cf. Petron. 52 aquamforas, uinum intro! - lymphae:cf. the plural also in 64. 162.6. uini pernicies: i.c. water but ruins the wine. seueros, the sober; cf. Hor. Ep. I. 19. 8 forum putealque Libonis mandabo siccis,adimam cantare seueris.7. hic: with the word he raises his cup on high. — Thyonianus:Bacchus was called Thyoneus from his mother, the Theban Semele or Thyone. The adjective, being from a Greek proper name, is in the mas culine form , perhaps after the anal ogy of oivos.28. An address of sympathy to Veranius and Fabullus on their return in poverty from an absence in Macedonia on the staff of Piso, the governor. This absence of theirs isnot to be confounded with theirearlier trip to Spain mentioned in 9and elsewhere ( cf. Intr. 68 ff.) .Date, about 55 B.C. Metre, Pha laecean .1. Pisonis: i.e. L. Calpurnius Piso Caesonianus, on whom see Intr. 70. — comites: i.e. members of the cohors, or staff, of a provin cial governor; cf. 11. I; 46. 9.inanis: penniless, for Piso cared only to enrich himself, and Cicero scores him forhis avarice in Pis. 35.86; cf. 64. 288 uacuus.2. aptis: i.e. accommodated tothe circumstances of their bearers,as definitely explained by inanis;the idea is carried out by the ad dition of expeditis, here in the meaning of light, but suggest ing, from its commoner use , the idea of soldiers in light marchingorder.3. The same careful recognition of equality in esteem that has been already noted ( Intr. 68; 12. 13 n. )is kept up here by calling Veranius optime and Fabullus mi.4. quid rerum geritis: a collo quial form of greeting; cf. Plaut.Aul. 117 rogitant me ut ualeam ,quid agam , quid rerum geram .5. uappa: wine that has become flat; hence a colloquialism for agood -for-nothing, and sometimes for a totally depraved fellow; cf. Hor. Sat. I. 1. 104 uappam ac nebs lonem .CATULLUS. [ 28.610Ecquidnam in tabulis patet lucelliExpensum , ut mihi, qui meum secutus Praetorem refero datum lucello ,• O Memmi, bene me ac diu supinumTota ista trabe lentus irrumasti.'Sed, quantum uideo, pari fuistis Casu: nam nihilo minore uerpaFarti estis. Pete nobiles amicos.At uobis mala multa di deaeque15 Dent, opprobria Romuli Remique..ex29 .Quis hoc potest uidere, quis potest pati,Nisi impudicus et uorax et aleo,6. ecquidnam: cf. 10. 8 n. A. P. 292 uos [ Pisones] - Pompi.tabulis, account- books. lucelli: lius sanguis), and the latter frommodifying ecquidnam . Mnestheus, the comrade of Aeneas7. expensum:the word (Verg. Aen. V. 117 Mnestheus, genuspected, if there was actually aliquid a quo nomine Memmi).lucelli, is acceptum (cf. Plaut. Most. 14. at uobis mala: cf. 3. 13 n.; 297 ratio accepti atque expensi; 27.5; 36. 18. — uobis: i.e. Piso and Cic. Rosc. Com . 1. 4 in codice ac- Memmius. —mala , etc.: cf. 14. 6 n.cepti et expensi ), but Catullus means 15. opprobria: i.e. you disgrace to indicate his presumption that all to the noble origin of your nation;accumulation was that of debt. cf. 34. 22; 49. 1; 58. 5.8. praetorem: i.c. provincial 29. A sharp attack upon Julius governor, as in 10. 10, 13. — refero Caesar for his patronage of Ma.datum lucello, set down to my murra, with a snap at the end of credit; cf. Hor. Carm . I. 9. 14 lu- the lash for Pompey, whose con.cro adpone. duct of affairs in the city was alien 9. Memmi: see Intr. 71 . ating the optimates; cf. Intr. 38.bene me, etc.: i.e. you have most Thepoem was written after the first scurvily abused me and betrayed invasion of Britain ( cf. vv. 4 , 12, 20 ),my hopes. See 16. i n. which took place in 55 B.C., and Il . pari: sc . mecum . during the lifetime of Julia, Caesar's 13. pete nobiles amicos: iron- daughter and Pompey's wife (v. 24 ),ically spoken in self-apostrophe: whose death, in the fall of the year the suppressed conclusion is some- 54, weakened the bond between the thing like sic irrumatus fueris. two leaders. — Metre, pure iambic Neither the Pisones nor the Mem . trimeter (but see note on v . 3).mii were new families; the former 1-2. The writer has before his claimed descent from Numa ( Hor. mind the characteristics he believes29. 10 ) CATULLUS. 5310Mamurram habere quod comata GalliaHabebat ante et ultima Britannia?5 Cinaede Romule, haec uidebis et feres?Et ille nunc superbus et superfluensPerambulabit omnium cubiliaVt albulus columbus aut Adoneus?Cinaede Romule, haec uidebis et feres?Es impudicus et uorax et aleo.Caesar to possess, as v. io indicates: have in mind such reports about but cf. 16. i n.- quis potest pati: Caesar as those set down by Sueto cf. 42. 5 si pati potestis. nius in Iul. 49. -Romule: Caesar 3. Mamurram: perhaps with is apparently so termed because of the first syllable long, as in 57. 2; his posing as the chief man of the Hor. Sat. I. 5. 37; Mart. IX .59. state domi et militiae.I; X. 4. II; and in several deriva- 6. et ille, etc.: i.e. shall he cometives from the same stem; though back to Italy newly enriched from this would then be the only irrational the conquests in Gaul and Britain,foot in this poem, if vv. 20 and 23 be and carry on imore insolently than emended soas to introduce none but ever his life of debauchery? - su iambic feet. On the person see Intr. perbus et superfluens: both ad.73, 74. -quod, etc.: i.e. Mamurra jectives refer to his wealth.has alreadyabsorbed and squandered 7. perambulabit: the word is all the proceeds of former conquests selected to suit the comparison in of Caesar ( cf.vv. 18 and 19) , and now columbus (v. 8) .shall the present conquests go the 8. columbus, etc.: i.e. a favor.same road? comata Gallia: i.e. ite of Aphrodite, and so an irresisti.Gallia transalpina, so called from ble suitor. Doves were sacred tothe barbarian custom there prevail- the goddess, and drew her chariot,ing of men wearing long hair; cf. and Adoneus is but another form Diod. V. 28; Cic. Phil. VIII. 9. 27 for Adonis; cf. Plaut. Men . 144 ubi Galliam togatam remitto, comatam Venus [ raperet] Adoneum; Auson.postulo; Plin. N. H. IV. 105 Gallia Ep. 30. 6 Arabica gens ( me existi omnis comata uno nomine appel- mant] Adoneum .lata; Suet. Iul. 22 initio quidem 9. The appeal is repeated from Gallian cisalpinam ... accepit... v. 5, because in v. 3-4 the ref mox ... comatam quoque. erence was only to the ill-gotten 4. ultima Britannia: cf. v. 12; wealth of Mamurra, while in vv.II . II n. Caesar took command in 6-8 it was to the expected revivalGaul in 58 B.C. , and the first entry of his licentious career.into Britain was made in the sum- 10. The verse embodies the sting.mer of 55 ( cf. Caes. B. G. IV. 20 ff.). ing conclusion following upon the On thelengthening of thefinal syl- major premise implied in w. 1-4,lable before initial br , see Intr. 86 g . with 6-8, and the minor in v. 55. cinaede: here probably used and 9. –impudicus has a techni simply as a word of general abuse cal reference to cinaede. uorax Scf . Intr. 32) , though Catullus may doubtless refers to gluttony and$ 4 CATULLUS. [ 29. IBEone nomine, imperator unice,Fuisti in ultima occidentis insula,Vt ista uestra diffututa mentulaDucenties comesset aut trecenties?15 Quid est alid sinistra liberalitas?Parum expatrauit an parum elluatus est?Paterna prima lancinata sunt bona;Secunda praeda Pontica; inde tertia

-wine-bibbing, and is not used inthe sense of 33. 4 and 57. 8, nor in that of 80. 6 and 88. 8; yet Sueto nius ( Iul. 53) reports that Caesar was abstemious in regard to food and drink . - aleo: gambling hadgrown to be such a passion among the young Romans that it wasdeemed a serious vice and restrained by law; cf. Cic. Phil. XIII.11. 24 in lustris, popinis, alea, uino tempus aetatis omne consumpsisses;Cat. II. 10. 23 in his gregibus om nes aleatores, omnes adulteri, omnesimpuri impudicique uersantur.II . eo nomine, on this account,one of the most frequent of the phrases borrowed from book-keep ing. The demonstrative refers on ward to the ut-clause in v. 13.- imperator unice: in ironicalpraise; repeated in 54. 7.12. ultima, etc.: cf. v. 4 n. -Wildest rumors had long been afloat about the vast wealth to be found inthe interior of Britain, and many young Roman spendthrifts had de sired to join Caesar's expedition thither. He actually secured nothing of value, but evidently the true news had not yet spread through Italy.13. ista uestra mentula: of adebauchee, as 17. 21 iste meus stu por, of a dull fellow . Mamurra isof course the man referred to ( cf. 94, 105, 114, 115, and Intr. 73) .The possessive points to Pompeyas sharing blame with Caesar in the matter; cf. also vv . 21-24.14. ducenties aut trecenties:sc. centena milia sestertium , as regularly with numeral adverbs in the expression of sums of money,Ducenti as well as trecenti (on which cf. 9. 2 n. ) is used of indefi.nitely large number; cf. 37. 7;Hor. Sat. I. 10. 60 amet scripsisse ducentos ante cibum uersus. -comesset: cf. the same figure for squan .dering in v. 22 deuorare.15. alid: for aliud, as 66. 28 alis for alius; so Plautus, Lucretius, and others. Cf. 34. 8 n . sinistra libe.ralitas: since the giving was made possible by robbery ( cf. 12. i n. );see Cato’s strictures (on Caesar?) ir Sall. Cat. 52. 11 ff. quis bona aliena largiri liberalitas: uocatur etc.The question in this verse touches upon the fitness of giving such gifts;that in the next verse upon Mamur.ra's fitness to receive them.17. Cf. 41. 4; 43. 5.18. praeda Pontica: probably not that brought back by Pompey in 62 B.C. from the conquest ofMithradates, but that from the cap ture of Mitylene in 79 B.C., when Caesar was an officer in the army of the governor of Pontus and Bithynia. Thus early was the patrimonyof Mamurra already squandered,and thus early , when gains were but small, did Caesar begin to lavisb wealth upon him .29.24 ] CATULLUS.5520Hibera, quam scit amnis aurifer Tagus.Nunc Galliae timetur et Britanniae.Quid hunc malum fouetis? aut quid hic potestNisi uncta deuorare patrimonia?Eone nomine furbis opulentissimeSocer generque, perdidistis omnia?II n.V..--19. Hibera: sc. praeda; when Caesar, in 61-60 B.C. , governed Further Spain as propraetor.scit, is witness to; cf. Verg. Aen.XI. 258 scelerum poenas expendimus omnes; . scit triste Miner .uae sidus; Ov. Met. XII. 439 astego scit tuus hoc genitor –gladium spoliantis in ima ilia demisi. aurifer Tagus: the Tagus had a reputation like that of the Pactolus; cf. Ov. Am. I. 15. 34 auriferi ripa benigna Tagi; Mart.X. 16. 4 uurea diuitis unda Tagi;X. 96. 3 auriferum Tagum .20. nunc: carrying on the series of prima ... secunda ... inde ter tia; reports have just arrived of the completed conquest of Gaul and ofthe invasion of Britain , and the same fate now threatens them thatbefell former nquests, –— to be de.voured by Mamurra. Galliaetimetur et Britanniae: sc. ab in colis; cf. Sen. Med . 893 iam domus tota occidit, urbi timetur.21. hunc malum, this rascal;cf. 64. 175 malus hic; Plaut. Merc.974 ut dissimulat malus; Hor. Sat. I. 4. 3 siquis erat dignus describi,quod malus ac fur. —fouetis: sc.Caesar and Pompey: –quid hic potest nisi, etc., what is he good for except, etc.; i.e. it cannot be that you favor him because of his effi cient services [Mamurra was prae fectus fabrum under Caesar) , for he is utterly useless except to swallowup money.22. uncta: cf. 10.deuorare: cf. 14 comesset;Cic . Phil. II . 27. 67 non modo unius patrimonium sed urbes et regna deuorare potuisset; Vulg.Marc. 12. 40 qui deuorant (Matt.23. 14 qui comeditis) domos uidua - patrimonia: of the wealth that replaced the paterna bona ( v.17) first squandered.rum. -23. eone nomine, etc.: i.e, was it for the sake of Mamurra's pock ets that this last deal for the final ruin of Rome was made and cemented by a marriage? With this final appeal cf. 9. 1o n. —urbis ,etc.: see Crit . App.24. socer generque: perhaps with a sneer at the political inter ests that dictated the marriage of Caesar's daughter to a man over twenty years her senior, who hadlately divorced his wife on suspicion of adultery with Caesar himself. Yet the marriage had actually proved avery happy one on both sides.perdidistis omnia: the familiarcry of the optimates at this time,when they had become more es tranged from their former idol,Pompey, by events following upon the famous council of the so -calledtriumvirs at Luca in 56 B.C. , in ac cordance with which Pompey and Crassus were this year consuls, with the government of Spain and Syria respectively to follow , while Caesathad just had his command in Gaul extended for five years.-56 CATULLUS ( 30. 1030 .Alfene immemor atque unanimis false sodalibus,Iam te nil miseret, dure, tui dulcis amiculi?Iam me prodere, iam non dubitas fallere, perfide?Nec facta impia fallacum hominum caelicolis placent;s Quae tu neglegis, ac me miserum deseris in malis.Eheu, quid faciant, dic, homines, cuiue habeant fidem?Certe tute iubebas animam tradere, inique, meInducens in amorem , quasi tuta omnia mi forent.Idem nunc retrahis te ac tua dicta omnia factaque10 Ventos irrita ferre ac nebulas aerias sinis.!-nc80. A remonstrance addressedto Alfenus, on the ground that he had forsaken the poet in time of trouble. Attempts have been made by a forced interpretation of v.7-8 etc. to connect this poem with the Lesbia episode, proceeding on the theory that Alfenus had led Catullus into his intimacy with Les bia, but refused assistance upon the arising of somedifficulty in connec tion with the affair . But more prob ably these verses are but the mor bidly exaggerated utterances of adistempered mind in, perhaps, asick body, fancying itself deserted by former friends. Cf. 38, which ison a similar theme, and perhaps was written on the same occasion , though with a slight difference of tone; and see Intr. 56. —Date, probably 54B.C. Metre, Asclepiadean major.1. immemor: used absolutely,as in 64. 58. — unanimis: cf. 9.adest ... concordia; 68. 68 domum dedit; Verg. Aen. IX. 12 nunc tempus equos, nunc poscere currus.4. nec: by Plautus and otherearly writers nec is frequently used with no copulative force (= non) ,and perhaps is so used here; yet the idea may be ' you are injuringboth me (vv . 2-3) and the gods (v. 4) . '5. quae: sc. facta impia.glegis, make light of, i.e. lightly commit; cf. Hor. Carm . I. 28. 30 neglegis fraudem committere?me miserum , etc.: cf. Ter. Heaut.258 me in his deseruisti malis .6. fidem: with the thought cf. 64. 143; Ter. And. 425 nullane in re esse quoiquam homini fidem .7. certe: sc . however so little you now remember it; cf. 64. 149. -animam tradere: sc. tibi; i.e. to surrender my whole being; cf. Cic.Rosc . Am. 50. 146 omnia sua prae ter animam tradidit. - me indu.cens in amorem , drawing my affections to yourself.8. quasi, etc.: i.e. assuring me Ishould never regret it.9. idem: cf. 22. 3 n.10. uentos: with the figure cf. 64. 59, 142; 65. 17; 70. 4 a .;-4 n.2. dulcis: perhaps adopting the phrase formerly used by Alfenus of Catullus.3. With the arrangement of me and non dubitas, each joined with one of the two phrases with which they both belong, cf. 64. 336-31.4) CATULLUS. 57Si tu oblitus es, at di meminerunt, meminit Fides,Quae te ut paeniteat postmodo facti faciet tui.the tor of 8 ,22 ,37,39-31.Paene insularum , Sirmio, insularumqueOcelle, quascumque in liquentibus stagnis Marique uasto fert uterque Neptunus,Quam te libenter quamque laetus inuiso,Hom. Od . VIII. 408 čtros 8 el tép 42. 8) appears to be the first to τι βέβακται δεινόν , άφαρ το φέρoιεν write paeninsula . Sirmio , the άναρπάξασαι αελλαι; Theocr. 22. modern Sermione, is a long and 16, τα δ ' εις υγρόν ώχετο κύμα narrow peninsula running out into T VOLN éxoco' åvÉMOLO (with which cf. the southern end of the Lago di k *** Hor. Carm . I. 26. 2 tradam pro- Garda ( Lacus Benacus). The ruins Veronateruis in mare Creticum portare referred to by Tennyson ( l.c.) are uentis); Verg. Aen. IX . 312 aurae of the age of Constantine, but are omnia discerpunt et nubibus irrita called by the natives the Villa of donant; Ov. Trist. I. 8. 35 cunc- Catullus, in accordance vith the tane in aequoreos abierunt irrita mediæval identification . uentos? Tib . I. 4. 21 Veneris per- 2. ocelle, the geni; cf. in this iuria uenti irrita per terras et freta sense Aesch . Eum. 1025 Ouma idons longa ferunt; Stat. Ach. I. 960 ir . χθόνος; Pind. Oι. 2. ς Σικελίας τ' rita uentosae rapiebant uerba pro- drav oddaluós; Plaut. Trin. 245 O cellae. ocelle mi (as a pet name); Cic. Att.11. Cf. Verg. Aen. I. 542–3 si XVI. 6. 2 ocellos Italiae, uillulas genus humanum et mortalia temni. liquentibus: with the tis arma, at sperate deos memores samemeaning as liquidas in 64. 2fandi atque nefandi. and limpidum in 4. 24.31. On the delight of home- 3. uterque: as god of stagna coming. The poem is a most un- and of mare; so Mart. Spect. 13. 5artificial and joyous pouring out of numen utriusque Diana . ( as god the poet's warmth of feeling at dess both of the hunt and of birth;reaching Sirmio after his year of cf. 34. 9-14 ).absencewith Memmius in Bithynia 4. libenter ... laetus: a not( v. 5 ) , and forms a perfect conclu- infrequent collocation; cf. Plaut.sion to 46, while it is itself supple- Trin . 821 laetus lubens laudes agomented by the quieter reminiscent (the speaker here also has just re strains of 4. With this and 101 cf. turned from a foreign shore ); and Tennyson Frater Ave atque Vale. at the end of dedicatory inscripDate, summer of 56 B.C. Metre, tions; e.g. C. I. L. VI. 533 ... POcholiambic. SVIT • L: 1 ( i.e. laetus lubens).1. paene: used adjectivally, in inuiso: in the sense of ( poetical)Greek fashion; cf. Cic. Rep. VI. II video, a rare use; cf. however 64.nunc uenis paene miles; Ov. Her. 233; Cic. N. D. II. 43. 110 et natos 15. 357 paene puer. Livy (XXVI. Geminos inuises sub caput Arcti.meas.Hibbonax: Labéte meú tohiátia, kópoo Beifalcon tom ofthalomon.Amphidéxios gar sini, kouk damántan kópton58 CATULLUS. ( 31.55 Vix mi ipse credens Thyniam atque BithynosLiquisse campos et uidere te in tuto!O quid solutis est beatius curis,Cum mens onus reponit, ac peregrinoLabore fessi uenimus larem ad nostrumDesideratoque adquiescimus lecto?Hoc est quod unum est pro laboribus tantis.Salue, o uenusta Sirmio, atque ero gaude;Gaudete uosque, o Lydiae lacus undae;Ridete, quidquid est domi cachinnorum.10Age ase .

  • b .

5. Thyniam: the Thyni, a peo ple from Thrace, are said to have settled that portion of Bithynia which lay close to the Thracian Bosphorus and was sometimes said to be divided from Bithynia properby the river Psilis; but the two names, long before the time of Catullus, had ceased to express any actual distinction.6. liquisse: for reliquisse, as not infrequently in Catullus (cf. e.g. 46. 4 ); but in 35. 3 and elsewhere relinquere occurs.7. quid est beatius: cf. 9. 11 .-solutis curis: cf. Hor. Carm .I. 22. II curis expeditis.8. peregrino labore fessi: cf.Hor. "Carm . II. 6. 7 lasso maris et uiarum militiaeque.9. larem: the guardian deity of the household , worshipped with the penates at the hearth. The plural occurs but once in Plautus (Rud.1206 ut rem diuinam faciam lari bus familiaribus) , and the word not ut all in Terence; but from this timedown the plural is common as sdesignation for the home, especially in connection with penates, with which divinities the lares came tobe practically identified .. hoc est quod unum est,this is of itself reward enough.12. ero gaude: probably an imitation of the familiar xaipdμοι .13. Lydiae: if the reading bende correct, the lacus Benacus was so called from the well- known Etrus,can settlements in the Po region,The Etruscans were traditionally of Lydian origin, and are often calledLydians by the poets; cf. Verg.Aen. II. 781 Lydius arua inter opima uirum leni fluit agmine Thybris; Hor. Sat. I. 6. i Lydo rum quidquid Etruscos inco!uii fines. With the transfer of epithetfrom lacus to undae cf. Verg. l.c. quidquid and 17. 19 n.14. quidquid est, etc.: cf. 1. 8 nquidquid hoc libelli. The wholeclause is to be taken as a vocativoCATULLUS.32.SAmabo, mea dulcis Ipsithilla,Meae deliciae, mei lepores,Iube ad te ueniam meridiatum .Et si iusseris illud, adiuuato ,Ne quis liminis obseret tabellam ,Neu tibi libeat foras abire;Sed domi maneas paresque nobisNouem continuas fututiones.Verum , si quid ages, statim iubeto:Nam pransus iaceo et satur supinus Pertundo tunicamque palliumque.IO33.O furum optime balneariorumVibenni pater, et cinaede fili,(Nam dextra pater inquinatiore,Culo filius est uoraciore)32. Contents, execrable . Date,a determinable. Metre, Phalaecean.1. amabo: thus alone, and with te, often used in comedy and other colloquial writings with impera tives; the complete form is per haps sic amabo te, as if in the expression of a conditioned wish;cf. 17. 5 n.2. mei lepores: plural, like deli ciae and amores (21. 4, etc.); cf. Plaut. Cas. 217 respice, o mi lepos.3. ueniam: the subjunctive with jubere is not common, but occurs occasionally from Terence down.- meridiatum: for the mid- day miesta; cf. 61. 118; 80. 3.33. A bit of taunting advice to a notorious father and son, other.wise unknown, to go to the deuce.- Metre, Phalaecean .1. furum balneariorum: thieves of clothing at the baths were trouble some even in early Rome ( cf. Plaut.Rud. 382 ff.), and the trouble con tinued into later times; cf. Petr. 30 subducta sibi vestimenta dispensato ris in balneo. — optime: i.e. most successful; with the ironical use cf. 36. 6 electissima pessimi poeta .scripta; 37. 14 boni beatique.3. dextra: the left hand is the one traditionally appropriated to stealing (cf. 12. i n. ) , but here Catullus means simply the hand, and

50CATULLUS. [ 33. 5S Cur non exsilium malasque in orasItis, quandoquidem patris rapinaeNotae sunt populo, et natis pilosas,Fili, non potes asse uenditare?34 .Dianae sumus in fidePuellae et pueri integri;Dianam pueri integriPuellaeque canamus.5 O Latonia, maximiMagna progenies Iouis,-not the right as distinguished from and vv. 9-12 and 17-20 by the boys the left. alone. The composition was per 5. cur non itis: an impatient haps suggested by the annual fes exhortation; cf. Ter. Eun. 465 quid tival to the Diana of the famous stamus? quor non imus hinc? Hor. temple on the Aventine, held at Carm . III . 19. 18 cur Berecyntiae the time of full moon (i.e. the cessant flamina tibiae? -exsilium: Ides ) in the month of August.perhaps the preposition with oras To be compared with this are answers for both nouns, as in Hor. three odes of Horace: Carm .Carm . III. 25. 2 quae nemora aut I. 21 , IV. 6, and the Carmen quos agor in specus: but cf. Acc. Sæculare, in all of which, how $99 R. proficisci exsilium . – malas ever, Apollo is celebrated with in oras: with a play between the Diana. On the metre see Intr . idea of actual banishment ( cf. Ter. 82 b. Phor. 978 publicitus hinc asporta- 1. in fide: cf. Hor. Carm . IV.rier in solas terras) and that of the 6. 33 Deliae tutela deae.familiar in malam rem . 2. integri: modifying both 8. asse: i.e. the most insignifi- nouns; so also in v. 3. Cf. 61. 36 cant sum; cf. 5. 3 n. integrae uirgines; 62. 45 uirgo 34. A festival hymn to Diana, intacta; Hor. C. S. 6 uirgines lec written , as usual, as if to be sung tas puerosque a chorus of girls and boys, but 5. Latonia: Latona is often hon.whether responsively or not it is im- ored in hymns to her children; cf. possible to determine. If so, how- Hor. Carm . I. 21. 3-4 [ dicite ] Lato.ever, vv . 1-4 and 21-24 were doubt- namsupremo dilectam penitus Ioui;less sung by the united chorus, vv . IV. 6. 37 rite Latonae puerum co 5-8 and 13-16 by the girls alone, nentes.-34 . 16 ) CATULLUS.Quam mater prope DeliamDeposiuit oliuam,IOMontium domina ut fores Siluarumque uirentiumSaltuumque reconditorumAmniumque sonantum;Tu Lucina dolentibusIuno dicta puerperis,Tu potens Triuia et notho esDicta lumine Luna.vedos 15 eta moldegen t bort7. Deliam, etc.: for the story regarded asa goddess of birth. The see Ov. Met. VI. 333 ff. ( also XIII. etymological connection of Juno and 634-5 ). Diana suggests how naturally the 8. deposiuit: one of the few latter, herself the moon-goddess,archaic forms in Catullus; cf. 36. became identified with the former 16 face; 61. 42 n . citarier; 63. 47, in other aspects also.52; 66. 35 tetuli; 44. 19 recepso; 15. potens Triuia: cf. Verg.66. 28 alis; 29. 15 alid; 66. 37 Aen . VI. 247 Hecaten caeloque Ere.coetu; 17. 17 uni; 51. 10 suopte. boque potentem; Val. Flac. III. 321 9-12. montium domina, etc.: Triuiae potentis occidit arcanagenecf. Hor. Carm . I. 21. 5-8 (which trix absumpta sagitta . - It is notverses, however, these of Catullus strange to find Diana, as the moonfar excel); III. 22. 1 montium goddess, identified with ' Ekárn custos nemorumque uirgo; IV. 6. Tploditus, the night-goddess (Lat.33–34; C. S. 1 siluarumque potens Triuia ), as was also Proserpina,Diana; 69 quaeque Auentinum the goddess of the dark under tenet -notho es dicta lumine 13. Lucina, etc.: cf. Hor. C. S. Luna: i.e. she is called Luna from13-16 rite maturos aperire partus lumen , even though the light is not lenis, Ilithyia, tuere matres, siue tu her own; cf. Hor. Carm . IV . 6. 38 Lucina probas uocari seu Genita- crescentem face Noctilucam; C. S. lis; Carm . III. 22. 2-4. 35 siderum regina bicornis, audi,14. Iuno: as the feminine coun- Luna, puellas; Lucr. V. 575 luna terpart of the Diespiter ( Iuppiter otho fertur loca lumine lustrans.Lucetius ), who was worshipped in So Diana as the huntress and birththe mid -months, Juno was regarded helper, as Luna, and as Triuia (=as the deity whobrought back the Proserpina), is the threefold god moonlight after its monthly eclipse, dess; cf. Hor. Carm . III. 22. 4 diua andso was worshipped on the Ka- triformis; Verg . Aen. IV. 511 ter .lends as Lucina, the light-bringing. geminam Hecaten, tria virginis ora From this office she came to be Dianae.62 CATULLUS. chTu cursu, dea, menstruo Metiens iter annuumRustica agricolae bonis Tecta frugibus exples. 20Sis quocumque tibi placet Sancta nomine, Romulique,Antique ut solita es, bonaSospitēs ope gentem .contrast58.5etymol,anuntain ( E & rd 3 )Sospes " safe andsendGeheh. sispitanot Loans 35 .Poetae tenero, meo sodali Velim Caecilio, papyre, dicas,Veronam ueniat, Noui relinquensmenses..17. cursu menstruo, etc.: cf. of 56, and again somewhat more Hor. Carm . IV. 6. 39–40 prosperam than a year later, a few months be.frugum celeremque pronos uoluere fore his death . The poem may well date from one or the other of these 21. quocumque nomine: periods. —Metre, Hor. C. S. 15-16 (quoted on 1. tenero: as a writer of love .V. 13) . poetry; cf. Ov. (with whom it is a22. Romuli, etc.: cf. Hor. C. S. favorite word) Art. Am. III. 33347–48 Romulai genti date remque teneri carmen Properti; Rem . Am .prolemque et decus omne. With the 757 teneros ne tange poetas; Mart. hypermeter cf. 64. 298; 115.5; and IV. 14. 13 tener Catullus; VII. 14.Hor. l.c. 3 teneri amica Catulli. —sodali:35. An invitation to an other- implying warm intimacy; cf. 10. 29;wise unknown poet, Caecilius of 12. 13; 30. I; 47. 6 .Como, to visit Catullus at Verona, 2. Caecilio: possibly an ancestor with incidentally a little pleasantry of C. Plinius Caecilius Secundusabout a love - affair of Caecilius, and ( circ. 62–113 A.D. ) , whose home a neat compliment about his forth- was in Novum Comum, where in coming poem. This address could scriptions show that the Caecilii not have been written before 59 B.C. flourished . - -,papyre: apostrophe ( cf. v . 4 n. ) , and was written while to his book by the author is not Catullus was at Verona. Two occa- uncommon, especially in Ovid ( e.g. sions only are surely known on which Trist. I. 1) and Martial ( e.8. VII.he was at his ancestral home after 84, also sent to a Caecilius).59, -once immediately on his re- 3. relinquens: cf. 31. 6 n .turn from Bithynia in the summer liguisse.-35 . 14 ] CATULLUS.SComi moenia Lariumque litus:Nam quasdam uolo cogitationes Amici accipiat sui meique.Quare, si sapiet, uiam uorabit,Quamuis candida milies puella Euntem reuocet manusque collo Ambas iniciens roget morari,Quae nunc, si mihi uera nuntiantur,Illum deperit impotente amore:Nam quo tempore legit incohatam Dindymi dominam, ex eo misellaeIOmum.-4. Comi: in the year 59 B.C., in accordance with the Vatinian law,Julius Caesar settled 5000 colonists at Comum, a town already estab 'sished under Cn. Pompeius Strabo,and called the place Nouum Co Como, the modern town,lies at the southern end of the west ern arm of Lacus Larius (Lago di Como), about thirty miles north of Mediolanum ( Milan).5. cogitationes: Catullus desiresto entice his friend to visit him, and so speaks with playful vagueness of certain weighty matters that can be communicated only by word of mouth. The whole tone of the poem is opposed to any serious in terpretation of the phrase.6. amici sui meique: the same playful mysteriousness of expression is kept up here, but Caecilius un doubtedly interpreted it correctly to mean that the friend was the writerhimself. So Catullus speaks of himself to Alfenus in 30. 2 as tui ami.culi.7. uiam uorabit: an unusual,but perfectly intelligible phrase, per haps favored by thealliteration, and augmenting by its exaggerated char ncter the playfulness of the urgency.8. candida: cf. 13. 4 n.10. roget morari: for the more usual construction of rogare with utsee 13. 14.12. illum deperit, is dying for him; cf. 100. 2; Plaut. Cas. 449 hic ipsus Casinam deperit; Nem.Bucol. 2. 70 rusticus Alcon te peream , and in 45. 5 perire usedabsolutely. — impotente, violent;cf. 4. 18 n.13: quo tempore: denoting the starting-point of a continued action,as indicated by v. 14 ex eo; cf. 68.15 tempore quo with 68. 20, wherethe continuance of activity from the initial period is clearly indicated. -legit: sc. illa; she read the open ing verses lent her by the author;cf. 42, where Catullus was unable to recover his tablets lent, perhaps,under similar circumstances. Thecustom of public recitation by the author himself was introduced later by Asinius Pollio ( cf. 12. 6) .14. Dindymi dominam: i.e. apoem , or play, based on the story of Cybele; cf. 63. 13 , 91 , and introduc tory note to that poem. misel.lae: she is pitied only as suffering love's pleasing pain; cf. 45. 21;50. 9; 51. 5 .64 CATULLUS ( 35.15015 Ignes interiorem edunt medullam .Ignosco tibi, Sapphica puellaMusa doctior: est enim uenusteMagna Caecilio incohata Mater.36 .Annales Volusi, cacata charta,Votum soluite pro mea puella:Nam sanctae Veneri CupidiniqueVouit, si sibi restitutus essem

15. ignes: of the flames of love;cf. 2. 8 n. ardor; Verg. IV.66 est mollisflamma medullas; Ov. Am. III. 10. 27 tenerae flammam rapuere medullae. interiorem:cf. 64. 93 imis medullis; 64. 196 extremis medullis; 66. 23 penitus exedit medullas. — medullam: the word occurs only here in Catullus in the singular, but seven times in the pluralin the same sense; cf. 25. 2medullula .16. ignosco tibi: sc. for falling deeply in love with Caecilius, and therefore seeking to detain him .Sapphica musa: i.e. than the in spired Sappho herself; perhaps with a reminiscence of the frequency with which, in the Palatine Anthology,Sappho is ranked among the Muses.17. doctior: an epithet com monly applied to poets, especially of this school, which disdained the rude simplicity of its predecessors,and sought inspiration among the polished Alexandrians ( Catullus is styled doctus by Ovid in Am. III. 9. 62, by Lygdamus in Tib. III. 6. 41 ,and by Martial in VII. 99. 7 and XIV . 152. I ); Catullus means that a girl so appreciative of the best poetry must have within herself the attributes of a poet; so Propertiuscalls Cynthia docta (III. 13. 11 ) ,and in Catullus 65. 2 the Muses are doctae uirgines .18. magna Mater: i.e. Cybele;cf. 63. 9 n. — incohata: there isno reason to suppose, as some have done, any playful implication that Caecilius had been unwarrantably long in getting beyond the begin ning of his work.36. Catullus calls upon the An .nals of Volusius to aid him in the discharge of a vow made by Lesbia,invokes Venus to recognize the pay ment, and with the word throws the Annals into the fire. —The poemwas evidently written about 59 or 58 B.C., in the short period of recon ciliation after the temporary cool.ness marked by 8; cf. Intr.19, 20 .Metre, Phalaecean.1. annales: probably chronicles in verse , after the fashion of thefamous Annals of Ennius. — Vo lusi: cf. Intr. 75. —cacata charta ,defiled sheets; the verses were so wretched that they but spoiled goodpaper.2. mea puella: i.e. Lesbia; cf.3. 3 n.3. sanctae, divine; cf. 68. 5sancta Venus; 64. 95 sancte puer [ Cupido ]; 64. 298 pater diuum-36.12] CATULLUS. 655 Desissemque truces uibrare iambos,Electissima pessimi poetaeScripta tardipedi deo daturamInfelicibus ustilanda lignis.Et hoc pessima se puella uiditIocose lepide uouere diuis.Nunc, o caeruleo creata ponto,Quae sanctum Idalium Vriosque apertos,10Isancta cum coniuge; 64. 268 sanc tis diuis. —Veneri Cupidinique:ct. 3. I n.5. truces iambos: the tradi.tional weapons of satire since the time of Archilochus; cf. 12. 10 n.;Hor. Carm . I. 16. 22 me quoque pectoris feruor in celeres iambos mi sit furentem; A. P. 79 Archilochum proprio rabies armauit iambo: the poems here meant are 8 and , per haps, 37, possibly with others notincluded in the final liber Catulli.6. electissima, choicest from theirbadness, the worst; with the irony of meaning cf. 33. I optime; 37. 14 boni beatique. - pessimi poetae:so Lesbia had in a pet called Catul lus, in that he made her uncomfortable by his truces iambi; and she would, of course, dedicate to Vulcannot the bad poetry of some undeter mined poetaster, but the particular verses that had stung her, which would naturally be destroyed after a reconciliation as painful memorials (cf. Hor. Carm . I. 16 on a similar occasion) . Catullus now playfully ignores the real meaning of her words, and pitches upon Volusius as the pessimus poeta ofhis acquaint ance, whose works are therefore dueto Vulcan.7. tardipedi deo: i.e. Vulcan,who was lamed by the fall from heaven to Lemnos ( Hom. Il. I. 586 ff.); cf. Tib . I. 9. 49 illa uelimrapida Volcanus carmina flammu torreat; Quint. VIII. 6. 24 Vulca .num pro igne uulgo audimus.8. infelicibus lignis: cf. Ma.crob . III. 20. 3 arbores quae infe.rum deorum auertentiumque in tutela sunt, eas infelices nominani quibus portenta prodigiaque mala comburi iubere oportet; Legs.Regg . ap. Liv. I. 26 infelici arbori reste suspendito [ perduellionem ].9. hoc: $ c. uotum . — pessima puella: spoken jestingly" ( cf. 55 .10 ), but in reminiscence of the same term applied by her to him (v. 6) , which he now attempts to pass on to the unfortunate Volusius.10. iocose lepide: Catullus as serts ( of course without foundation )that the vow was made sportively in the sense in which he has just interpreted it.II . nunc: the moment of consummation of the vow has come,and the poet as officiating priest stands ready with the offering, and begins the final prayer. - caeruleo creata ponto: by early tradition Aphroditewas born of the sea - foam:cf. Hes. Theog. 195; Anacr. 54, etc. Note the solemn effect of the mani fold address, with which cf. the prayer of Chryses to Phoebus, Hom .Il. I. 37 ff., etc. 12. Idalium: a town and woodedmountain of Cyprus, whereon stood a renowned temple of Aphrodite


66 CATULLUS. ( 36 13Quaeque Ancona Cnidumque harundinosamColis, quaeque Amathunta, quaeque Golgos,15 Quaeque Durrachium Hadriae tabernam ,Acceptum face redditumque uotum,Si non inlepidum neque inuenustum est.At uos interea uenite in ignem,Pleni ruris et inficetiarum20 Annales Volusi, cacata charta.

cf. 61. 17; 64. 96; Verg. Aen. I. 680 hunc super alta Cythera aut super Idalium recondam; 692 in altos Idaliae lucos. —Vrios: apparently an otherwise unknown parallel form for Vrium ( Ptol. III. 1. 17;Strab . VI. 3. 9) , the name of a town which lay at the foot of Mons Gar ganus in Apulia, on the bay of Urias (Mela II. 4. 66) . Its connection with the worship of Venus is un known, though Ellis ascribes it to the association of this district with Diomedes ( Verg. Aen. VIII . 9) ,who founded cities ( e.g. Venusia)and temples in honor of Aphrodite ( Serv. on Verg . Aen. XI. 246 ). –apertos, storm -beaten; Mela says the bay was pleraque asper accessu .13; Ancona (from the Greek form’Aykuv): this well- known city of Picenum contained a temple of Venus Marina; cf. Juv.4.40 domum Veneris, quam Dorica sustinet AnCnidum: in this famouscity at the extremity of the Cnidian Chersonese in Caria were several temples of Aphrodite, and the re nowned statue of the goddess by Praxiteles. - harundinosam: the reeds of Cnidus were a great article of export on account of their excel lence for manufacture into paper;cf. Plin . N. H.XVI. 157; Aus. Ep. 7 .49 nec iam fissipedisper calamiuias grassetur Cnidiae sulcusharundinis.of southern Cyprus, where the Adonis-cult was especially carried on; cf. 68. 51 duplex Amathusia (of Venus). - Golgos: this town of Cyprus held, according to Pausa nias VIII. 5. 2, the oldest shrine of Aphrodite; cf. Theocr. 15. 100 déo ποιν & Γολγώς τε και 'Ιδάλιον εφί.λασας.15. Durrachium: formerly called Epidamnus, a seaport in southern Illyria, and the common port of arrival and departure for the passenger traffic between Italy and theEast; hence Hadriae tabernam .16. acceptum face: i.e. dis charge the account, now that the vow is to be paid; cf. the commer cial term in Cic. Rosc. Com . I. 4. in codice accepti. On face see 34. 8 n.17. si, etc.: cf. 6. 2 and 10. 4;if Catullus had not departed from the strict form of the vow by offer ing a witty equivalent for the for feited pledge , there would be no point to the si - clause . With si in this sense, putting deferentially afact that must be generally con •ceded ( = si quidem ), cf. 76. 19.18. at: turning from the previ.ought and beginning the final malediction, as in 3. 13; 27. 5; 28 .14. — interea: cf. 14. 21 n.19. pleni ruris, etc.: cf. 22. 14 n.20. annales, etc.: with the repe tition of the opening verse cf. 1614. Amathunta: a seaport town 52, and 57.con .ous-37. 10 ) CATULLUS.37.5Salax taberna uosque contubernales,A pilleatis nona fratribus pila,Solis putatis esse mentulas uobis,Solis licere quidquid est puellarumConfutuere et putare ceteros hircos?An, continenter quod sedetis insulsi Centum an ducenti, non putatis ausurumMe una ducentos irrumare sessores?Atqui putate: namque totius uobis Frontem tabernae sopionibus scribam . 105,37. Catullus abuses and threat. meos habeat neque pila libellos;ens Egnatius and his companions, Mart. I. 117. 10 contra Caesaris est who aspire to be lovers of his puella. forum taberna scriptis postibus hinc The expression concerning the pu- et inde totis . Rows of tabernaeella in v. 11 , and the repetition of stood even in the Forum from early v. 12 almost verbatim from 8. times, while the streets of the vicin .make it fairly certain that Lesbia is ity abounded with them.meant, and that these verses were 4. quidquid est puellarum: cf. therefore written in the period of 1. 8 n . quidquid hoclibelli.temporary estrangement (cf. 8, 107, 5. The first foot of the verse is 36, and Intr. 18, 19) . It will be noted probably a dactyl; but cf. Intr. 79.that, as in 8, there is no distinct - hircos: i.e. creatures detestablecensure of Lesbia on the ground of to all women; cf. 69 and 71.unfaithfulness with others. —Date, 7. an: with ellipsis of the verb,about 59 B.C. Metre, choliambic . the complete idea being nescio cen 1. taberna: here probably a tum sitis an ducenti, i.e. .a huncook -shop with a bad reputation. dred of you, or, for all I care, two 2. pilleatis fratribus: i.e. Castor hundred '; cf. Cic. Fam . XIII. 29 .and Pollux, who are often repre- 4 non plus duobus an [ i.e. ' or pos sented in ancient art wearing the sibly it was' ] tribus mensibus. But pilleus. Their temple, usually called cf. 29. 14 ducenties aut trecenties.that of Castor alone ( Suet. Iul. 10) , - ducenti: cf. 29. 14 n.stood on the southern side of the 10. sopionibus scribam: i.e. Forum, near its eastern end. From he will scrawl insulting pictures orits restoration in 6 A.D., three Corin- inscriptions over the housefront, thian columns still stand with the advertising to passers-by the dis ancient podium . —pila: the pillar orderly character of the house, as at the door of each taberna, or some dwellings in Pompeii seem shop, that served as a sign- post for to have been treated. sopio is advertisement of the goods within; apparently a colloquial word for cf. Hor. Sat. I. 4. z1 nulla taberna penis.668 CATULLUS. (37. 1115Puella nam mi, quae meo sinu fugit,Amata tantum quantum amabitur nulla,Pro qua mihi sunt magna bella pugnata,Consedit istic. Hanc boni beatiqueOmnes amatis, et quidem, quod indignum est,Omnes pusilli et semitarii moechi:Tu praeter omnes une de capillatis,Cuniculosae Celtiberiae fili,Egnati, opaca quem bonum facit barba20 Et dens Hibera defricatus urina.38.Male est, Cornifici, tuo Catullo,Male est me hercule ei et laboriose,-II . mi: ethical dative. meo sinu fugit: but cf. 44. 14 in tuum sinum fugi.12. amata, etc.: cf. 8. 5, and in troductory note to this poem.13. magna bella: probably re ferring only in general to the great difficulties accompanying a success ful liaison with a married woman,and one of Lesbia's social position.14. boni beatique: ironical;cf. 33. I optime; 36. 6 electissima.The alliterative coupling is com mon; cf. 14. 10 n .15. quod indignum est: with the form of clause cf. 38. 4.16. semitarii: cf. 58. 4 .17. une: with a specializingforce; cf. 10. 17 unum. capilla tis: contrary to the old Romancustom , young city fops of the day affected longhair elegantly dressed as well as beards (v. 19); cf. Cic.Cat. II. 10. 22 pexo capillo nitidos aut imberbis aut bene barbatos.18. cuniculosae: as the home of a particular species of rabbit: cf.25. 1. Perhaps there is an oblique reference to the effeminacy of Eg natius in the choice of the adjective.19. Egnati: cf. 39, directed against him expressly. Nothing further is known of him. bonum , pretty; said sneeringly; cf. Cic. 1.c., bene barbatos. —barba: cf.v. 17 n . 20. dens: collective, as in 39.20. — Hibera, after the Spanish fashion, with a transfer of epithet to urina from defricatus; cf. 17.19 n .– defricatus: cf. 39. 17 ff.38. An appeal to Cornificius for the consolation of some verses from him. Catullus was apparently ill,perhaps with his last illness, and,with the exaggerated fancies of asick man, thinks himself deserted by his friends; cf. c . 30, and Intr.42 and 56. —Date, probably 54 B.C. Metre, Phalaecean.1. male est: of bodily illness;cf. Plaut. Amph. 1058 animo male est (of feeling faint); and, on the-39. 2] CATULLUS. 69Et magis magis in dies et horas.Quem tu, quod minimum facillimumque est,Qua solatus es adlocutione?Irascor tibi. Sic meos amores?Paulum quid libet adlocutionis,Maestius lacrimis Simonideis.39 .Egnatius, quod candidos habet dentes,Renidet usque quaque. Si ad rei uentum estother hand, Cic. Fam . XVI. 5. I cum meliuseule tibi esset ( to Tiro, left ill at Patrae ). - Cornifici: see Intr. 61 .2. laboriose: used of physical suffering; cf. Cic. Phil. XI. 4. 8dolores maiores quos laboriosos sole mus dicere.3. magis magis: cf. the same phrase in 64. 274, and Verg. Geor.ĪV. 311; but more commonly as in 68. 48. — in dies et horas: cf. Bell. Afr. 1. 2 omnes in dies koras que parati.4. quod minimum, etc.: with the form of the clause cf. 37. 15 quod indignum est.6. meos amores: not of a per son ( cf. 6. 16 n. ) , but of the affec tion itself: " is it thus you treat mylove for you?' Cf. 64. 27 n. With the ellipsis of the verb in a question of surprise cf. Cic. Att. XIII. 24 nihil igitur ne ei quidem littera rum?7. paulumquid libet, just one little word ( Ellis); with the ellipsis of the imperative cf. 55. 10 ( sc. red dite); Ter. And. 204 bona uerba,quaeso ( sc. dicas).8. maestius, and let it be sadder,for Catullus is so disconsolate that he has ceased to desire encouragement, and yearns only for what is in accordance with his own mood.- lacrimis Simonideis: Simoni.des (556–467 B.c. ) , the celebrated poet of Ceos, excelled especially in plaintive themes, and so won even from Aeschylus the prize offered for an elegy upon the Athenians whofell at Marathon.39. Egnatius, who was singled out for especial attack in 37. 17-20 ,is again satirized in the vein there indicated. Cf. also Martial's satireon the continual grin of Canius Rufus ( III. 20 ). The poem was doubtless written at about the sametime as 37, and the metres are iden tical.I. candidos habet dentes: cf.37. 19-20 .2. rei subsellium , the defend ant's bench; cf. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam.VIII. 8. I inuocatus adsubsellia rei occurro. Egnatius was one of the friends gathered ( aduocati) to lend the defendant their support at the trial, and ought to have assumed the expression of countenance that would have accorded with the pa .thetic character of the counsel's speech and have aided in influenc ing the judges, — but he grins.70 CATULLUS. [ 39. 305Subsellium, cum orator excitat fletum ,Renidet ille. Si ad pii rogum filiLugetur, orba cum flet unicum mater,Renidet ille . Quidquid est, ubicumque est,Quodcumque agit, renidet. Hunc habet morbumNeque elegantem, ut arbitror, neque urbanum.Quare monendum est te mihi, bone Egnati.Si urbanus esses aut Sabinus aut TibursAut parcus Vmber aut obesus EtruscusAut Lanuuinus ater atque dentatusAut Transpadanus, ut meos quoque attingam ,Aut qui libet qui puriter lauit dentes,Tamen renidere usque quaque te nollem;IO155. lugetur: he is one of the friends attending the funeral, and should of all men show in his face his sympathy with the bereaved mother, — but he only grins.6. quidquid est, whatever is go ing on.7. morbum: cf. 76. 25; Sen. Clem . II. 6. 4 morbum esse , non hilaritatem , semper adridere riden tibus et ad omnium oscitationem ipsum quoque os diducere.8. neque elegantem, etc.: i.e. it isn't a nice habit at all.9. monendum est te: this im personal construction of the neuter gerundive of a transitive verb with a direct object occurs only once in comedy (Plaut. Trin . 869 mi agi tandumst uigilias), but is fairly common in Lucretius and Varro,though nowhere found in Caesar.It rarely occurs in Cicero and inthe Augustan and later writers. - bone: this vocative is generallyused ironically, in more or less mild disparagement; cf. Ter. Andr. 616 cho dum bone uir, quid ais? uiden me consiliis tuis miserumimpeditum esse? So also Plato's ' yadé.10 ff. The meaning is: if you were, not to say a native of Rome,but even anything else than what you are, your grinning would bemore decent, though yet objection .able enough; but from a Spaniardit is utterly nauseating. The in stances cited are not chosen be.cause of any especial qualities, but as types ofItalian provincialsfrom near and far, and the descriptive adjectives are therefore but formal epithets.II . parcus, frugal. obesus:the monuments of the Etruscansshow them to have been a short and thick-set people.12. ater, dark-complexioned; cf. 93. 2. — - dentatus: i.e. having fine teeth; cf. Mart. I. 72. 3 dentata sibi uidetur Aegle emptis ossibus Indico que cornu .13. meos, my countrymen , as Verona was a Transpadane town.14. puriter: an antique word,used also in 76. 19; cf. such forms as 63. 49 miseriter.49.6 ] CATULLUS. nNam risu inepto res ineptior nulla est.Nunc Celtiber es: Celtiberia in terra,Quod quisque minxit, hoc sibi solet maneDentem atque russam defricare gingiuam,Vt quo iste uester expolitior dens est,Hoc te amplius bibisse praedicet loti.2040 .Quaenam te mala mens, miselle Rauide,Agit praecipitem in meos iambos?Quis deus tibi non bene aduocatusVecordem parat excitare rixam?An ut peruenias in ora uuigi?Quid uis? qua libet esse notus optas?516. inepto ineptior: on the col- used as a general term for all verses location cf. 22. 14 n. of personal satire; cf. 54.6; 12. 10 n.20. uester: i.e. the teeth of Eg. 3. tibi: đTO KOLVOû with aduoca natius as representative of those of tus and excitare. -non bene adhis countrymen . dens: collec- uocatus: pointing to the older betive, as in 37. 20. lief that a slight mistake in the 40. An unknown Ravidus is observance of the ceremonials ofthreatened with the pillory of verse invocation might bring down the for playing the rival to Catullus . - wrath of the deity instead of his The resemblance of this poem to goodwill.15, including the use of the phrase 4. uecordem rixam: cf. 15. 14 meos amores ( v. 7 ) , suggests that it furor uecors.too is one of the Juventius cycle, 5. peruenias in ora uulgi: cf. and was written at about the same Ov. Trist. III . 14. 23 populi peruetime ( see Intr. 37) . Metre, Pha- nit in ora; Ennius' Epitaph uolitolaecean. uiuos per ora uirum.1. mala mens: cf. 15. 14: 6. quid uis: a colloquial ques miselle: in feigned commiseration. tion of indignant expostulation, more Rauide: undoubtedly dissyllabic common with tibi expressed; cf. ( cf. such forms as lautus from an Ter. Heaut. 61 pro deum atque apparent lauitus, audeo from an hominum fidem , quid uis tibi?apparent auideo, eicit dissyllabic in Cic. De Or. II. 67. 269 quid tibi Lucretius, etc.); there are no cases uis, insane? Hor. Sat. II. 6. 29 of synapheia in Phalaecean verse. quid uis, insane? Prop. I. 5. 3 quid 2. iambos: these very verses, tibi uis, insane? - qua libet, in though Phalaecean, are perhaps any possible way; cf. 76. 14; but those threatened, iambics being in a locative sense in 15. II .-72 CATULLUS. [ 40.9Eris, quandoquidem meos amoresCum longa uoluisti amare poena.41 .Ameana puella defututaTota milia me decem poposcit,Ista turpiculo puella naso,Decoctoris amica Formiani.Propinqui, quibus est puella curae,Amicos medicosque conuocate:Non est sana puella, nec rogareQualis sit solet aes imaginosum.Sand the large gifts of his patrons,Cf. 43. 5 .7. eris: sc . notus. - meos amores: probably of Juventius ( cf. 15 .I ) , who had been exposed to the approaches of Ravidus by his resi dence with Aurelius.8. cum longa poena: cf. 77. 2magno cum pretio atque malo.Catullus expects long life for hisverses ( cf. 1. 10 ).41. A scornful attack upon the greed for gold, joined with lack of personal attractions, of a certain Ameana, against whom 43 is alsodirected. On her connection with Mamurra see Intr. 74. —Date, 60 58 B.C. ( cf. introductory note to 43) .Metre, Phalaecean .2. tota: emphatic; cf. Verg.Aen. I. 272 ter centum totos annos.milia decem: sestertium ( = decem sestertia ); the coincidence of this sum with that mentioned in 103. I suggests that the two epigrams concern the sameevent.4. decoctoris Formiani: i.e. Mamurra, whose native city was Formiae ( cf. 57. 4; Hor. Sat. I. 5 .37) , and who is scored ir. 29 for squandering his ancestral estates5. propinqui, etc.: early legisla .tion in Romeprovided for investiga.tion into the question of a person's sanity, and for the interests of rela tives in such a case; cf. XII. Tabb.ap. Cic. 'nu . II . 50. 148 si furiosus escit, adznatum gentiliumque in eo pecuniaquc eiu: potestas esto; Hor.Sat. II. 3. 217 inierdicto huic omne adimat ius praetor et ad sanos abeat tutela propinquos.7. nec rogare, etc.: the passage is hopelessly difficult ( cf. Crit.App .),but the emendation of Froelich de parts least from the MSS. , and is otherwise more nearly satisfactory than any other attempt. The idea is that if the girl would only consult her mirror ( cf. Mart. II. 41. 8 si speculo mihique credis ), she would herself be convinced of the folly of expecting ten sestertia. With aes (= speculum ) cf. xalkós in Aesch .Frag . 384 κάτοπτρον είδους χαλκός dot', olvos dè voll .8. imaginosum: draf neybuevov,but it must be used of the mirror because it pictures (imagines redSC .A.42.8 ) CATULLUS.7342.Adeste, hendecasyllabi, quot estisOmnes undique, quotquot estis omnes.Iocum me putat esse moecha turpis Et negat mihi uestra reddituramPugillaria, si pati potestis.Persequamur eam, et reflagitemus.Quae sit quaeritis? Illa quam uidetisTurpe incedere, mimice ac moleste5sipatidit) everything presented before it;cf. gloss. Labb . p. 87€ imaginosus εικονώδης.42. An unknown woman, apparently a courtezan with whom Catullus hasquarrelled, refuses to return to him his tablets, and hence these verses are marshalled to enforce the demand. The woman was certainly not Lesbia, for on no occasion doesCatullus speak of her or to her in atone of careless brutality, without any trace of former regard . Somecritics, especially comparing v. 9with 43. 3, 6, have thought her to be Ameana, but the position of 42 between two others concerning her is perhaps an indication that suchwas not the opinion of the original editor of the liber Catulli; see Intr .48. Metre, Phalaecean.1. hendecasyllabi: as the vehi cle of satire; cf. 12. 10 n . quot estis, etc.: i.e. every single one of you, no matter how many ye are. 3. iocum, her laughing-stock; in the sense of ludibrium; cf. Prop .III . 24. 16 me fallaci dominae iam pudet esse iocum; Petron. 57 spero mesic uiuere ut nemini iocussim .4. uestra: since they contained With the close conjunctionof mihi uestra note the repeatedidentification throughout of the poet with his own verses.5. pugillaria: perhaps a collo quialism for the more commonly occurring pugillares; cf. also Gell.XVII. 9. 17 pugillaria noua, non dum etiam cera illita . The tablets in question may have contained the first sketch of a poem lent the woman for perusal before the quarrel intervened ( cf. 35. 13 n.) , or may have been used by Catullus for ex tempore composition at an enter tainment at her house ( cf. 25. 7;50. 1-6 ), and kept by her.potestis: i.e. only imagine it, if you can; cf. 29. I quis potest pati.6. reflagitemus: amaç deybue8. turpe incedere: even hergait betrays her wanton character;so Cicero speaks of Clodia ( Cael.20. 49) , si denique ita sese geret non incessu solun sed ornatu ..: ut meretrix uideatur; and Vergil of a different character ( Aen. I. 405 ) ,uera incessu patuit dea; cf. Prop.II . 2. 6 incedit uel Ioue digna soror.mimice ac moleste ridentem:i.e. wearing the sickening grin of amime; and the characterization is still more offensively pushed by comparison with the unjoyous grin of a dog ( cf. also v. 17 ). WithVov .verses.74 CATULLUS [42. y . .IO15Ridentem catuli ore Gallicani.Circumsistite eam, et reflagitate:Moecha putida, redde codicillos,Redde, putida moecha, codicillos.Non assis facis? o lutum , lupanar,Aut si perditius potes quid esse.Sed non est tamen hoc satis putandum.Quod si non aliud potest, ruboremFerreo canis exprimamus ore.Conclamate iterum altiore uoce• Moecha putida, redde codicillos,Redde, putida moecha, codicillos. 'Sed nil proficimus, nihil mouetur.Mutanda est ratio modusque nobis,Si quid proficere amplius potestis,‘ Pudica et proba, redde codicillos. '620地moleste in this sense cf. io. 33. shame of public scandal, she mayNote the alliteration. comply with our demand.9. Gallicani: perhaps used be- 16. potest: sc. fieri; for simi cause the woman was of Gallia pro- lar easy ellipses with posse see 72.uincia, though the adjective may 7; 76. 16, only a chance one, since Gallic 17. ferreo, brazen, showing none dogs were a breed approved in Italy. of the mobility of sensitiveness; cf. 13. assis facis: cf. 5. 3 n . — Cic . Pis. 26. 63 os tuum ferreumlutum: cf. the similar use as a senatus conuicio uerberari noluisti.term of abuse in Plaut. Pers. 413 canis ore: cf. the Homeric epi possum te facere ut argentum acci- thet KUVÓTMs; and among other pias, lutum? Cic. Pis. 26. 620 nations the dog has been the type tenebrae, o lutum , o sordes! of shamelessness.14. aut si, etc.: with the form of 22. mutanda, etc.: i.e. perhapsexpression cf. 13. 10 n. success is impossible, but if there is15. sed non, etc.: i.e. we are any chance, it lies in a complete evidently accomplishing nothing by change offront..simply calling her bad names; let 24. Cf. the similar irony in the ad as shout more loudly, that for very dress to Canidia, Hor. Epod. 17. 38 ff.14.3] CATULLUS. 7543.Aneana of 4Salue, nec minimo puella nasoNec bello pede nec nigris ocellisNec longis digitis nec ore sicco Nec sane nimis elegante lingua,Decoctoris amica Formiani.Ten prouincia narrat esse bellam?Tecum Lesbia nostra comparatur?O saeclum insapiens et infacetum!5wastel Mammanaf . 59.444 .O funde noster seu Sabine seu Tiburs(Nam te esse Tiburtem autumant quibus non est43. Another uncomplimentary address to the Ameana of 41 ( cf. vv. I and 5 of 43 with 3 and 4 of 41 ) . It seems to have been com posed while Catullus was still on good terms with Lesbia ( hence in 60-58 B.C.) , for it is well-nigh im possible that he should defend her,even as a paragon of beauty only,after the settled bitterness of their final separation . — Metre, Phalaecean .2. nigris ocellis: cf. Hor. Carm .I. 32. 11 Lycum nigris oculis nigro que crine decorum; A. P. 37 spec tandum nigris oculis nigroque ca pillo.3. longis digitis: cf. Prop. II.2. 5 fulua coma est longaeque ma nus, et maxima toto corpore, et incedit uel Ioue digna soror. Even the absurdly long fingers pictured in the oldervase- paintings may indi cate the partiality of the ancients for this mark of beauty.4. nec nimis elegante, none too refined; cf. the similar use of nimisand nimium in 56. 4; 60. 5; 64 22; 93. I; and on the litotes alsoMart. IX. 81. 3 non nimium curo.- lingua: after mentioning de.tails that appeal to the eye, Catullus passes to that which offends the ear,for elegans is apparently not used of the shape of features. The slob bering lips ( v. 3) were naturally ac companied by a thick and awkwardtongue that disfigured the speech.5. Cf. 41. 4.6. prouincia: i.e. Gallia Cisal.pina, commonly called simply Pro uincia .7. comparatur: it may be that the city-man Mamurra himself had inflamed the vanity of the provin cial Ameana by comparing her with the popular beauty of the capital.It is not likely that the relations between Catullus and Lesbia were discussed in the Province.44. Sestius, following the cus tom of interchange of literary pro ductions among friends (cf. 14 ),had sent Catullus a copy of his76 CATULLUS. [ 44-35Cordi Catullum laedere: at quibus cordi estQuouis Sabinum pignore esse contendunt),Sed seu Sabine siue uerius Tiburs,Fui libenter in tua suburbanaVilla malamque pectore expuli tussim,Non immerenti quam mihi meus uenter,Dum sumptuosas adpeto, dedit, cenas.Nam, Sestianus dum uolo esse conuiua,Orationem in Antium petitoremPlenam ueneni et pestilentiae legi.Hic me grauido frigida et frequens tussis Quassauit usque dum in tuum sinum fugi10-newly -composed oration, and had cf. Hor. Ep. II. 2. 137 expulit elle accompanied it with an invitation boro morbum .to a dinner, from which the poet 8. uenter: the stomach inflicted was unexpectedly detained by a a penalty for contemplated gluttony,sudden attack of influenza . After instead of lending itself to the ex his recovery he sends Sestius these pected gratification.verses in excuse for his absence, 10. Sestianus: referring prob humorously attributing his illness ably to P. Sestius, a man especiallyto the frigid quality of the oration, helpful to Cicero at the time of his which he had felt forced to read in exile, and defended by him in aexpectation of being called upon speech still extant when prosecuted for his opinion concerning it. - in 56 B.C. on a charge of uis. He Metre, choliambic. was apparently a man of irritable 3. cordi: cf. 64. 158; 81. 5; temper and vigorous tongue; with 95. 9. - laedere: for Tibur was v. 12 cf. Cic . Quint. Fr. II. 4. I , etc.a fashionable place of summer dum uolo , etc.: i.e. I joyfullyabode, while Sabinum was noted planned to accept the invitation,only as the country of frugal peas- and under the circumstances daredant life. not postpone the reading of the ora 4. pignore contendunt: cf. tionsent by my prospective host.Verg . Ecl. 3. 31 tu dic, mecum quo II . Antium: otherwisepignore certes . petitorem: probably (as 6. tua: since the villa was a part in Hor. Carm . III. 1. 10 hic genero of the fundus.—suburbana: Tibur sior descendat in campum petitor )(now Tivoli) was but 18 miles from of a candidate for public office; but Rome, and indeed, being placed on the occasion of the attack cannot the abrupt edge of the Sabine hills be they descend to the plain, was 12. plenam, etc.: with a jesting visible from the city itself. double meaning; the speech was 7. malam , wretched; cf. Hor. full of uenenum and pestilentia for A. P. 453 mala scabies. — expuli: the reader as well as for the unforun known.45.4 ] CATULLUS.15 Et me recuraui otioque et urtica.Quare refectus maximas tibi grates Ago, meum quod non es ulta peccatum .Nec deprecor iam , si nefaria scripta Sesti recepso, quin grauedinem et tussimNon mi, sed ipsi Sestio ferat frigus,Qui tunc uocat me cum malum librum legi,2045 .6Acmen Septimius suos amoresTenens in gremio ' Mea ' inquit, ' Acme,Ni te perdite amo atque amare porroOmnes sum adsidue paratus annostunate Antius; cf. 14. 19 (where uenena is used of wretched verses) ,and the collocation of uenenum and pestis in 77. 5-6.15. urtica: nettles were a light article of vegetarian diet ( cf. Hor.Ep. I. 12. 7 abstemius herbis uiuis eturtica ), and thus well fitted for apatient with influenza; cf. concern ing them Plin. N. H. XXII. 35 uti Sissimam cibis coctam conditamu:arteriae tussi cum tisana pectuarpurgare.16. tibi: i.e. the villa ( cf. v. 17 ulta ), to which the address turns from the fundus.17. ulta: sc. by refusing to grant me relief from thepunishment which the uenter had inficted.18. nefaria scripta: the lengthening of the final short sylla blein thesis see Intr. 86 g .19. recepso: a sigmatic aorist form , which came to be used like the ordinary future -perfect, which was itself of similar origin . Cf.34. 8 n.20. non mi, sed ipsi Sestio:a mapd a poo doklav. -frigus: of acold also in Hor. Sat. I. 1. 80 tenta .tum frigore corpus.21. uocat: sc. ad cenam; cf. 47. 7 uocationes; Plaut. Capt. 76 quos nunquam quisquam uocat.45. A love- idyl, marked by amost charming simplicity and aban.don of sentiment and expression.It is impossible to determine whether the poem is purely ideal,or was written in honor of the love of some actual friend (cf. 6.16–17 ).With it cf. the less intensity of Hor.Carm . III . 9. Date, 55 B.C. ( cf.V. 22 n. ) . Metre, Phalaecean.1. Acmen: the Greek namesug .gests a libertina, while Septimius is the nomen of an honored Romanfamily. -- amores: cf. 6. 16 n.2. tenens in gremio: he was recliningon a couch, and she sitting on its edge close to him, and rest ing back in his arms; cf. the well known illustrations of symposia .3. perdite amo: cf. 104. 3; Ter.Phor . 82 hanc amare coepit perdite.- porro, in time to come; cf. 68.45on78 CATULLUS. [45-55 Quantum qui pote plurimum perire,Solus in Libya Indiaque tostaCaesio ueniam obuius leoni. 'Hoc ut dixit, Amor, sinistra ut ante,Dextra sternuit adprobationem.At Acme leuiter caput reflectensEt dulcis pueri ebrios ocellos Illo purpureo ore sauiata• Sic'inquit, 'mea uita , Septimille,TO.5. pote: for potest; cf. 17. 24 n. Crit. App. ) are at all satisfactory.-perire: usually with the person Bonnet suggests that the difficulty loved as direct object; cf. Plaut. may lie in our lack of detailedPoen. 1095 earum hic alteram knowledge of the interpretation of efflictim perit ( cf. deperire in 35. this omen among the ents .12; 100. 2); or as instrumental 9. sternuit adprobationem:ablative, a construction common in sneezing was earlyregarded as ahe Augustan poets. good omen; cf. Hom . Od. XVII.6. solus, etc.: cf. Hor. Carm . 541 f .; Xen. Anab. III. 2. 9 Tháp III . 27. 51 utinam inter errem νυται τις ακούσαντες δ ' οι στρατιω nuda leones. — Libya: i.e. Africa; ται πάντες μια ορμή προσεκύνησανon its lions cf. Hor. Carm . I. 22. Tov Debv; Ov. Epist. 18. 152 ster 15 Tubae tellus , leonum arida nu- nuit, et nobis prospera signa dedit; trix; Plin. N. H. VI. 195.- India Prop. II . 3. 24 candidus argutum tosta: cf. Verg . Geor . IV. 425 sternuit omen Amor. rapidus[ rabidus?] torrens sitientis 10. caput reflectens: i.e. bend.Sirius Indos ardebat caelo; Tib. II. ing backward so as to turn her face 3.55 comites fusci,quos India torret. upward toward that of Septimius.7. caesio leoni: cf. Hom. II. II . pueri: cf. 12. 9 n. puer. -XX. 172 [ λέων] γλαυκιόων δ ' ιθύς ebrios: i.e. swimming with passion,pépetai Mével; Ellis quotes Plin. drunk with love; so Dido • drank 'N. H. VIII. 54 leonum omnis uis love ( Verg. Aen. I. 749 longum constat in oculis. bibebat amorem ). ocellos:8-9 ( = 17–18) . The reading the kissing of the eyes cf. 9. 9 n.seems correct as it stands here, so 12. purpureo: = roseo ( 64. 49 far as the contrast of sinistra and tincta roseo purpura fuco ); cf. 63.dextra is concerned, but a satisfac- 74; 80. I rosea labella (as a mark tory interpretation of sinistra ut of youthful and almost feminine ante is impossible. Sneezing was beauty); Verg. Aen. II. 593 roseo apparently a good omen, however haec insuper addidit ore; Ov. Am.occurring, and there is no indication III . 14. 23 purpureis condatur that Amor had sneezed before at all, lingua labellis , Apul. Apol. 9 oris or that he had ever been unpropi- sauia purpurei.tious ( sinister ) toward the lovers. 13. mea uita: cf. 68. 155; 104.ut ante may be corrupt, but none I; 109. I , and many instances in of the emendations proposed (see colloquial and amatory writers.on.-45.26 ] CATULLUS. 791520Huic uni domino usque seruiamus,Vt multo mihi maior acriorqueIgnis mollibus ardet in medullis. 'Hoc ut dixit, Amor, sinistra ut ante,Dextra sternuit adprobationem.Nunc ab auspicio bono profectiMutuis animis amant amantur.Vnam Septimius misellus AcmenMauult quam Syrias Britanniasque:Vno in Septimio fidelis Acme Facit delicias libidinesque.Quis ullos homines beatioresVidit, quis Venerem auspicatiorem?25.14. huic domino: i.e. Amori. -usque: i.e. from now on forever;cf. 48. 2 . seruiamus: cf. 61. 134 seruire Talasio.16. medullis: cf. 35. 15 n .17-18 ( = 8-9) . Amor declines to decide which loves the moreardently, and impartially sneezes his approbation of the professions of each.20. amant amantur: for simi lar collocations of active and passivesee Cic. Cat. II. 10. 23 amare et amari; Phaedr. II. 2. 2 ament amentur; Tac. Germ . 38 ut amentamenturue.21. misellus: cf. 35. 14; 51. 5 .22. Syrias Britanniasque: the allusion suggests thatthe poem was composed in 55 B.C., for in that year Caesar invaded Britain and Crassus took command in Syria. Syria was proverbially a country of great wealth, and Britain was supposed to be so till the expedition of Caesarproved it otherwise (cf. Cic. Fam .VII. 7. I in Britannia nihil esse audio neque auri neque argenti ( to Trebatius after the expedition ); Att.IV. 16. 7 Britannici belli exitus exspectatur; . . etiam illud iamcognitum est, neque argenti scripu lum esse ullum in illa insula neque ullam spem praedae nisi ex man.cipiis). The plural is used to in dicate, not the several parts ofthe countries themselves, but such rich countries as Syria and Brit ain; cf. Prop. III. 16. 10 alias Illyrias.24. facit, etc.: i.e. centres all her affections. — delicias: see 2. I n.,and cf. 68. 26; 74. 2; Cic. Cael. 19.44 amores autem et hae delicial,quae uocantur.25. quis, etc.: with a similar tri.umphant appeal close 9 and 107,and with an indignant appeal, 29,47, 52, and 60 .26. auspicatiorem: cf. v . 19Tir?toborgelu gelidus >faut be clear ' (es erejer starred a formataif. turbidus tej dus tesure liquori tyk ons ps. Hut Han , finition , minimasfaniburdaas fur are of an anaCATULLUS.rendere afas , nors facttus fortereluruslensnokies [ 46. **de ting46./ ܕܟܕܐܢ ܀aestruarhe way Iam uēr ēgelidos refert tepõrës,silera Iam caeli furor aequinoctialisarano, Iūcundis Zephyri silēscit auris.2. t . non era timidiona timine Linquantur Phrygii, Catulle, campi Ś Nicaeaeque) äger ūber aestuosae:Ad claras Asiae uolēmus urbēs.tremoni tible Iam mēns praetrepidāns auet uagāri,incundera ivare Iam laeti studio pedēs uigēscunt.Aan O dulcēs comitum ualête coetus,anetas avire aving HORAsabundres exWäragansHe's . '!of coituaComanessansaestuom46. Farewell to Bithynia! An evdalov ( cf. ager uber ) oů már unmatched expression of pure joy δε υγιεινόν του θέρους (cf. aestuo at the prospect of home-coming. sae ). Homer mentions the fertility Written in the spring of 56 B.C., of the region in Il. XIII. 793 Fwhen Catullus was concluding his ' Ασκανίης εριβώλακος .year of absence in Bithynia with sae: cf. 7. 5 n. The unhealthy Memmius (see Intr. 29 ff.) . The character of the region as summer other poems of this little cycle are came on rendered departure even 31 and 4. Metre, Phalaecean . more agreeable.1. egelidos: the prefix here has 6. claras Asiae urbes: i.e. the the privative meaning, as in Colum . famous Greek cities on the AegeanX. 282 nunc uer egelidum , nunc est coast of Asia proper.-uolemus:mollissimus annus; but the prefix the figure of flying for sailing is is intensive in Verg. Aen. 8. 610 prompted by the eagerness of the procul egelido secretum flumine desire to be gone; cf. 4. 5.of the uidit. same voyage. Ernan praince 2. furor aequinoctialis: the 7. praetrepidans: tremulousancients had long noted that the with eager anticipation; cf. 63. 43period of the autumnal and vernal trepidante sinu.equinoxes were accompanied by 8. pedes: not that Catullus storms; cf. Plin . N. H. XVIII. 221. was contemplating, as some have 3. Zephyri: the spring-wind of thought, a land journey, but thethe Romans; cf. Hor. Carm . I. 4. passionate eagerness for departure I soluitur acris hiems grata uice is most unaffectedly pictured by itsueris et Fauoni; Verg. Geor. II. influence upon the physical feel.330 (uere) Zephyri tepentibus auris ings.laxant arua sinus. 9. dulces: the social intercourse 4. Phrygii campi: cf. 31. 5 among the comites had been pleas Bithynos campos . ant, but far outweighing the pain of 5. Nicaeae: Strabo (XII.564 ) separation was the delight of home says of Nicaea, the capital of Bithy- coming. — comitum: i.e. the other nia, περικείται δε κύκλο πεδίον μέγα members of the governor's cohors;( cf. Phrygii campi) kal opbopa cf. 11. 1; 28. 1 ..Nizarrhaling395Sapian. Vira banes , et shatic bra Pengan reseces. Drop Inquiries, fungi mida info dispera quan muminimamo ܶܘܢ ܀ ܇݂ ܕܲܚ ܃ ܂ ܀: ": ܗ ܂ܫscapro presospro prevert47.72 CATULLUS. 81 proficio but proficiscor10 Longê quos simul ā domo profectosdis Diuersae uariae uiae reportant.s - lost,with compras , lengthening , before voiced sounds47.Porci et Socration, duae sinistraePisonis, scabies famesque mundi,Vos Veraniolo meo et Fabullo Verpus praeposuit Priapus ille?5 Vos conuiuia lauta sumptuoseDe die facitis? mei sodalesQuaerunt in triuio uocationes?10. longe: modifying profec- 2. Pisonis: see Intr. 70.tos; the companionship had been bies: referring to their generally endeared by their very distance dissolute character. fames: re from home. ferring to their greed for whatever II. diuersae: contrasted with they could lay hands on . - mundi:simul profectos. uariae: the i.e. they are the pre- eminent types homeward paths were not only pur- of rascally greed; cf. expressions of sued separately, but were varied in similar character in 14. 23; 21. I. character, Catullus, for instance , If mundus is here used , as seems making a detour to visit the clarae probable, in the sense of orbis terra .Asiae urbes. rum rather than of koouos, this is its 47. An expression of indignation first appearance with that meaning.that two unworthy men should have 3. Veraniolo et Fabullo: cf.enriched themselves as members of Intr. 68, 69; on the affectionate the cohors of Piso in Macedonia ( cf. diminutive cf. 12. 17.28) , while Veranius and Fabullus 4. uerpus Priapus: Cicero ( Pis.came back poor. With the inter- 28. 69) calls Piso an admissarius.rogative form throughout cf. 60 , and - praeposuit: i.e. favored themsee 9. 10 n. - Date, about 55 B.C. above the others by giving them a(see Intr. 68) . Metre, Phalaecean . chance to enrich themselves.1. Porci et Socration: other . 6. de die: to begin a feast dur .wise unknown, though the good ing the working part of the day for Roman name of the former may the sake of spending a longer time indicate that he was a man of some at it was a mark of most excessivesocial position, while the latter, be- luxury; cf. Plaut. Asin. 825 aa ing a Greek , was perhaps one of amicam de die potare; Ter. Ad.the favorites mentioned by Cicero, 965 adparare de die conuiuium;Pis. 27. 67 Graeci stipati quini in Hor. Sat. II. 8. 3 de medio potare lectis, saepe plures. sinistrae: die; Liv. XXIII. 8. 6 epulari coe i.e. accomplished assistants in plun- perunt de die . ut in domo diti dering rascality; cf. 12. i n. , and ac luxuriosa .the familiar English expression his 7. quaerunt, etc.: i.e. compelled right-hand men . to play the parasite like Ergasilus.82 CATULLUS. [ 48. sa48.Mellitos oculos tuos, Iuuenti,Siquis me sinat usque basiare,Vsque ad milia basiem trecenta,Nec unquam uidear satur futurus,Non si densior aridis aristisSit nostrae seges osculationis.S49.Disertissime Romuli nepotum,Quot sunt quotque fuere, Marce Tulli,Quotque post aliis erunt in annis,in Plaut. Capt. 461 ff., in order to 49. An expression of thanks to get a mouthful of food . —in triuio: M. Tullius Cicero on some unknown as a general lounging place, where occasion . It is, however, mistakenly men rich enough to furnish a dinner (see notes below ) understood by might be found; cf. 58. 4 quadri- many critics to be ironical in tone.uiis. - uocationes: not found else- - Metre, Phalaecean .where in the sense of “ invitations I. disertissime: Cicero himselfto dinner, ' though this interpretation often uses this epithet, and always is justified by the use of the nouns as one of high praise. Romuliuocatus and uocator , and of the verb nepotum: cf. 28. 15; 34. 22; 58. 5 .uocare ( cf. 44. 21 ) , and by the point In none of these passages do the of the contrast thus drawn between words themselves convey any tonethe lots of the two pairs of friends. of disparagement (see 58. 5 n .);48. One of the earliest poems of cf. also Hor. Carm . Saec. 47 Romu the Juventius cycle; cf. introductory lae genti date decus omne; Carm .note to 15 , and with the theme the IV. 5 .I Romulae custos gentis;address to Lesbia, 7. — Metre, Pha- Epod. 7. 19 Remi sacer nepotibus laecean.1. mellitos: the same epithet is 2. quot sunt, etc.: cf. 21. 2applied to Juventius in 99. I. - 3; 24. 2-3; in the latter instance oculos: cf. 9. 9 n. the expression is connected with 2. usque, continually; cf. 45. 14. high praise. — Marce Tulli: the 3. milia trecenta: of indefinite formal address suits the formal exmultitude; cf. 9. 2 n. pression of thanks to a patronus;5. non si: following a negation, cf. Cic . Att. VII. 7. 7 ad summam as in 69. 3; 70. 2; 88. 8. — aridis * dic, M. Tulli ’: adsentior Cn . Pomaristis: cf. Aug. Ciu . Dei IV. 8 peio, id est T. Pomponio; Cat. I. 11 .quamdiu seges ab initiis herbidis 27 si res publica loquutur .M . Tulli,usque ad aridas aristas perueniret. quid agis? 'cruor.--50. 7] CATULLUS. 835Gratias tibi maximas CatullusAgit pessimus omnium poeta ,Tanto pessimus omnium poetaQuanto tu optimus omnium patronus.50 .of also 14romanti"Hesterno, Licini, die otiosiMultum lusimus in meis tabellis,Vt conuenerat esse delicatos.Scribens uersiculos uterque nostrumLudebat numero modo hoc modo illoc,Reddens mutua per iocum atque uinum.Atque illinc abii tuo lepore5

4. gratias: apparently, from v. I 1. Licini: i.e. Calvus, on whom disertissime and v. 7 patronus, for see Intr. 60 .some legal assistance or oratorical 2. lusimus: of lyric, especially effort, though it is impossible to say amatory , verse composition; cf. 61.what. 232; 68. 17; Hor. Carm . I. 32. I5. pessimus omnium poeta: si quid uacui sub umbra lusimus the self-depreciation heightens the tecum , barbite; Verg. Ecl. 1. 10 praise of v . 7; Catullus also speaks ludere quae uellem calamo agresti;of himself with excessive modesty Aus. Epist. 7. I ut rescriberes ad ca in addressing his patron Nepos in i . quae ioculariter luseram . - tabel 6. With the epanalepsis cf. that lis: i.e. pugillaribus; cf. 42. 5 n.; in 3. 3-4 . 25. 7 n. 7. optimus omnium patronus: 3. conuenerat, we had agreed. the construction of omnium with - esse delicatos: i.e. to compose pessimus in v. 5 makes it impossi- amatory verse; cf. Cic. N. D. I. 40. ble to suppose a double meaning III seiunctum a delicatis et obscenis here by construing omnium with uoluptatibus; Pis. 29. 70 ut omnes both optimus and patronus. libidines . delicatissimis uersi .50. At a banquet ( v . 6) , per- bus expresserit.haps at the house of Calvus, per- 5. ludebat numero: cf. Verg.haps at that of some friend (v . 7 ) , Ecl. 6. I ludere uersu . - modo Catullus and Calvus had engaged in hoc modo illoc: cf. the close ofa contest of improvisation, in which 3. 9.Catullus was so newly charmed with 6. reddens mutua: probablyhis friend's genius that he begs for each improvising on a theme sug .a speedy repetition of the enjoy- gested by the other's verses. —perment. Date uncertain , but per- iocum atque uinum: cf. 12. 2.haps not far removed from that of 7. illinc: perhaps meaning only14. Metre, Phalaecean . • from the contest,' though more 6Self helen esiin6.9684 CATULLUS. ( 50. &10Incensus, Licini, facetiisque,Vt nec me miserum cibus iuuaret,Nec somnus tegeret quiete ocellos,Sed toto indomitus furore lectoVersarer cupiens uidere lucem,Vt tecum loquerer simulque ut essem. áAt defessa labore membra postquamSemimortua lectulo iacebant,Hoc, iucunde, tibi poema feci,Ex quo perspiceres meum dolorem.Nunc audax caue sis , precesque nostras, for love?Oramus, caue despuas, ocelle,Ne poenas Nemesis reposcat a te.Est uehemens dea: laedere hanc caueto.1520 posiadanie . 114-somno .likely indicating that the banquet 17. dolorem: of longing pas was not at the house of Catullus. sion; cf. 2. 7 n.lepore facetiisque: cf. 12. 8; 16.7. 18. audax: with the meaning of 9. miserum: cf. 35. 14 n. mi- superbus. cauč: cf. the samesellae. quantity in v. 19 and 61. 152, and 10. somnus, etc.: cf. 63. 37 piger frequently in the comedians and oculos sopor operit; Verg . Geor. IV. later. The verb occurs in Catullus 414 incepto tegeret cum lumina but four times, and yet with three different constructions dependent 11. toto: modifying lecto; cf. upon it; the simple subjunctive in Juv. 13. 218 toto uersata toro iam this and the following verses, the membra quiescunt. indomitus present infinitive in v. 21 , and thefurore: i.e. unable to quiet my feel- subjunctive with ne in 61. 152.ings; but cf. 64. 54 indomitos furores. preces: as expressed in v. 13.13. simul: cf. 21. 5 . 19. ocelle: cf. 31. 2 n.14. postquam: found only here 20. Nemesis: the Rhamnusia in Catullus with the imperfect, uirgo ( 64. 395; 66. 71; 68. 77).though he uses it with the perfect also appears as the avenger of six times, and with the pluperfect slighted love in the episode of Nar .subjunctive in indirect discourse cissus, Ov. Met. III . 406 ff.once ( 84. II ) . In the comedians 21. uehemens, severe, inexora it occurs only once with the imper- ble; cf. Cic . Cat. IV. 6. 12 si uehe .fect ( Plaut. Most. 640 ), but this use mentissimi fuerimus, misericordes becomes more frequent with Cicero, habebimur. The adjective is dis Sallust, and Livy. syllabic here, and apparently else.16. iucunde: cf. 14. 2 n . iucun- where, except in a verse of Me dissime Calue, Aurelius to Fronto .art mens cf. necors ve sanus ein samme ihatian eristent Ermelo

          • 22g .

eneral atsun hand are horeanchesa ne- fotosAi me tu imp51.13] CATULLUS. 8551 .Ille mi par esse deo uidetur,Ille, si fas est, superare diuosQui sedens aduersus identidem teSpectat et auditDulce ridentem, misero quod omnisEripit sensus mihi: nam simul te,Lesbia, adspexi, nihil est super mi5of , semalArt 4. Art...مرمرJoLingua sed torpet, tenuis sub artusFlamma demanat, sonitu suopte Tintinant aures, gemina tegunturLumina nocte.61. A free translation of the odeof Sapphogiven below, which is pre served in Longinus De Sublim . X. 2.φαίνεται μοι κηνος ίσος Θέοισιν έμμεν ώνηρ, όστις εναντίος του Εξάνει και πλασίον αδυ φωνεί .σας υπακούεικαι γελαίσας ιμερόεν , το μοι μάν καρδίαν εν στήθεσιν επτάασεν · ως γάρ εύιδον βροχέως σε, φώνας ουδέν έτ ' είκει . = Bpaxαλλά καμ μεν γλώσσα έαγε, λεπτόν δ 'αύτικα χρώ πυρ υπαδεδρόμακεν,όππάτεσσι δ' ουδέν έρημο, επιρρόμ βεισι δ' άκουαι.α δε μ ' έδρως κακχέεται , τρόμος δε πάσαν άγρει, χλωροτέρα δε ποίας έμμι , τεθνάκην δ' ολίγω 'πιδεύης φαίνομαι άλλα.It will be noticed that for the fourth stanza of Sappho Catullus substitutes one entirelyhis own, and that elsewhere he adds, omits, and modifies details at his pleasure. Written at about the same time as 2 and 3, and perhaps the earliestof the poems addressed to Lesbia,and the one which first drew herregard. Metre, lesser Sapphic.2. si fas est: a not infrequent,and peculiarly Roman, expression;cf. Cic. Tusc. V. 13. 38 humanus animus . cum alio nullo nisicum ipso deo, si hoc fas est dictu ,comparari potest.5. dulce ridentem: cf. 61. 219;Hor. Carm . I. 22. 23 dulce ridentem Lalagen amabo, dulce loquentem . –misero: cf. 35. 14 n. misellae.6. eripit sensus: cf. 66. 25 sen sibus ereptis. — simul: cf. 22. 15 n.With the thought cf. Plaut. Mil.1271 dum te optuetur, interim lin guam oculi praeciderunt; Publ. Sy rus 40 amor, ut lacrima, ab oculis oritur, in pectus cadit; Shaksp.Merch. Ven . III . 2 ( of Fancy) it is engender'd in the eyes, With fed .8. See Crit. App.10. suopte: cf. 34. 8 n.II. gemina: by transfer of epi.thet from lumina; cf. 17. 19 n. -teguntur nocte: cf. Ernst Schulze6.238: vrtig in ore-wox , vocis Gut vocare86 CATULLUS.(51.17Otium , Catulle, tibi molestum est:Otio exsultas nimiumque gestis.Otium et reges prius et beatasPerdidit urbes.1552.Quid est, Catulle? quid moraris emori?Sella in curuli struma Nonius sedet,-versesAber wenn du nahgekommen, Kann the excitement against Vatinius was ich doch dich nimmer sehn , Weil at its height, and Catullus wrote 29 vor Freud ' und Schmerz und Za . and other poems of the same gen gen Mir die Augen übergehn. eral character. Metre, iambictri .13–16. The prisonerof love is meter.torn with conflicting emotions; he 1. quid est: an appeal of impa rejoices in his chains and yet shrinks tient indignation, cf. Plaut. Amph.from the power of his own passion, 556 quidest? quo modo? . tibi which he perceives has been fos- linguam abscidam . quid tered by his lack of active occupa moraris emori: i.e. what pleasuretions. With the thought cf. Ov. can you take in life when such dis .Rem . Am. 138 [otia ] sunt iucundi graceful things are possible? cf. causa cibusque mali, Otia si tol- Hor. Carm . III . 27. 58 quid mori las, periere Cupidinis arcus. cessas? Ov. Her. 9. 146 impia quia otium: a similar emphatic repeti- dubitas Deianira mori?tion of otium at the beginning 2. sella in curuli: apparently of closely connected is indicating that Nonius had just at.found in Hor. Carm . II. 16. I , tained the first of the curule offices,5, 6. - the curule aedileship, —perhaps 13. molestum: of a disease , as as part of the program settled upon in Hor. Ep.I. 1. 108 pituita molesta at the conference at Luca in 56est. B.C. This would very well fit Nonius 14. exsultas gestis: simi- Asprenas, who was an officer oflar phraseology is used by Cicero, Caesar in the African War in 46 speaking of the slave to passion , in with the title of proconsul ( Bell. Tusc. V. 6. 16 exsultans et temere Afr. 80. 4; Bell. Hisp. 10. 2 ), andgestiens. perhaps not so well M. Nonius Sufe 15-16. Probably Catullus had no nas, who so late as 56 was only especial case in mind, but Croesus tribunus plebis. — struma: a scrofand Sybaris might have served him ulous tumor, used here as an un as well-known examples of such complimentary nickname, from the ruined kings and cities. manner in which rascals were attach 52. This epigrammatic address ing themselves to the high offices is evidently one of the series of at- of the state; cf. Cic. Sest. 65. 135 tacks upon the Caesarians, and was strumam ciuitatis; Plin . Ň . H. perhaps written in 55 B.C. , when XXXVII. 81 Nonius senator, filius

-53-3] CATULLUS.Per consulatum perierat Vatinius:Quid est, Catulle? quid moraris emori?53 .Risi nescio quem modo e corona,Qui, cum mirifice Vatiniana Meus crimina Caluus explicasset,-strumae Noni' eius quen Catullus poeta in sella curuli uisum indigne tulit, where the reproduction of the order of the words in Catullus seems to indicate that Pliny understood struma to be an epithet and not atrue cognomen .3. perierat: napd a poodoklav,for iurat. - Vatinius: in the year 55 the Caesarians succeeded in electing Vatinius praetor over Cato.Already in 56 Cicero had charged him with impudent assurance re garding a future consulship , and to the same characteristic Catullusrefers here. But the coveted ad vancement was doubtless promised by Caesar at Luca, and this promo tion to the praetorship was regarded but as a step thereto by Vatinius and by Catullus as well, whose in dignation was all the more firedby it.4. The first verse is identical withthe last also in 16 and 36.53. An anecdotal jesting com pliment to the oratorical power of Calvus, as 50 was a compliment to his poetical talent. Tacitus (Dial.21 ) speaks of the orations of Calvusagainst Vatinius as still read, prae cipua secunda ex iis oratio, as if there were at least three of them.He also says ( Dial. 34) that Calvus was not much more than 22 years old when he attacked Vatinius iis orationibus quas hodie quoque cumadmiratione legimus. This remark may well apply to the prosecution mentioned by Cicero ( Vat. 14) as occurring in 58 B.C. , when Calvuswas 24 years old. No records existof any further prosecution of Vati nius by Calvus until that of August,54 B.C., when Cicero appeared for the defence. But when Cicero in56 B.C. cross -examined Vatinius ( see In Vatinium ) while conductingthe defence of Sestius, Calvus promised to indict Vatinius, apparently at once (Cic. Quint. Fr. II. 4. I ) , and the trial may well have come off speedily, though doubtless an acquit tal was secured by the same influ ences that immediately gave Vatinius the praetorship for 55 B.C. , and hur.ried him into office (Cic. Quint. Fr. II. 7. 3) to escape further prosecution. At this unrecorded trial in56 B.C. the famous second speech ofCalvus was probably delivered, andto it Catullus doubtless refers here.- Metre, Phalaecean.1. corona: a circle of auditors,especially at a trial; cf. Cic. Flac.28. 69 a iudicibus oratio auertitur,uox in coronam turbamque effundi tur; Hor. Ep. I. 18. 53 scis quo clamore coronae proelia sustineas campestria.2. Vatiniana: the adjective is here equivalent to an objective genitive, while in 14. 3 it is sub jective.S8 CATULLUS. ( 53.4Admirans ait haec manusque tollens' Di magni, salaputium disertum! '54 .Othonis caput oppido est pusillum ,Et eri rustica semilauta crura ,Subtile et leue peditum Libonis,Si non omnia, displicere uellem5 Tibi et Fuficio, seni recoctoransIrascere iterum meis iambisImmerentibus, unice imperator.4. manus tollens: the instinc- unknown. – Date, 55 B.C. ( cf. v. 7)tive gesture of amazement; cf. Cic. Metre, Phalaecean .Acad. II. 19. 63 uehementer admi- 1. oppido: colloquial for ualde;ut etiam manus saepe especially frequent in Terence.tolleret. pusillum: the insinuation is prob5. di magni: cf. 14. 12 n. ably like that of our proverb, “ Little salaputium: apparently a comical head, little wit. 'slang word, referring to the short 2. et eri: unmetrical and unin.stature of Calvus; cf. Ov. Trist. II. telligible, the latter possibly because431 exigui licentia Calvi; Sen. of a lacuna between vv. I and 2, as Contr. VII. 4 erat enim [ Caluus] indicated by the repetition there ofparuulus statura, propter quod 50. 16-17; but perhaps a proper etiam Catullus in hendecasyllabis name lies hid under the words.uocat illum ' salaputtium disertum .' rustica: cf. the references to the Except in these two places the word country in uncomplimentary char.nowhere occurs , though Salaputis acterizations in 22. 14; 36. found as a man's name in an 5. tibi: probably referring to the African inscription (C. I. L. VIII. person addressed below as unice10570 ). The etymology is uncer- imperator. recocto: i.e. rejuvetain . nated, an old man with all the vices54. Apparently an attack upon of a young one; cf. the story of Caesar, but exhibiting, in spite of Medea, Aeson, and Pelias in Ov.attempts at emendation, an Met. VII. 159 ff.; Hor. Sat. II. 5 .tremely un- Catullian blindness and 55 recoctus scriba ex quinqueuiroawkwardness, which fact, together Petron . frag. 21 B. anus recocta with the repetition in the MSS. of uino trementibus labellis.50. 16-17 after v. 1 , makes it alto- 6. iambis: perhaps in general of gether probable that the tradition of satirical verses in whatever metre;the text is incurably defective. The cf. 40. 2 n.; 12. 10 n .persons mentioned by name are all 7. immerentibus: since theyex

55. 5] CATULLUS. 8955.Oramus, si forte non molestum est,Demonstres ubi sint tuae tenebrae.Te campo quaesiuimus minore,Te in circo, te in omnibus libellis,5 Te in templo summi Iouis sacrato.untell nothing but the plain truth .unice imperator: comparison with 29. II imperator unice and v. 6 ite rum suggests forcibly that Julius Caesar is meant, and that 54 fol lowed soon after 29 in composition,and here refers to it.55. An appeal to an otherwise unknown Camerius to disclose his whereabouts to his friend, who has been searching through Rome for him . Similar descriptions of an anx ious search for a friend through the city are not wanting in the come dians; cf. Plaut. Amph. 1009 ff.;Epid. 196 ff.; Ter. Ad. 713 ff.The poem appears to be an finished experiment in a not very pleasant modification of the Phalae cean verse, and was perhaps, with the accompanying fragment, 585,found among the papers of Catullus after his death and published by the original editor of the Liber. The odd verses ( and also v. 8) through v. 13,and from that point the even verses,have a spondee in the second place.In 586, however, only v. I and 9have a spondee in the second place. — Date, 55 B.C. ( cf. v. 6 n. ) .1. si forte, etc.: a bit of colloquial politeness; cf. Ter. Ad. 806 ausculta paucis, nisi molestumst,Demea; Cic. Cluent. 60. 168 tu autem , nisi molestum est, paulisper exsurge; Mart. I. 96. I si non mo lestum est teque non piget dicas.2. tenebrae, lurking -place; cf. Prop. IV. 15. 17 saepe illam immun dis passa est habitare tenebris.3. campo minore: probably so called to distinguish it from the great campus Martius; and Paulus( Fest. p . 131 ) mentions a campus Martialis on the Caelian , wherehorse- races were held when theTiber overflowed the campus Mar. tius ( cf. also Ov. Fast. III. 519 522). This is possibly the place meant, as the search passed from it through the Circus Maximus, by the shops near the Forum ( cf. 37.2 n. ) , over the Capitoline, to Pom pey's portico in the Campus Mar tius. There were yet other campi;cf. Prop. III. 23. 6 campo quo mouet illa pedes? Not. et Cur. App. I. Campi VIII., etc. On the ablative without in cf. Ov. and Prop.; Liv. XXI. 8. 7 iustae acies uelut patenti campo constiterant.4. circo: i.e. the Circus Maxi mus, a haunt of idlers; cf. Hor.Sat. I. 6. 113 ff. — tě: not elided,for no trochee stands in the second place; while the hiatus with systole is supported by that in 10. 27; 97.I; 114.6; cf. Intr. 86 d . - libellis ,book-shops, as perhaps in Mart. V. 20. 8 libelli, campus, porticus haec essent loca semper.5. templo summi louis: the triple Etruscan temple of Jupiter Capitolinus with Juno and Minerva,ascribed to Tarquinius Priscus, was burned in 83 B.C. Sulla began, and Q. Lutatius Catulus in 69 B.C. com pleted, the new temple, which was itself burned in 69 A.D. under Vitel lius (cf. Tac. Hist. III. 72) .-.C Cs5. CATULLUS.610In Magni simul ambulationeFemellas omnes, amice, prendi,Quas uultu uidi tamen serenas.† A uelte sic ipse flagitabam:

  • Camerium mihi, pessimae puellae!'

Quaedam inquit nudum f reduc .• En hic in roseis latet papillis. 'Sed te iam ferre Herculi labos est:Tanto ten fastu negas, amice?15 Dic nobis ubi sis futurus, edeAudacter, committe, crede luci.Nunc te lacteolae tenent puellae?Si linguam clauso tenes in ore,6. Magni ambulatione: in the culty of emendation . See Crit.summer of 55 B.C., the year of his App: second consulship , Pompey threw 13. te ferre: i.e. to endure with opento the public his stone theatre patience your conduct. — Herculi on the Campus Martius, with a labos est: with the figure cf. Prop.magnificent porticus adjoining it in III. 23. 7. ubi pertuleris, quos dicit therear of the stage. He is fre . fama, labores Herculis. The geni quently mentioned by his contem- tive in -i from Greek proper names poraries under the title Magnus, in -es is not infrequentin the earlier conferred by Sulla in 81 for his period and in Cicero .African victories. 15. ubi sis futurus , where you 7. femellas: drag leyóuevov. are to be ( found ), that I may come prendi, hailed; cf. Ter. Phor. 620 thither at an appointed time and prendo hominem solum; ' quor non 'inquam , ' Phormio , etc. 16. crede luci: in contrast with 8. uultu serenas: i.e. showing v. 2 guilty confusion . 17. The sportive manner of the 10. Cămerium: the first foot is girl (vv. 11-12) has awakened thean iambus, with the second syllable poet's suspicions, and he is anxious long by position of its vowel before to learn the truth from his friend's r followed by consonantal ¿; for a own lips. — lacteolae: apparently resolution of the normal trochee in not occurring again till Aus. Epist.a tribrach in this metre would be 7. 2. 46 carnem lacteoli uisceris (ofunique. With the construction an oyster ), where it plainly = can ( sc . reddite? ) cf. 38. 7. – pessi- didi" ( cf. 64. 65 lactentis papillas;mae puellae, you naughty girls Hor. Carm . I. 13. 2 lactea Telephi (Munro ); cf. the jesting sense of bracchia ); see, then, 13. 4 n. can .pessima in 36. 9. dida puella . -tenent: cf. 11. 18 n.11. The general character of the 18-20 . With the sentiment cf. 6 .gesture is clear, despite the diffi- 1-3. — tenes: this repetition withmeet you.--56.71 CATULLUS. 9320Fructus proicies amoris omnes:Verbosa gaudet Venus loquella.Vel si uis, licet obseres palatum ,Dum ueri sis particeps amoris.56 .O rem ridiculam , Cato, et iocosam Dignamque auribus et tuo cachinno. Ride, quidquid amas, Cato, Catullum:Res est ridicula et nimis iocosa.5 Deprendi modo pupulum puellae Trusantem: hunc ego, si placet Dionae,Pro telo rigida mea cecidi.-:different meaning immediately after tenent of the preceding verse is but another mark of the unfinished character of the poem .21–22. The poet declares him self, however, more interested in the true happiness of his friend than in the satisfaction of his own curiosity. — palatum: not as the organ of taste , but of the voice;cf. Hor. Sat. II . 3. 274 balba feris annoso uerba palato; Ov. Am . II.6. 47 ignauo stupuerunt uerba pa lato . —ueri amoris: i.e. sincerely requited love; cf. Mart. XI. 26. 5Veneris gaudia uera .56. On the Cato to whom these coarse verses are addressed see Intr.62. —Metre, Phalaecean .2. tuo: modifying both nouns,though agreeing with the second.3. quidquid amas Catullum:i.e. in proportion to the love you bear Catullus; a variation on thecolloquial phrase si me amas in ex .hortations; cf. Plaut. Trin . 244 da mihi hoc, mel meum, si me amas, si audes; Ter. Heaut. 1031 caue posthac, si me amas, unquam istucuerbum ex te audiam; Cic. Att. V. 17. 5 si quicquam me amas, hunclocum muni.4. nimis: cf. 43. 4 n.6. si placet Dionae: a variation on the phrase si dis placet, some times used in the sense of dis iuuantibus of completed actions; cf. Plaut. Capt. 454 expediui ex serui tute filium , si dis placet. Dione is mentioned in Hom. Il. V. 370 as the mother of Aphrodite, but Catul lus apparently has in mind Venus herself; cf. Bion 1. 93; Theocr. 7.116; Plaut. Mil. 1414; and the Augustan and later poets often , as Verg. Ecl. 9. 47 ecce Dionaei pro cessit Caesaris astrum; Hor. Carm .II. I. 39 Dionaeo sub antro.92 CATULLUS. (57. so57.5Pulchre conuenit improbis cinaedis,Mamurrae pathicoque Caesarique.Nec mirum: maculae pares utrisque,Vrbana altera et illa Formiana,Impressae resident nec eluentur:Morbosi pariter gemelli utrique,Vno in lecticulo erudituli ambo,Non hic quam ille magis uorax adulter,Riuales socii puellularum:Pulchre conuenit improbis cinaedis. IOen het57. Like 29, an attack upon Julius Caesar and his favorite Ma murra, and apparently written at about the same time with that poem, i.e. in late 55 B.C. With thesentiment cf. Mart. VIII. 35 cum sitis sintiles paresque uita, uxor pes sima, pessimus maritus, miror nonbene conuenire uobis. —Metre, Pha laecean.2. Mamurrac: see Intr. 73, 74.3. nec mirum: cf. 23. 7 n.utrisque: found in Catullus inthe plural only here and in v. 6;and in general the plural is much common in prose than inpoetry.4. urbana: i.e. Romana; cf. 29.23 urbis ( = Romae) . Formi.ana: cf. 41. 4 n.6. morbosi: probably merely atranslation of talkol; cf. gloss.Labb. p. 116a morbosus malkos.gemelli: sneeringly, of their simi larity in character; cf. Hor. Ep. I.10. 3 cetera paene gemelli fraternis animis, where, however, there is no irony.7. lecticulo, study-couch; &tag λεγόμενον, but the feminine lecticula occurs in this sense in Suet. Aug. 78, and the masculine is not strange by analogy with lectulus ( cf. Plin .Ep. V. 5. 5 ) .- erudituli: Caesarwas not only a historian , but agrammarian ( Suet. Iul. 56; Cic.Brut. 72. 253) and a poet ( Suet.l.c.; Tac. Dial. 21; Plin. Ep. V. 3. 5 ) . On Mamurra's attempts atpoetry see 105 . 9. riuales socii: here it appears better to take riuales in its original implication of not unfriendly rivalry ,the two friends vying with eachother in the number of their mistresses; v. 9 thus completes v. 8;cf. Tac. Hist. I. 13 [ Otho erat] gra .tus Neroni aemulatione luxus.10. The first and last verses are identical also in 16, 36. and 52.more-

  • Lucil .332 Warm . cum фалскопосле

Anchil . 124 Edm . άπισκόλεπτών of . dr. Plut, twits586 3 ] CATULLUS. 9358.angin < hanques , replaced by augustusportus is original sean Caeli, Lesbia nostra, Lesbia illa, Passags-wan'Illa Lesbia, quam Catullus unamPlus quam se atque suos amauit omnes,Nunc in quadriuiis et angiportisGlubit magnanimi Remi nepotes.draws wolf - workingthes froman inflames Suomen" rets up ' *S Swifesingen "heads TRANSF ' role' Cat.?>586.Non custos si fingar ille Cretum,Non si Pegaseo ferar uolatu,Non Ladas ego pinnipesue Perseus,nos-58. To Caelius, on the debase ment of Lesbia; see Intr . 41. Date, probably 55 B.C. Metre,Phalaecean .1. Caeli: see Intr. 59.tra: for mea , as it is absurd to sup pose, with some critics, that Catullusrecognizes in Caelius an equal inter est with himself in Lesbia .3. plus quam se, etc.; cf. 8. 5;3. 5 n.4. quadriuiis: cf. 47. 7 n. triuio .- angiportis, alley -ways; cf. Hor.Carm . I. 25. 9 inuicem moechos anus adrogantes flebis in solo leuis angiportu .5. magnanimiRemi nepotes:i.e. the descendants of the Romansof a noble day have fallen thus low.There is indignation but not sar casm in the phrase; cf. 49. i n.585. These few verses on the same theme as 55 are evidently afragment, and were inserted here by the original editor of the liber Catulli quite in accordance with his usual habit of separating poems on similar themes by two or three others of a different character. SeeIntr. 48, and introductory note to 55. -Metre, Phalaecean.I. custos ille Cretum: i.e. the bronze giant Talus, devised by Dae.dalus and made by Hephaestus for King Minos, who strode from headland to headland, making the cir cuit of the island thrice daily; cf. Apoll. Rh. IV . 1638 ff.; Apollod. I. 9. 26. 3 ff. fingar, be molded into; cf. 66. 50 ferri fingere duri tiem .2. Pegaseo uolatu: for the story of the winged horse, Pegasus, who sprang from the blood of Medusaas her head was severed by Perseus,see Apollod. II. 4.2.9; 3. 2. 1 .3. Ladas: Pausanias mentions by this name two victors in the Olympic foot-races, one of Sparta,and the other, less famous, an Achaean ( Paus. III. 21. 1; X. 23.14); cf. Mart. X. 100. 5 habeas lice bit alterum pedem Ladae; Juv. 13.96 pauper locupletem optare poda.gram nec dubitet Ladas. Therea manifest anacoluthon; the idea of v. I si fingar is the one in mind. — pinnipes Perseus: in order to attack Medusa in safety,Perseus had borrowed of the Nymphs the winged shoes like those of Hermes, as well as Pluto'sis99 CATULLUS. [58 .5Non Rhesi niueae citaeque bigae:Adde huc plumipedes uolatilesque,Ventorumque simul require cursum ,Quos uinctos, Cameri, mihi dicares:Defessus tamen omnibus medullis Et multis langoribus peresusEssem te mihi, amice, quaeritando.1059.Bononiensis Rufa Rufulum fellat,Vxor Meneni, saepe quam in sepulcretis=6. 2 n.helmet of invisibility and the magic him.- dicares dares, as in Verg wallet; see Apollod. II. 4. 2. Cf. Aen. I. 73 propriam dicabo.Prop. III. 30. 3 non si Pegaseo uec- 8. defessus omnibus medul teris in aere dorso, nec tibi si Persei lis: cf. Plaut. Stich. 340 at egoperii,mouerit ala pedes. pinnipes is quoi medullam lassitudo perbibit.άπαξ λεγόμενον . With defessus quaeritando 4. Rhesi: Rhesus was the king of cf. Plaut. Amph . 1014 sum defessus Thrace whose famous horses Ulysses quaeritando, nusquam inuenio and Diomed stole on the night of Naucratem .his arrival to help the Trojans; cf. 9. langoribus peresus: cf. Se Hom . Il. X. 438 ff .; Ov. Met. XIII. renus Samm. 62 languore peresus.249 ff. There is a similar anacolu- 10. essem: with this sequencethon to that in v. 3; si ferar fills out after v. I fingar and v. 2 ferar cf. the idea.5. plumipedes: drag leyóue- 59. A skit upon a certain woman vov; the reference is clearly not to named Rufa, who, from the fact flying men like Daedalus and the that she is especially mentioned as sons of Boreas ( for Perseus in v. 3 a Bolognese, must have beenliving is a type of such swiftness ), but to elsewhere, probably at either Verona birds, thus interposed between or Rome. The persons mentioned horses and winds. uolatiles: are otherwise unknown, though carrying further the picture in the some suppose that Rufulus is M. preceding adjective; feather - footed Caelius Rufus (Intr. 59) . –Metre,(Ben Jonson ) and flying fowl. choliambic.7. uinctos: with reference to 1. Rufa Rufulum: perhaps the the story of Aeolus and Ulysses (cf. similarity in name denotes some Hom . Od. X. 17 ff.); the idea being relationship ( cf. Lesbius and Lesbia only that if he were by their master in 79 ), the diminutive being used put in possession of the winds to sneeringly.rule them at his pleasure, their un- 2. sepulcretis: drag leyóuevov;wearied swiftness would not suffice apparently used of common andto . 5 )CATULLUS.93Vidistis ipso rapere de rogo cenam ,Cum deuolutum ex igne prosequens panems Ab semiraso tunderetur ustore .60 .Num te leaena montibus LibystinisAut Scylla latrans infima inguinum parteTam mente dura procreauit ac taetra,Vt supplicis uocem in nouissimo casu5 Contemptam haberes, ah nimis fero corde?-cheap places of burial; with the form cf. arboretum , rosetum , busti cetum , etc. 3. rapere, etc.: i.e. pilfer the food placed on the funeral pyre to be burned with the body (cf. Verg.Aen. VI. 224 congesta cremantur turea dona, dapes, fuso crateres oliuo ). On such bustirapi ( Plaut.Pseud. 361 ) cf. Ter. Eun. 491 flamma petere te cibum posse arbi tror; Ov. Ib . 20 hic praedam medio raptor ab igne petit; Mart. XI. 54.So poverty and hunger are satirized in 21 and 23.4. prosequens: i.e. stooping downto grasp it.5. semiraso: i.e. careless about shaving, and hence “ squalid ”; cf. 54. 2 semilauta; Luc. Phar. VIII.738 sordidus ustor. —tunderetur:caught in the act and beaten by the ustor, commonly a slave of low de gree belonging to the libitinariiwho attended to the burning of bodies.60. This brief complaint over the want of sympathy of some friend in the poet's extremity is apparently a bit of incomplete verse , but intone is very like 30 , while its lan .guage suggests the complaint of Ari adne in 64. 154 ff. Perhaps it was the last verse penned by Catullus as his strength failed him and death came on. — Date, 54 B.C. (?) . Me tre, choliambic..I. leaena: perhaps the first oc currence in Latin of the Greek word for the early leo femina( Plaut.) and lea (Varro ). –Liby stinis: rare form of the adjective;cf. 7. 3 Libyssae.2. latrans, etc.: Catullus, like most, if not all, of the Latin poets that mention her, evidently thinks of Scylla with a woman's body end ing below in a group of fierce dogs;but Homer ( od. XII. 85 ff.) , as might be expected in an earlier con ception, describes her as a monster entirely without human form .4. in nouissimo casu , at hissupreme trial; the phrase maywell imply apprehended death; cf. Tac.Ann. XII. 33 nouissimum casum experitur ( i.e. tries the forlornhope ).5. contemptam haberes: cf. 17. 2 n. — nimis: cf. 43. 4 n .-96 CATULLUS (61...61.Collis o HeliconiiCultor, Vraniae genus,Qui rapis teneram ad uirumVirginem, o Hymenaee Hymen,5 O Hymen Hymenaee,61. With 61 begins the group of longer poems of Catullus which ex tends through 68. Of these 61 , 62,and ( after the interposition, as com monly, of a poem on a different subject) 64 are on marriage themes,and in certain MSS. as well as by earlier editors are called Epithala mia . 61 is written in honor of themarriage of Manlius Torquatus and Vinia Aurunculeia (cf. v. 16 n .), but is in no sense a true epithalamium ,sung by a chorus outside the mar riage chamber. The poet himself,on the contrary, speaks throughout,acting as a sort of choragus, and,yielding fully to the joyous enthusi asm of the occasion, in a tone of purest inspiration joinsin each part of the ceremonial. The poem is,then, a graceful combination of lyric reminiscences of the ceremonies attending a Roman marriage, rather than a precisedramatic representa tion of any of them. Hence the poet allows himself certain liberties with the rites, omitting all reference to some, altering others, and intro ducing a Greek flavor, especially by the invocation to Hymen, and by the singing of a true epithalamium at the end. — For a description of Roman marriage -rites see Becker Gallus ( English translation 5 ) p.160 ff .; Marquardt Privatleben der Römer 2 p. 42 ff. — Date uncertain,though it hardly seems possible that Catullus could have sung another'slove with so clear a note after hislove for Lesbia had ended in suchbitter disappointment. Metre, Gly.conic ( Intr . 82 b ).1-35 . Invocation to Hymen . The poet speaks as if standing before the bride's home, awaiting her coming forth for the procession to the house of the bridegroom .1. collis Heliconii: Mt. Heliconin Boeotia was from most ancienttimes known as the seat of the Muses ( cf. Hes. The. I Movodws 'Elckwvládwv ), of one of whom was the son.2. cultor: for incola; cf. 64. 300 cultricem montibus Idri; 63. 72siluicultrix . – Vraniac: by otherwriters Hymen is called the sonof Calliope, or of Terpsichore, or even of Bacchus and Venus ( cf. Serv. on Verg. Aen. IV. 127) .genus: for filius; cf. 64. 23.3. rapis: cf. the same traditional sentiment in 62. 20 ff. And though perhaps not directly referred to here,the prehistoric marriage by captureis traceable in the Roman custom of taking the bride from her moth er's arms with a show of force, and of carrying her over the threshold of her new home ( cf. 166-167 ). —teneram: in contrast with the idea of violence in rapis. uirum uirginem: with the favorite allitera tive contrast; cf. Verg. Aen. I. 493 audet uiris concurrere uirgo.4. Hymen: the Greek god of marriage addressed under thedouble name ' Tuño ' Tuévale (or in reverse order); cf. Eur. Tro. 311;Arist. Pax 1335; Theocr. 18. 58;-61.27 )CATULLUS 9710Cinge tempora floribusSuaue olentis amaraci,Flammeum cape, laetus huc,Huc ueni niueo gerensLuteum pede soccum,Excitusque hilari dieNuptialia concinensVoce carmina tinnulaPelle humum pedibus, manuPineam quate taedam.Namque Vinia Manlio,Qualis Idalium colens15Plaut. Cas.752 io HymenHymenaee;Ov. Her. 14. 27 Hymen Hymenace;and also 62. 5 , etc. 6-10 . Theattributes of Hymenare those of marriage; here, the wreath , veil, and slippers of the bride; in v. 15, the torch.6. floribus: cf. Paul. Fest. p. 63 corollam noua nupta de floribus,uerbenis, herbisque a se lectis sub amiculo ferebat; Ov. Her. 6. 43 pronuba Iunoadfuit et sertis tem pora uinctus Hymen.7. suaue olentis amaraci, sweet marjoram (Gr. oduyuxov ); cf.Verg. Aen. I. 693 mollis amaracus illum floribus et dulci adspirans complectitur umbra.8. flammeum: the long mantle ( = palla?) drawn up to serve as ahead -covering; in the case of brides and of the wife of the flamen it was of a brownish-yellow color ( lu teum ); cf. Luc. Phar. II . 361 lutea demissos uelarunt flammea uultus.-cape, don; cf. v. 9 gerens.-huc,hục: cf. 64. 195.9. niueo: to contrast with v. 10 luteum .10. Soccum: unlaced slippers,used commonly for house -wear, and so especially by women. In theapparel of the bride in the Aldo brandini marriage scene they are yellow in color.12. concinens: of a single voice also in 65. 13; but v. 123 concinite in modum .13. tinnula: of a clear, high pitched tone like the ring of a re sounding bar of metal; cf. 64. 262;Pomponius ap . Macrob. VI. 4. 13 uocem reddam tenuem et tinnulam .14: pelle humum pedibus; of dancing, as in Lucr. V. 1402 duro terram pede pellere; Hor. Carm . I. 37. 1 pede libero pulsanda tellus;III. 18. 15 pepulisse ter pede terram .15. pineam quate taedam: on torches in the marriage procession cf. Verg. Aen . VII. 397 ipsa fla grantem feruida pinum sustinet ac canit hymenaeos; Ciris 439 pronuba nec castos accendet pinus honores;Ov. Fast. II. 561 conde tuas, Hyme naee, facis.16. Vinia Manlio: the bride iscalled Aurunculeia in v. 86, a fact which Scaliger rightly explained as due to an adoption, Vinia being the

98 CATULLUS.Cor. 1820Venit ad Phrygium VenusIudicem, bona cum bonaNubet alite uirgo,Floridis uelut enitensMyrtus Asia ramulis,Quos hamadryades deaeLudicrum sibi rosidoNutriunt umore.Quare age huc aditum ferensPerge linquere Thespiae35-present legal name corresponding to the formal nomen gentile of the bridegroom , in immediate connec tion with which it stands, while Aurunculeia was the name beforeadoption. Both names are common enough, but the personality of the bride can be no further determined.On Manlius Torquatus ( cf. vv. 216 and 222) see Intr. 67.17. qualis: the comparison ex tends only to the all -conquering beauty of the bride . Idaliumcolens: cf. 36. 12 n.18. Phrygium iudicem: i.e. Paris, whose decision in giving the golden apple as the prize of beauty to Aphrodite rather than to Hera or Pallas brought in its train all the woes of the Trojan War; cf. Hom.II. XXIV. 28 ff.; Hor. Carm . III . 3. 18 Ilion, Ilion fatalis incestusque iudex et mulier peregrina uertit in puluerem .19. bona uirgo: the thought turns from beauty to character; cf. v. 186 honae feminae; v . 226 a bona matre. - cum bona alite: of theominous flight of birds; cf. Hor.Carm . I. 15. 5 mala ducis aui do mum; Cic . Diuin . I. 16. 28 namut nunc extis, sic tum auibus, mag nae res impetriri solent.22. myrtus Asia: the myrtle flourished in damp places, and the thought here is probably of the famous fertile region about the Cay ster in Lydia; cf. Hom. II. II. 461 'Ασίφ εν λειμώνι Καύστρίου αμφι péeopa; Verg. Geor. I. 383 uolucres quae Asia circum dulcibus in stag nis rimantur prata Caystri. The myrtle bore white blossoms ( Arist.Au. Io99 ώρινά παρθένια λευκότροφα uúpra ), and was sacred to Venus ( Phaedr. III. 17. 3 myrtus Veneri placuit ); similarly Ariadne is com pared to a myrtle-branch in 64. 89,and Vinia herself in v. 91 ff. to thehyacinth , and in v. 193 ff. to the white parthenice and the flame-red poppy.23. hamadryades deac:tree -nymphs; cf. Serv . on Verg.Ecl. 10. 62 quae una cum arbori bus nascuntur et pereunt; Apol.Rhod. II . 479 ff.24. rosido: for the later rorido (Prop. III. 30. 26) or roscido ( Plin .N. H. IX. 10. 38 roscido umore) .25. The place of the cyclic dactyl is in this verse taken by an irrational spondee ( Intr. 82 b); cf. the similar substitutions in the experimentalmetre of 55 and 58 b.26. quare age: cf. v. 38; 64.372. — aditum ferens: cf. v. 43;2.e.61.42]CATULLUS.Rupis Aonios specus,Nympha quos super irrigat30 Frigerans Aganippe,Ac domum dominam uocaConiugis cupidam noui,Mentem amore reuinciensVt tenax hedera huc et huc35 Arborem implicat errans.Vosque item simul, integrae Virgines, quibus aduenitPar dies, agite in modumDicite ' O Hymenaee Hymen,O Hymen Hymenaee,'Vt libentius, audiensSe citarier ad suum63. 47 reditum tetulit; 63. 79 redi- the drawings of love ( cf. w . 176 tum ferat. 178) .27. Thespiae rupis: the town of 34. hedera, etc.: cf. the similar Thespiae layat the foot of Helicon. familiar figure in v. 106 ff. -huc et 28. Aonios specus: Aonia was huc: cf. Hor. Epod. 4. 9 huc et huc che name of the district about Heli- euntium .con, whence the Muses were called 36–45. Exhortation of the chora .Aonides (Ov. Met. V: 333; Juv. 7 gus to the waiting maidens to join 59) . On caves as quiet retreats of in singing the praises of Hymen.the Muses cf. Hor. Carm . III. 4. 40; 36. integrae: cf. 34. 2 n.37. aduenit, is close at hand,29. nympha Aganippe: her while the future would mean willfountain is described by Paus. IX. sometime come. '29. 3. —super: for desuper; cf. 38. par dies: i.e. their own wed Verg. Aen. IX. 168 haecsupere ding-day. — agite: expletive, as in uallo prospectant Troes; Tib . III. V. 26 age; v. 123 ite; cf. 63. 12;2. 10 ossa super nigra fauilla teget. 64. 372. - in modum: i.e. in the 31. dominam: for the Roman unison of prescribed rhythm; cf. v.wife was domina wherever her hus- 123; Hor. Carm . IV . 6. 43 docilis bandwas dominus, according to the modorum uatis Horati.marriage formula ubi tu Gaius ego 42. citarier: with this earlier in.Gaia . finitive form cf. v. 65, etc. compara .32. coniugis cupidam noui: rier; v. 68 nitier; 68. 141 compa the bride displays proper maidenly nier, and see 34. 8 n .reluctance (cf. vv. 83-85 ), yet feels nus: explained by v. 44-45.Juv. 1.c.- suum mu.100 CATULLUS. [61.43Munus, huc aditum feratDux bonae Veneris, boni45 Coniugator amoris.Quis deus magis anxiisEst petendus amantibus?Quem colent homines magis Caelitum? o Hymenaee Hymen,50 O Hymen Hymenaee.Te suis tremulus parensInuocat, tibi uirginesZonula soluunt sinus,Te timens cupida nouus55 Captat aure maritus.Tu fero iuueni in manusFloridam ipse puellulamDedis a gremio suae43. aditum ferat: cf. v. 26 n. the figure cf. 2. 13 n. soluunt:44. dux: as the presiding deity on the diaeresis see Intr. 86 6.of marriage. bonae Veneris , 54. timens: contrasted with thehonorable love; cf. vv . 61-63; v. 202 following word, cupida; the bride bona Venus. groom's eagerness is so great as to 45. coniugator: drag leyóue- be somewhat allied to fear, almost vov; with the figure cf. 68. 118 n. like that of the traditional bride;46–75. The choragus leads the so he trembles even while he listens maidens in singing the praises of anxiously to catch the music of the Hymen. bridal procession.46. anxiis: i.e. fretting with 55. captat aure: cf. Verg. Aen .eager passion; cf. Stat. Silu . I. 2. III. 514 auribus aera captat.81 quantos iuuenis premat anxius 56. in manus: perhaps with aignes. reminiscence of the legal conuentio 51. te parens inuocat: the aged in manum.parent desires to see his daughters 57. floridam: cf. 17. 14 n.; the established under the protection of idea is of the bride's tender, youthhusbands before his death; cf. 62. ful bloom, and contrasts with that 58; 66. 15-16 . — tremulus: sc. in v. 56 fero.with the palsy of age; cf. 17 . 58. a gremio suae matris: of the guarded peacefulness of the 53. zonula, etc.: i.e. maidens bride's former life; cf. v. 3 n. rapis:willingly submit to thy sway; with 62. 21-22; 64. 87-88.

13 n.-61.77 )CATULLUS.101Matris, o Hymenaee Hymen ,60 O Hymen Hymenaee.Nil potest sine te VenusFama quod bona comprobetCommodi capere: at potestTe uolente. Quis huic deo65 Compararier ausit?Nulla quit sine te domus Liberos dare, nec parensStirpe nitier: at potestTe uolente. Quis huic deo70 Compararier ausit?Quae tuis careat sacrisNon queat dare praesides Terra finibus: at queatTe uolente. Quis huic deo75 Compararier ausit?Claustra pandite ianuae,Virgo adest. Viden ut faces61. nil commodi capere: cf. Ter. Eun. 971 hoc capio commodi.65. compararier: on the form see v. 42 n . citarier.67. liberos: by the formula that embodied the strict Roman reverence for the family, a wife was taken liberorum quaerendorum gratia,and Gaius remarks ( I. 64 ), si quis nefarias atque incestas nuptias con traxerit, neque uxorem habere uineque liberos.68. stirpe nitier: with the figure cf. Plin . Ep. IV. 21. 3 unus ex tri bus liberis superest domumque plu ribus adminiculis paulo ante fun datam desolatusfulcit ac sustinet.71. careat: the change with this stanza from direct to hypothetical statement corresponds to the ab sence of probability that an entire land would be without marriage rites.72. dare praesides: in the older days only Roman citizens could serve in the legions, and no man could be born a Roman citizen save within the strictly guarded mar riage- laws.76–120. The hymn to Hymen finished, the bride is now urged to come forth and take her place in the procession to the bridegroom's house, and to dry her tears(v. 85)detur,102 CATULLUS. (61.78Splendidas quatiunt comas?8085Tardet ingenuus pudor:Quem tamen magis audiensFlet quod ire necesse est.Flere desine. Non tibi, Au runculeia, periculum estNe qua femina pulchriorClarum ab Oceano diem90 Viderit uenientem.Talis in uario soletDiuitis domini hortuloby thoughts of her own conquering prodeas noua nupta ( cf. v . 94 and beauty ( vv. 86–100 ), which the poet the urgent repetitions in w. 95,skilfully extols by prophesying her 96, 100, 110, 120 ), while vv . 81 entire and lasting influence over her 82 referred to her evident reluc husband ( vv. 1o1 ff.). tance, for which vv . 83-85 assign 77. uiden ut, etc.: addressed to the reason .the bride, who may look out through 83. ingenuus pudor: i.e. the the now opened doors and see the natural modesty of a maiden gently procession ready to escort her on bred; cf. Plin . N. H. Praef. 21 her way to her new home. The est plenum ingenui pudoris fateri phrase is used in Catullus, as regu- per quos profeceris; Prop. I. 4. 13 larly in early Latin , in the senseof ingenuus calor et multis decus arti quo modo, without affecting the mood bus; Plin. Ep. I. 14. 8 ingenua of the verb ( cf. v. 98; 62. 8) , the totius corporis pulchritudo et qui ut being more exclamatory than in- dam senatorius decor .terrogative. In 62. 8 it is addressed 84. tamen: referring to ingeto more than one person. In later nuus; it is a becoming modesty,writers the subjunctive becomes the but is indulged too far. —magis:rule; cf. also v. 171 ff. aspice ut sc . quam nostra uerba. -audiens,immineat. minding; cf. Verg . Geor. l. 514 79–82. The two concluding verses neque audit currus habenas; Hor.of the first defective stanza doubt- Carm . I. 13. 13 si me satis audias.less contained an exhortation to the 85. flet: on the genuineness of bride to come forth , vv . 79-80 per- the bride's tears cf. 66. 15-18.haps being ne moreris, 'abit dies: 89. diem:: 1.6 , the morrow's day.61. 112)CATULLUS.10395100Stare flos hyacinthinus.Sed moraris, abit dies:Prodeas, noua nupta.Prodeas, noua nupta, siIam uidetur, et audiasNostra uerba. Vide ut facesAureas quatiunt comas:Prodeas, noua nupta.Non tuus leuis in malaDeditus uir adulteraProbra turpia persequensA tuis teneris uoletSecubare papillis,Lenta quin uelut adsitasVitis implicat arbores,Implicabitur in tuum Complexum. Sed abit dies:Prodeas, noua nupta.105IIOO cubile quod omnibus

more93. flos hyacinthinus: cf. Verg.Aen . XI. 69 florem languentis hya cinthi; not our hyacinth, but theblue iris or the larkspur. On the comparison with a fower cf. v.22 n.98. uide: perhaps with impatience than v. 77 uiden .99. aureas: of fire also in Lucr.VI. 205 liquidi color aureus ignis;cf. Pind. Ol. 1. I Ó 8è xpuods al06 μενον πύρ .103. probra turpia: cf. 91. 4 aturpiprobro.106. quin, nay rather. —uelut,etc .: with the comparison cf. Hor.Corm . I. 36. 20 lasciuis hederis ambitiosior; Epod. 15. 5 artius atque hedera procera adstringitur ilex, lentis adhaerens bracchiis;Gall. Epithal. 3 (Anth . Lat. 232 Mey. ) bracchia nec hederae uin .cant.108. implicabitur: as of the middle voice.111. cubile, etc .: the Epithala .mium of Ticidas evidently contained a similar address of congratulation to the lectus genialis; cf.the quota .tion by Priscian (I. 189 ) felix lectule.112-114. These verses perhaps stood in the archetype at thebottom104 CATULLUS. [61. 113115 Candido pede lecti,Quae tuo ueniunt ero,Quanta gaudia, quae uagaNocte, quae medio dieGaudeat! Sed abit dies:I 20 Prodeas, noua nupta.Tollite, o pueri, faces:Flammeum uideo uenire.Ite, concinite in modumO Hymen Hymenaee io ,125 O Hymen Hymenaee.'Ne diu taceat procaxFescennina iocatio,or top of a page, with v. 79-82 standing in a corresponding position on the other side of the leaf, and were lost by the same mutilation that destroyed vv. 79-82.115. candido pede lecti: the feet of the bed were frequently of ivory; cf. 64. 45, 48; Hor. Sat. II .6. 103 tincta super lectos canderet urstis eburnos; Plat. Com. kliva ελεφαντόπους .117. gaudia gaudeat: with the figura etymologica cf. 7. 9 n.uaga, fleeting (Ellis); of the elu siveness of the constant onward movement of time; cf. 64. 271 n.uagi solis.118. medio die: of the mid- day siesta; cf. 32. 3; 80. 3.121-125. The bride yields to the persuasion and comes forth, and the procession begins to move.121. tollite faces: in preparation for departure.122. flammeum: the brighttinted mantle catches the eye first as the bride comes forth .123. ite: expletive; cf. v. 38 n.; Prop. IV. 4. 7 ite agite, date lintea .- concinite: cf. v . 12 n.; Spenser Epithal. The boys run up and down the street, Crying aloud with strong confused noise,As if it were one voice, Hymen! io Hymen! Hy men! they do shout. - in modum:cf. v. 38 n.124. io: as in the familiar cry io Triumphe.126–155. The uersus Fescennini,sung on the way to the bridegroom's house, which are addressed succes sively to the (perhaps imaginary )former slave - favorite of the bride.groom, to the bridegroom himself,and to the bride . Antiquarian ac curacy is not observed, for the bridegroom ( according to v . 171 ff .)is with his friends awaiting at his-61. 137 ]CATULLUS.105Nec nuces pueris negetDesertum domini audiens+30 Concubinus amorem.Da nuces pueris, inersConcubine: satis diuLusisti nucibus: libetIam seruire Talasio.135 Concubine, nuces da.Sordebant tibi uilicae,Concubine, hodie atque heri:crucemown home the arrival of the bride,and therefore not present to hear the verses addressed to him; whilein place of the bridegroom (v.128 ° n. ) the concubinus is presentand scatters the nuts.127. Fescennina iocatio: cf. Paul. Fest. 85 Fescennini uersus,qui canebantur in nuptiis, ex urbe Fescennina dicuntur allati, siue ideo dicti quia fascinum puta bantur arcere (cf. 5. 12 n .); Hor.Ep. II . 1. 145 Fescennina licentia uersibus alternis opprobria rustica fudit; Sen. Rh. p. 223 B. inter nuptiales Fescenninos in generi nostri iocabantur. Similar licentious catches directed againstthe general were sung by his sol diers in the triumphal procession ( cf. Suet. Iul. 49 and 51 ) .128. nuces pueris: as a part of the marriage ceremonies the bridegroom scattered nuts among the crowd of bystanders; cf. Verg. Ecl.8. 29 tibi ducitur uxor; sparge,marite, nuces, and the comments thereupon by Servius, who gives several explanations of the custom .129. desertum , etc.: i.e. per ceiving that his love for his master is now slighted.130. concubinus: the puer deli catus to whom the ( traditionally libellous) fescennines represent the bridegroom as having been de voted.131. iners: the favorite has thus far enjoyed a life of idleness; cf. Cic. N. D. I. 36. 102 Epicurus quasi pueri delicati nihil cessatione melius existimat.132. satis diu: i.e. you have long enough by favor of your mas ter enjoyed a child's free life ( cf. Servius l.c.); now scatter nuts to show that the life of irresponsibility is over for you.134. seruire: contrasted with lusisti; you have thus far played;now your master chooses the ser vice of Talasius, and sport is over. -Talasio: for the traditional origin of this distinctively Roman marriage.cry that corresponded to the Greek cry of Hymen , see Liv. I. 9. 12.136. sordebant, etc.: i.e. at your master's country- seat even the wives of the bailiffs, so much above com mon slaves like yourself, were but mean in your eyes.137. hodie atque heri, but yes.terday; cf. Gr. xoés kal apóny and έχθες και σήμερον (Ep. Heb. 13. 8).106 CATULLUS. [61. 138 .Nunc tuum cinerariusTondet os. Miser ah miser140 Concubine, nuces da.Diceris male te a tuisVnguentate glabris mariteAbstinere: sed abstine.O Hymen Hymenaee io,145 O Hymen Hymenaee.Scimus haec tibi quae licentSola cognita: sed maritoIsta non eadem licent.O Hymen Hymenaee io,150 O Hymen Hymenaee.Nupta, tu quoque quae tuusVir petet caue ne neges,Ne petitum aliunde eat.O Hymen Hymenaee io,155 O Hymen Hymenaee.138. cinerarius: the slave who acted as hair- dresser; cf. Varr. L. L. V. 129 calamistrum quod his cale factis in cinere capillus ornatur.Qui ea ministrabat a cinere cine rarius est appellatus.139. tondet os: i.e. the days of your childhood, and with them thecharm of your young beauty, and your life of idle luxury are past; cf. Mart. XI. 78. 3 flammea texuntur sponsae, iam uirgo paratur; ton debit pueros iam noua nupta tuos.- miser ah miser: cf. 63. 61 .141. The verses are nowdirected to the bridegroom . male: modi fying abstinere, with the meaning of aegre, as in Verg. Geor . I. 360iam sibi tum curuis male temperatunda carinis. te abstinere: withthe verb in this reflexive construction cf. Ter. Hec. 139 sese illa ab stinere ut potuerit?142. unguentate: as frequently ,with an idea of excessive and effemi.nate luxury. — glabris: i.e. pueris delicatis, plural as though, forsooth ,the bridegroom had kept many concubinos.146. licent, etc.: the sentimentintimated concerning the license allowed by society to an unmarried man is true to ancient life .151. The chorus now turns to thebride with equally, though less bru tally, plain words.-.-61 , 167 )CATULLUS. 107En tibi domus ut potensEt beata uiri tui:Quae tibi sine seruiat(O Hymen Hymenaee io,160 O Hymen Hymenaee)Vsque dum tremulum mouensCana tempus anilitasOmnia omnibus adnuit.O Hymen Hymenaee io,165 O Hymen Hymenaee.Transfer omine cum bonoLimen aureolos pedes,noua156–235. The procession reaches the bridegroom's house (-165) , the bride is assisted over the thresholdwithout stumbling (-170 ), and finds the bridegroom awaiting her (-180 ).She is then duly conducted to the lectus genialis ( -190 ), the bride groom allowed to enter the apart ment ( -205 ), and outside the door the chorussings its congratulations and prophecies of present and future happiness (-235) . Many small de tails of the usual marriage ceremo nies are untouched by the poet.156. ut: modifying potens ( sc.est ) . — potens: cf. Hor. Carm . I. 35. 23 potentis domos.157. beata: cf. 51.15 beatasurbes.158. sine seruiat: for you come to be domina, and the house offers its lasting allegiance for your accept161. tremulum: cf. v . 51 n.162: cana anilitas: cf. 108. Icana senectus. tempus: for caput, as in Prop. V. 8. 15 iacuit pul sus tria tempora ramo Cacus. Thesingular rarely occurs in the sense of one of the temples ' except whenso modified as to distinguish between them; but cf. Auct. ad Herenn. IV. 55 dubitanti Graccho percutit tempus.163. omnia omnibus adnuit:i.e. by the constant palsied motion of the head.166. transfer: apparently ad dressed to the bride, who here steps over (not upon ) the threshold,instead of being lifted across it;cf. Plaut. Cas. 767 ff. i, sensim superattolle limen pedes,nupta; sospes iter incipe hoc, ut uiro tuo semper sis superstes, ut potior sis pollentia, uictrixque sis,superetque tuum imperium .omine cum bono: the custom oflifting the bride across the threshold is doubtless traceable to the origi nal marriage by capture, as certain even of the ancients suggested, but its origin had been almost lost sight of, and the Romans explained it generally as due to fear that the bride might stumble, and so offend Vesta, to whom the threshold was sacred (Varro ap. Serv. on Verg .Ecl. 8. 29), or begin her new lifeance..108 CATULLUS. [61. 168–Rasilemque subi forem.O Hymen Hymenaee io ,170 O Hymen Hymenaee.Adspice unus ut accubansVir tuus Tyrio in toroTotus immineat tibi.O Hymen Hymenaee io ,175 O Hymen Hymenaee.Illi non minus ac tibiPectore uritur intimoFlamma, sed penite magis.O Hymen Hymenaee io,O Hymen Hymenaee. 180under an evil omen ( Plaut. Cas. cubans: sc . in lecto tricliniari, in l.c .; Ov. Met. X. 452 ter pedis connection with which accubare isoffensi signo est reuocata ). especially used.167. aureolos: perhaps only of 172. Tyrio in toro: i.e. a couch the color of the shoes ( cf. v. 10 with crimson draperies; cf. 64. 49 , luteum soccum with 2. 12 aureolum 163; Hor . Sat. II. 6. 103 ( cf. v. malum ); but cf. åpyupomeša of 115 n. ); Tib . I. 2. 75 Tyrio recu Thetis ( Hom. ) and Aphrodite bare toro. ( Pind.) , χρυσοπέδιλος of Hera 173. totus, with his whole being;( Ηom. ) , χρυσέη Αφροδίτη ( Ηom.), cf. 64. 93. -immineat, is intentetc. upon; cf. Ov. Met. I. 146 imminet 168. rasilem forem , the pol- exitio uir coniugis.ished doorway. 177. uritur: rare, if not unique,171. adspice: the bride now in the passive with such a subject stands within the dwelling at the as flamma; but cf. the not infreentrance to the atrium , where the quent use in Greek of δαίεσθαι in bridegroom has been celebrating similar constructions.with his friends the cena nuptialis; 178. penite, secretly; he showscf. Plaut. Curc. 728 tu , miles, apud no sign of his passion to curious me cenabis; hodie fient nuptiae; eyes; cf. Tib. IV . 5. 17 optat idemCic. Quint. Fr. II. 3. 7 eo die apud iuuenis quod nos, sed tectius optat,Pomponium in eius nuptiis eram but for the contrary view Ov. Art.cenaturus. the bride- Am. I. 276 uir male dissimulat;groom is the oneobject upon which tectius illa cupit. The adverb is her eyes rest, while he in turn has άπαξ λεγόμενον from the adjective eyes for her alone (v. 173) . — ac- penitus of Plautus and late Latin .unus:-61. 195)CATULLUS.109Mitte bracchiolum teres,Praetextate, puellulae:Iam cubile adeat uiri.O Hymen Hymenaee io,185 O Hymen Hymenaee.O bonae senibus uirisCognitae hene feminae,Conlocate puellulam.O Hymen Hymenaee io,190 O Hymen Hymenaee.Iam licet uenias, marite:Vxor in thalamo tibi estOre floridulo nitensAlba parthenice uelut195 Luteumue papauer.182. praetextate: the poet 187. cognitae bene: i.e. of ap.speaks unprecisely of but one boy proved uprightness established on leading the bride to the door of the intimate knowledge, as in 91. 3.thalamus, and giving her into the 188. conlocate: sc. in lecto geni.hands of the pronubae; but cf. ali; the technical term.Fest. 2459 patrimi et matrimi pueri 193–195 . So the blushing Laviniatres nubentem deducunt, unus qui is described in Verg. Aen. XII. 67 ff.facem praefert ex spina alba, quia Indum sanguineo ueluti uiolauerit noctu nubebant, duo qui tenent nu- ostro siquis ebur, aut mixta rubentbentem . ubi lilia multa alba rosa, talis uirgo186. bonae feminae; cf. v. 19 dabat ore colores.bona uirgo; Aug. Nupt. I. 9 pro- 193. floridulo: cf. 17. 14 n .; grediente autem genere humano the adjective is apparently draž iunctae sunt quibusdam bonis uiris λεγόμενον.bonae feminae. — senibus uiris: 194. parthenice: perhaps a sort the pronubae were wives of one hus- of feverfew or, and of the dignity of charac- 195. luteum papauer: but pop ter that comes with honored age; pies are not always described ascf. Serv. on Verg. Aen . IV. 166 Hame-colored; cf. Prop. I. 20.Varro pronubam dicit quae ante 38 lilia candida purpureis mixta nupsit quaeque uni tantum nupta papaueribus; Anth. Lat. 775.est, ideoque auspices deliguntur ad 12 R. luteae uiolae lacteumquenuptias. papauer.120 CATULLUS. (61. 196At, marite, (ita me iuuentCaelites) nihilo minusPulcher es, neque te Venus Neglegit. Sed abit dies:Perge, ne remorare.200Non diu remoratus es,Iam uenis. Bona te VenusIuuerit, quoniam palamQuod cupis cupis et bonumNon abscondis amorem.205Ille pulueris AfriciSiderumque micantiumSubducat numerum prius,Qui uestri numerare uult210 Multa milia ludi .Ludite ut libet, et breuiLiberos date. Non decetTam uetus sine liberisNomen esse, sed indidem215 Semper ingenerari.Torquatus uolo paruulusMatris e gremio suae196. ita me iuuent caelites:cf. 66. 18; 97. i n.198. Venus: the giver of beauty as well as of love.202. bona Venus: of authorizedlove; cf. v. 44 n.; V. 204 bonum amorem; vv . 61-63.203. quoniam, etc.: since your love now has received the sanctionsof law and religion, and does notneed concealment.206. pulueris, etc.: cf. 7. 3 n.213. tam uetus nomen: the Torquati were proud of their long line of patrician ancestry; cf. Cic.Suli. 8. 24, where a Torquatus is reproved for such overweening haughtiness.214. indidem, from the same stock , instead of being strengthened,as so many old Roman farnilies had to be, by adoptions.216-220. The best antique pic ture of infant life; cf. Verg. Aen.-01. 235 )CATULLUS.Porrigens teneras manus Dulce rideat ad patrem220 Semihiante labello.Sit suo similis patriManlio et facile insciisNoscitetur ab omnibusEt pudicitiam suae225 Matris indicet ore.Talis illius a bonaMatre laus genus adprobetQualis unica ab optimaMatre Telemacho manet230 Fama Penelopeo.Claudite ostia, uirgines:Lusimus satis. At, boniConiuges, bene uiuite etMunere adsiduo ualentem235 Exercete iuuentam.IV . 328 siquis mihi paruulus aula luderet Aeneas, qui te tamen ore re ferret.219. dulce rideat: cf. 51. 5 n.224. pudicitiam indicet ore:i.e. by his resemblance to her hus band; cf. Hor. Carm . IV. 5. 23 laudantur simili prole puerperae;Mart. VI. 27. 3 est tibi quae patria signatur imagine uultus, testis ma ternae nata pudicitiae.226. talis, etc.: i.e. may the vir tues of his mother be reflected inthe boy, and win him such renownas came to Telemachus from the character of his mother, Penelope.The sentence is a somewhat awk wardly expressed double compliment to the mother, directly in its praiseof her virtue , and indirectly in its prophecy of the future character andrenown of her son.229. manet: cf. 8. 15 n.231. ostia: for fores ( sc. thalami).232. lusimus: here of singing amatory verses, as in 50.2, 5 and 68.17 of writing them.233. bene uiuite; cf. 5. i n .112 CATULLUS. [62.62. -resVesper adest: iuuenes, consurgite: Vesper Olympo Exspectata diu uix tandem lumina tollit.Surgere iam tempus, iam pinguis linquere mensas;Iam ueniet uirgo, ¡am dicetưr hýměņaeus. 5 Hymén ó Hỳmenaee, Hymen ades o Hýměnaee.62. An epithalamium , but, un- Olympo lumina tollit: the ap like 61 , apparently without refer- pearance at twilight of the evening ence to a particular marriage, and, star, though of course in the west,like 61 , without archaeological pre- is by analogy spoken of as its riscision . The form is that of a song ing; cf. Hor. Carm. II. 9. 10 necdivided between a chorus of youths tibi Vespero surgente decedunt amoand one of maidens singing alter- nec rapidum fugienti solem .nately, but not always in precisely Here the star stands above theequal strophes, the former the Thessalian ( cf. v. 7 Oetacos) Olympraises of Hesperus and of mar- pus; though the poets also speak riage, the latter the fears and sor- of Vesper as leaving Olympus (the rows of surrendered maidenhood. dwelling of the gods) or Oeta toThe youths sing vv. 1-5, 11-19, 26– usher in the night; cf. Verg. Ecl.31 , 33–38 (with lost verses preced- 6.86 inuito processit Vesper Olympo;ing v. 33 ) , 49–66; and the maidens, Cul. 203 piger aurata procedit Vesvv. 6-10, 20–25, 32 (and lost verses per ab Oeta; Cir. 350 gelida ueni.following it ) , 39–48. The setting entem ignem ab Oeta . For the ab throughout is Greek rather than lative with tollere without a preposi Roman, though the fragments of tion cf. Ov. Met. XV. 192 clipeus Sappho and the Epithalamium of terra cum tollitur ima.Helen by Theocritus ( 18 ) furnish 3. surgere linquere men no ground for postulating direct sas: cf. Verg. Aen. VIII. 109 relic imitation on the part of Catullus. tis consurgunt mensis. — pinguis:On the place of action cf. vv . 1 , 3, here = opimas, as in Verg. Aen. III.7 nn. — Date, uncertain . Metre, 224 dapibusque epulamur opimis.dactylic hexameter. mensas: the feast is doubtless 1. Vesper: cf. Plin . N. H. II. that spread at the house of the36 sidus appellatum Veneris:bride's parents. Contrary to the ante matutinum exoriens Luciferi usual Greek custom, women were nomen accipit .... contra ab oc present, but were seated at tables casu refulgens nuncupatur Vesper; by themselves. From the houseCic. N. D. II. 20. 53 stella Veneris, of her parents the bridegroom at quae Pwopópos Graece, Lucifer La- evening escorted the bride to her tine dicitur, cum antegreditur so- new home in solemn procession to lem , cum subsequitur autem , " Eone- the music of hymeneal songs, which pos; Censor. Die Nat. 24. 4 eius were also sung outside the closed stellae quam Plautus [ Amph. 275 ] door of the bride- chamber.Vesperuginem , Ennius Vesperum, 4. iam ueniet uirgo: sc . from Vergilius Hesperon appellat. --- con- her chamber, to take her seat beside surgita: sc. à mensis; cf. v. 3 n.- the bridegroom in the carriage in-62. 14 ]CATULLUS.113tmasMkunng?marCernitis, innuptae, iuuenes? consurgite contra:Nimirum Oetaeos ostendit Noctifer ignes.Sic certe est: uiden ut perniciter exsiluere?Non temere exsiluere; canent quod uincere par est.10 Hymen o Hymenaee, Hymen ades o Hymenaee.Non facilis nobis, aequales, palma parata est:Adspicite, innuptae secum ut meditata requirunt.Non frustra meditantur; habent memorabile quod sit.Nec mirum, penitus quae tota mente laborant.which she is to be drawn to his 8. sic certe est: the explanation house. — hymenaeus, the at first only suggested appears con riage-hymn; with this meaning first vincing, and isreaffirmed as sure;in Hom. II. XVIII. 491 év Tô Mév cf. 80. 7. - uiden ut: cf. 61. 77 n.[πόλει] ρα γάμοι τ' έσαν ... πολύς δ ' perniciter exsiluere: i.e. they υμέναιος ορώρει; elsewhere in Catul- show the eager swiftness of confi lus of the god Hymen (61.4; 62. 5, dence in their ability to surpassand often ), and of marriage itself thcir competitors in song.( 66. II , etc. ). On the lengthening 9. non temere: i.e. not in mere of the preceding short syllable see bravado , nor in baseless self- confi Intr. 86 g dence. -quod: direct object of 5. Cf. Theocr. 18. 58, where the uincere. The two choruses will dactylic hexameter opens in the vie with each other in responsivesame way, and 61. 4 n. song, as do the swains in the bucol.6. innuptae: for uirgines, as in ics of Theocritus and Vergil. —par 64. 78. — contra, on your side, i.e. ( sc , nobis), it is our task .from your position at a table oppo- 11. palma: i.e. victory. pa site theirs. rata: cf. Petron. 15 nec uictoria mi 7. nimirum: i.e. it must be that placet parata .the youths have already caught 12. secum meditata requirunt:sight of the evening star, and that i.e. they are conning verses already is the reason for their rising. – learned and practised, and are not Oetaeos: Mt. Oeta is the name of depending, like us (v. 15) , merely the range in the district of Oetaea, upon ability in improvisation.just at the head of the Maliac Gulf, 13. non frustra meditantur:between Thessaly and Aetolia . Upon i.e. their study will not prove fruit it the funeral pyre of Heracles was less. Meditari is almost the tech erected. It is sometimes connected nical word for poetic composition;with the Thessalian Olympus; cf. cf. Verg. Ecl. 6. 82; Hor. Sat. I. 9.v. I n . Olympo. ostendit ignes: 2; Ep. II. 2. 76. The verse corre cf. Hor, Carm . III . 29. 17 iam cla- sponds closely with v. 9.rus occultum Andromedae pater 14. nec mirum: cf. 23. 7 n. ostendit ignem . — Noctifer: cf. quae laborant: but cf. the sub Calp . Buc. 5. 120 iam sole fugato junctive mood in similar causal frigidus aestiuas impellit Noctifer clauses in vv . 21 and 27. So Plau horas. tus and Terence apparently use theamoebean:Vunr w "Yuévales jauw ene table tapsins114 CATULLUS. [ 62. 15nim anladwertene15 Nos alio mentes, alio diuisimus aures:Iure igitur uincemur; amat uictoria curam.Quare nunc animos saltem conuertite uestros:Dicere iam incipient, iam respondere decebit.Hymen o Hymenaee, Hymen ades o Hymenaee.20 Hespere, qui caelo fertur crudelior ignis?Qui natam possis complexu auellere matris,Complexu matris retinentem auellere natam Et iuueni ardenti castam donare puellam.Quid faciunt hostes capta crudelius urbe?25 Hymen o Hymenaee, Hymen ades o Hymenaee.3indicative and subjunctive indis- caelo fertur, traverses the heavens;criminately with the causal relative, Baehrens cites Germ. Progn . II. 2and even change from one to the per idem Cythereius ignis fertur other, as here, while in later Latin iter. - ignis: cf. Hor. Carm . I. the subjunctive becomes the rule. 12. 47 uelut inter ignes luna mino 15. nos: with strong emphasis res; Germ. l.c.upon the contrast with the absorp- 21. possis: cf. v. 14 n. laborant.tion of the maidens in their coming complexu matris: cf. 61. 58;task. —alio mentes, alio aures: 64. 88. — auellere: not with direct i.e. while they have practised ear- reference to the show of force with nestly, following their leader tota which in the Roman ceremony the mente (v. 14) , we have attended to bride was taken from her mother's our leader with our ears only, while arms , but in general of the rude in our thoughts have been far from him terruption of the peaceful simplicity and from the task that lay before of her life of maidenhood; cf. 61. 3us; alio . . . alio are correlative, rapis.referring to distinct directions. 22. retinentem, clinging.diuisimus: cf. in slightly different 23. iuueni ardenti: cf. 61. 56 meaning Verg. Aen. IV. 285 ( and fero iuueni, and observe the se VIII. 20) atque animum nunc huc quence of the contrasted epithets celerem nunc diuidit illuc. ardenti castam.17. saltem: with nunc. 24. capta urbe: the comparison uertite: sc . ad rem; cf. Cic . N. D. of great woes to those endured by a1. 27. 77 quo facilius animos impe- conquered city was traditional; cf. ritorum ad deorum cultum a uitae Hom. II . IX. 592 κήδε' δσ ' ανθρώ prauitate conuerterent. ποισι πέλει τών άστυ αλών; Verg.20. Hespere: the same form of Aen. II . 746 quid in euersa uidi the name is followed in vv . 26, 32, crudelius urbe? Prop. V. 8. 56 spec and 35, and in 64. 329; but cf. v. I taclum capta nec minus urbe fuit;Vesper ( and the yet different name Ov. Met. XIV. 578 et sonus et ma.Noctifer in v. 7 ) . With the senti- cies et pallor et omnia captam quae ment of the strophe cf. 61. 3-4. - deceant urbem .con2S-62. 34 )CATULLUS.115Hespere, qui caelo lucet iucundior ignis?Qui desponsa tua firmes conubia flamma,Quae pepigere uiri, pepigerunt ante parentes,Nec iunxere prius quam se tuus extulit ardor.30 Quid datur a diuis felici optatius hora?Hymen o Hymenaee, Hymen ades o Hymenaee.Hesperus e nobis, aequales, abstulit unamaboys米Namque tuo aduentu uigilat custodia semper.Nocte latent fures, quos idem saepe reuertens,-com27. desponsa: ordinarily used only of the betrothed maiden .firmes: cf. v. 14 n. laborant.28. uiri parentes: i.e. mar riage -contracts arranged by hus bands on the one side and parentson the other. viri is used by antici pation as in v. 65 genero; cf. also 64. 328 maritis. With the change of form of the repeated tense for metrical reasons and for varietycf. Lucil. III. 11-12 Müll. uerumhaec ludus ibi susque omnia deque fuerunt, susque haec deque fuere inquam, omnia, ludu' iocusque;Verg. Ecl. 10. 13 illum etiam lauri, etiam fleuere myricae, pini fer illum etiam sola sub rupe iacen tem Maenalus et gelidi fleuerunt saxa Lycaei; Lucr. VI. 2-5 dididě runt, recreauērunt, rogarunt, dede runt, genuēre.29. iunxere: cf. 78. 3 dulces iungit amores.30. Cf. similar sentiments at theend of 9, 45 , and 107. 32 ff. Of this strophe, sung by the maidens, only the first verse mains, but the comparison of its key- note with vv . 33 ff., sung by the youths, indicates that the two frag mentary strophes stood in immediate succession . The strophe of themaidens ended, of course, with the refrain Hymen o Hymenaee, etc. 33 ff. The maidens had plained of Hesperus for robbing them of a companion , and in gen eral for ushering in the night, the time of fear and depredation. The youths denied in the lost verses that Hesperus is the harbinger of dan ger, and in vv . 33–36 support their denial by two reasons and by an argumentum ad hominem: possible danger at night is averted by ordi nary watchfulness; Hesperus him self acts as thief- taker by usheringin the unexpected dawn; and finally,maidens themselves but feign fear of the darkness.33. custodia: for custodes; cf. Verg. Aen. VI. 574 cernis custodia qualis uestibulo sedeat? Ov. Met.XIV. 371 abest custodia regi.Neither in this nor in the two fol.lowing verses is there any reference to furtivos hominum amores ( 7.8) save by merest indirection; the maidens complained, and the youths are responding to the charge, that the darkness makes possible acts of violence.34. nocte latent fures: perhaps quoted verbatim from the song of the maidens, but neutralized as farre

116 CATULLUS. (62.3535 Hespere, mutato comprendis nomine eosdem .At libet innuptis ficto te carpere questu.Quid tum, si carpunt tacita quem mente requirunt?Hymen o Hymenaee, Hymen ades o Hymenaee.Vt flos in saeptis secretus nascitur hortis,40 Ignotus pecori, nullo conuulsus aratro ,Quem mulcent aurae, firmat sol, educat imber,gulsariumas it is a charge against Hesperus, 39. ut flos, etc.: the comparison by the following clause.- idem ... of blooming maidenhood to a flower.mutato nomine: the poet disre. ing plant is a favorite one; cf. 61 .gards the scientific fact that the 22n . Ellis cites the fuller imitation same planet is not both morning of this passage by Ben Jonson in andevening star at the same season The Barriers, and byRob. Brown of the year. The identity of Hes. ing Ring and Book III. 233 ff.perus and Lucifer (cf. Cic. 1.c. on 40. conuulsus: the feelings of V. I ) was known about the time of the maidens lead them to use aPythagoras, whether established by word implying more thanordinary him or by Parmenides, and is fre- violence ( cf. 64. 40 ), while in 11 .quently alluded to by the Romans; 24 , for a different reason, the Varr. R. R. III. 5. 17 stella Luci. est possible word is used of the fer interdiu, noctu Hesperus; Cir. action of the plough upon a tender 350 [ ignem ] quem pauidae alternis plant.fugitant optantquepuellae ( Hespe- 41. mulcent aurae: on the gen uitant, optant ardescere erative and nourishing power of theFoum ); Cinna Zmyrna (ap. Serv. breezes cf. 64. 90, 282; Lucr. I. II on Verg. Geor. I. 288) te matutinus reserata uiget genitabilis aura Fa fentem conspexit Eous, et flentem uoni; Hor. Carm . I. 22. 17 nulla paulo uidit post Hesperus idem: arbor aestiua recreatur aura; Prop.also Tennyson In Mem . 121 Sweet V. 7. 60 mulcet ubi Elysias aura Hesper - Phosphor, double name For beata rosas; Ov. Met. I. 107 uer what is one. - saepe: modifying erat aeternum , placidique tepenti.comprendis. bus auris mulcebant Zephyri natos 35. comprendis: if the thefts sine semine flores; Fast. V. 209 est were furtiui amores, deprendis mihi fecundus hortus would be the more natural term, fruet. —The exact correspondence but the prime reference in fures is of v. 42 to v. 41 as of v. 44 to v. 43 the patent one, and Hesperus acts illum; idem cum .as constable . eosdem: to corre. illum ), and comparison with thespond to v . 34 idem . next strophe, where v. 53 hanc fol.36. ficto questu: cf. 66. 16 fal- lows immediately uponvv. 49-52 ut sis lacrimulis. uidua uitis . . contingit, make it 37. requirunt: as if filled with unreasonable to suppose a lacuna longing for the return of what of one verse after v. 41 , as required was once offered and rejected; cf. by a fictitious theory of precise cor respondence in the number of versesaura-( quem ·8 13-62. 50 )CATULLUS.117Multi illum pueri, multae optauere puellae;Idem cum tenui carptus defloruit ungui,Nulli illum pueri, nullae optauere puellae:45 Sic uirgo, dum intacta manet, dum cara suis est;Cum castum amisit polluto corpore florem ,Nec pueris iucunda manet nec cara puellis.Hymen o Hymenaee, Hymen ades o Hymenaee.Vt uidua in nudo uitis quae nascitur aruoso Nunquam se extollit, nunquam mitem educat uuam ,fous..between this and the following cara suis: the maidens use the strophe. second dum -clause as a sort of defi 42. Imitated by Ovid in Met. III. nition of the first, and so indicate 353 multi illum iuuenes, multae their belief in the dependence of cupiere puellae. family and friendly affection upon 43. idem: subject of defloruit; the virginity of its object. The sencf. 22. 3 n. idem . -tenui carptus timent is more definitely declaredungui: cf. Verg. Aen. XI. 68 uir. in vv . 46–47. Observe the neat way gineo demessum pollice florem; in which the youths in v. 56 repeatProp. I. 20. 39 decerpens tenero after the maidens the first dum .pueriliter ungui florem; Ov. Her. clause, but define it very differently 4. 30 tenui primam delegere ungue by the second.rosam . 46. The fierce virginity of the 45. dum . dum: Quintilian chorus views even marriage as aexplains as follows ( Inst. IX. 3. compromise of chastity. -castum 16 ) Catullus in Epithalamio.dum florem = castitatis florem; cf. Cic.est,' cum prius dum significet Balb. 6. 15 ipsum florem dignita quoad, sequens usque eo.In illus- tis infringere; and cf. the indica tration of his view might be cited tion of chastity as the crowning Plaut. Truc. 232 dum habeat dum virtue in the familiar euphemism ( MSS. tum ) amet; ubi nil habeat, flos aetatis ( Liv . XXI. 2. 3; Suet.alium quaestum coepiat (cf. Haupt Iul. 49).Opusc. II. p. 473) . But comparison 47. iucunda: with substantially with v. 56 indicates that Quintilian the same meaning as the following misunderstood the muaning of Catul- cara; cf. 14. 2 n.lus as much as did the less learned 49. uidua ( = caelebs) unwed, i.e.emendators of V and T , who not trained upon a tree; more fre changed the second dum to tum . quently used of trees themselves; cf.The two dun - clauses are not cor- Hor. Carm . IV. 5. 30 uitem uiduas relative, but coördinate, both modi- ducit ad arbores , Mart. III. 58. 3fying sic uirgo (sc. est ), while sic is uidua platano; Juv. 8. 78 stratus emphatic, referring to v. 42. Thus humi palmes uiduas desiderat ulV.45 corresponds alone to vv . 39-42, mos; Hor. Carm . II. 15. 4 platanus while vv . 46–47 correspond to vv. 43– caelebs. — nudo: i.e. bare of trees;44. —intacta: cf. 34. 2 n. integri. cf. Ov. Trist. III. 10. 75 aspiceres118CATULLUS. [62. 51Sed tenerum prono deflectens pondere corpusIam iam contingit summum radice flagellum ,Hanc nulli agricolae, nulli accoluere iuuenci;At si forte eadem est ulmo coniuncta marito,55 Multi illam agricolae, multi accoluere iuuenci:Sic uirgo, dum intacta manet, dum inculta senescit;Cum par conubium maturo tempore adepta est,Cara uiro magis et minus est inuisa parenti.rysagainEt tu ne pugna cum tali coniuge, uirgo.60 Non aequum est pugnare, pater cui tradidit ipse,Ipse pater cum matre, quibus parere necesse est.Virginitas non tota tua est, ex parte parentum est:nudos sinefronde, sine arbore cam- Verg. Geor. I. 2 ulmis adiungere pos. uites; Ov. Am. II. 16. 41 ulmus 50. mitem, ripe; cf. Verg. Geor, amat uitem , uitis non deserit ulI. 448 heu male tum mitis defendet mum; Calp. Buc. 2. 59 inter pam.pampinus uuas. pineas ulmos. - marito: with the 51. prono pondere: cf. Cir. 26 figure cf. and Cato R. R. 32 prono grauidum prouexit pondere arbores facito uti bene maritae sint. currum; Val. Fl. III . 564 detra- Catullus apparently uses the mascu. hit; adiutae prono nam pondere line (as appositive) instead of the uires. concordant feminine for the sake of52. iam iam: cf. Verg. Aen. II. the figure.530 iam iamque manutenet et pre 56. dum dum: cf. v. 45 hasta; Hor. Epod. 2. 68 iam 57. par conubium: i.e. a mar iam futurus rusticus. —contingit riage with one of equal station; cf. radice flagellum: a peculiar inver- Ov. Her. 9. 32 siqua uoles apte nu sion for contingit radicemflagello.- bere, nube pari. On the synaeresis flagellum: ayoung vine-shoot; cf. see Intr. 86 c.Varro R. R. I. 31. 3 uitem , quam uo- 58. magis: the comparison is cant minoremflagellum , maiorem et not with reference to herhusband's iam unde uuae nascuntur palmam . love for her, but to her condition 53. accoluere iuuenci: of cul- before marriage (v. 45 sic); she tivating' between the rows of vines; has gained affection instead of los cf. Varro R. R. I. 8. 5 Cuineae] in- ing it, for a husband is better than terualla pedamentorum qua boues a friend, and there is no danger of iuncti arare possint. her presence becoming irksome to 54. ulmo: cf. v. 49 n . uidua. her father (who desires to see his The elm is most frequently men- daughters settled in marriage; cf. tioned by the poets as the tree on 61. 51-52; 66. 15-16) .which the vine is trained; cf. Hor. 59. et: connecting the general Ep. I. 16. 3 amicta uitibus ulmo; expression of approval of marriage-63. 2 ]CATULLUS.119Tertia pars patri, pars est data tertia matri,Tertia sola tua est. Noli pugnare duobus,65 Qui genero sua iura simul cum dote dederunt.Hymen o Hymenaee, Hymen ades o Hymenaee.63.Super alta uectus Attis celeri rate mariaPhrygium ut nemus citato cupide pede tetigitwith its application to this specificcase .63. tertia: cf. Lucilius ( on Vir tus) commoda patriaeprima putare,deinde parentum , tertia iam nostra.64. noli pugnare duobus: Pas serat cites the proverbial Platonic expressions from Leg. XI. 119 apos δύο μάχεσθαι και εναντία χαλεπόν;Phaedr. 89 προς δύο ουδ Ηρακλής.Catullus is the first to use pug nare with a dative, but he is fol lowed by the later poets, who admit the same construction with other verbs of contest ( cf. Gr. Máxeo Bal TLVI); cf. Verg. Aen . IV. 38 placi tone etiam pugnabis amori? Hor.Epod. 11. 18 desinet imparibus cer tare .65. genero: used by anticipa tion , as. v. 28 uiri; 64. 328 maritis.63. The self -mutilation and sub sequent lament of Attis, a priest of Cybele. The centre of the worship of the Phrygian Κυβέλη or Κυβήβη,was in very ancient times the town of Pessinus in Galatian Phrygia, at the foot of Mt. Dindymus, from which the goddess received the name Dindymene. Cybele had early become identified with theCretan divinity Rhea, the Mother of the Gods, and to some extent with Demeter, the search of Cybele for Attis being compared with that ofDemeter for Persephone. The es.pecial worship of Cybele was con ductedby emasculated priests called Galli (or, as in vv . 12 and 34, with reference to their physical condition,Gallae). Their name was derivedby the ancients from that of the river Gallus, a tributary of the San garius, by drinking from which men became inspired with frenzy ( cf. Ov.Fast. IV. 361 ff.). The worshipwas orgiastic in the extreme, and was accompanied by the sound ofsuch frenzy-producing instruments as the tympana, cymbala, tibiae, and cornu, and culminated in scourging,self -mutilation, syncope from excite ment, and even death from hemorrhage or heart - failure ( cf. Lucr.II. 598 ff.; Varr. Sat. Men. 131 ff.Büch .; Ov. Fast. IV. 179 ff.). The worship of the Magna Mater, or Mater Idaea, as she was often called (perhaps from identification withRhea of the Cretan Mt. Ida rather than from the Trojan Mt. Ida) ,was introduced into Rome in 205 B.C. in accordance with a Sibylline oracle which foretold that only so could a foreign enemy' (i.e. Han nibal) be driven from Italy. Livy (XXIX. 10, 14) gives an interesting account of the solemnities that ac companied the transfer from Pessinus to Rome of the black stone that represented the divinity, and of the>120 CATULLUS. [63-3Adiitque opaca siluis redimita loca deae,Stimulatus ibi furenti rabie, uagus animis

inestablishment of the Megalensia; reaching the shores of Trojan Ida cf. also Ov. Fast. IV. 247 ff. The he consummates the irrevocable act stone itself was perhaps a meteorite, of dedication (vv . 4-5 ), and with and is thus described by Arnobius his companions rushes up the moun ( Adu. Gent. VII. 46 ): lapis qui- tain to the sanctuary of the goddess dam non magnus, ferri manu homi- (vv. 6–38 ). But on awaking next nis sine ulla impressione qui posset; morning he feels the full awfulness coloris furui atque atri, angellis of his act ( vv. 39-47 ) , and gazing prominentibus inaequalis, et quem out over the sea toward his lostomnes hodie uidemus home, bewails his fate ( vv. 48–73 ),dolatum et asperum . Servius ( Aen. till the jealous goddess unyokes aVII. 188) speaks of it as acus Matris lion from her car and sends him to Deum , and as one of the seven ob- drive her wavering votary back to jects on which depended the safety his allegiance (vv. 74 - fin .). The of Rome. story is told with a nervous vigor The early connection of Attis with andswing of feeling that are une the Mother of the Gods seems to qualled in Latin literature, and to itpoint to the association of an origi. the galliambic metre (Intr. 85 ) , the nal male element with an original one traditionally appropriated to female element as the parents of all such themes, lends great effect.things. But in the age of tradition The date of composition is uncer Attis appears as a servant instead tain, but Catullus may have found of an equal, and the subordination his immediate inspiration in his of the male to the female element contact with the Cybelian worship is further emphasized by the repre- in its original home during his resi.sentation of Attis, like the Galli of dence in Bithynia in 57-56 B.C. ( seehistoric times, as an emasculated Intr. 29 ff.). Or it may have been priest. Greek imagination pictured found in his studies in the Alexan .him as a beautiful youth who was drian poets; for Callimachus cer.beloved by the goddess, but wan- tainly used the galliambic metre,dered away from her and became though no distinct title of a poem untrue; but being sought and re- by him on this theme is extant.called to allegiance by her, in a Caecilius of Comum was also enpassion of remorse he not only gaged on a poem based on the spent his life in her service, but by worship of Cybele ( cf. 35. 13 ff. ) ,his own act made impossible for the and Varro and Maecenas both exer future such infidelity on his part, cised their talents in the same directhus setting the example followed tion (cf. Varr. Sat. Men . 1.c.; all the Galli after him ( cf. Ov. in Baehr. Fragm . Poet. Rom . p.Fast.l.c.). Catullus departs from this 339) .form of the Attis myth, and makes The poem abounds in rhetorical Attis a beautiful Greek youth who devices to add to its effect; such in a moment of religious frenzy sails are the frequent employment of across seas at the head of a band of alliteration (vv. 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 , 13,companions to devote himself to etc.) , of strange and harsh com.the already long -established service pounds ( vv . 23hederigerae, 34 pro of the goddess (vv. 1-3) . On peripedem , 41 sonipedibus, 51 erifu-63.9) CATULLUS. 121s Deuoluit ili acuto sibi pondera silice.Itaque ut relicta sensit sibi membra sine uiro,Etiam recente terrae sola sanguine maculans Niueis citata cepit manibus leue typanum ,Typanum, tubam Cybelles, tua, mater, initia,gae, 72 nemoriuagus), and the repe tition of words of agitated move.ment and feeling ( e.g.rapidus three times, citatus four times , citus twice,rabidus three times , rabies once ) .1. celeri: indicating his eager.ness for arrival.2. Phrygium nemus: that cloth ing the slopes not of Dindymus but of Ida ( cf. v . 30, 52) . - citato cupide pede: emphasizing the eager haste of the traveller, ratherthan indicating a landjourney after reaching the shores of Asia ( cf. vv.47, 89); the poet is not writing as a geographer. Cf. v. 30 properante pede.3. opaca: cf. v. 32. The madrush of the new devotees is con trasted with the silent mysteries of the abode of the goddess.4. ibi, thereupon; cf. vv . 42, 48,76; and 66. 33; 8. 6 n. -- furenti rabie: cf. v. 38 rabidus furor. —uagus animis: the plural to indicate his divided, distorted emotions;cf. Verg. Aen. VIII. 228 ecce furens animis aderat Tirynthius.5. ili: genitive from the stem ilio-, a rare but legitimate variant for the more frequent ili-; cf. Cels. IV. 1 iliis (dat. plur.); Gloss.Labb . ilium layov; Marc. Emp.36 [ ilium ].6. sine uiro: i.e. sine uirilitate.7. terrae sola (plural, as in v. 40 sola dura ): cf. Lucr. II. 592 nam multis succensa locis ardent solaterrae.8. niueis manibus: cf. v. 1o n.teneris digitis. Adjectives descrip tive of feminine beauty are employedto accord with the change of gender under which Attis is now spoken of,and himself speaks of his companions (vv. 12 Gallae, 15 exsecutae, 34 rapidae Gallae ); cf. Hor. Carm . II.4. 3 niueo colore (of Briseis); III.27. 25 niueum latus (of Europe);Verg. Aen. VIII . 387 niueis lacertis (of Venus ). —citata: Attis is from henceforth a notha mulier (v. 27) ,and is described by feminine adjectives; cf. vv . II adorta, tremebunda,31 furibunda, 32 comitata , etc.; but when he returns to himself and thinks with sorrow and loathing upon his condition , the masculine adjective is resumed; cf. v . 51 miser, 78 hunc, 88 tenerum , 89 ille.The emendations by which all these later masculines ( except v. 78 hunc)have been transformed to femininesare based on incorrect feeling.leue: the tympanum is probably called leue because it is cauum ( v.10) . — typanum: Gr. poet. form Túravov, metri gratia ( cf. v. 21, etc. tympanum , Gr. Tújtravov); from representations in vase- and wall paintings, an instrument like themodern tambourine, but with the rattling disks of metal suspended at intervals from its edge by shortcords.9. tubam Cybelles: as the blare of the tuba is the summons and incitement to warriors, so is the beat of the tympanum to the votaries of Cybele; the phrase is further explained by tua initia . The famous norm of Bentley (on Lu can I. 600 ) that when the penult is short the form Cybele should beV.122 CATULLUS. ( 63 1010 Quatiensque terga tauri teneris caua digitisCanere haec suis adorta est tremebunda comitibus.• Agite ite ad alta, Gallae, Cybeles nemora simul,Simul ite, Dindymenae dominae uaga pecora ,Aliena quae petentes uelut exsules loca15 Sectam meam exsecutae duce me mihi comitesRapidum salum tulistis truculentaque pelagi Et corpus euirastis Veneris nimio odio,Hilarate erae citatis erroribus animum.written , but when it is long the Cybeles: Gr. Kußen; cf. v . 9 the form Cybebe, Cybelle being discarded Cybelles.altogether, is not well supported by 13. Dindymenae dominae: cf. either Greek or Latin usage. Cybelle v. 91; 35. 14. uaga: of the pur (Gr. Kúßella) is found in many poseless wanderings of the crazed good MSS. mater: Cybele was devotees; cf. vv . 18 erroribus; 25 the Magna Mater Idaea of the uaga cohors; 31 uaga uadit.Romans, as well as mater deorum; pecora: cf. Ov. Ib. 457 pecuscf. intr. note; Hymn. Cyb. untepa Magnae Parentis (of the Galli)μοι πάντων τε θεών, πάντων τ’ άν 15. sectam meam exsecutae,Opúrwv. —initia: technically used under my rule; Attis acts as re .only of the mysteries of Demeter cruiting officer, and then ( duce ( cf. Varr. R. R. III . 1. 5 initia me) guides the new devotees to uocanturpotissimum ea quae Cereri their place of service. comites fiunt sacra ), but here of the symbol implies here a certain subordination of the secret worship of Cybele, as in the case of the comites of aperhaps by reason of the popular provincial governor; cf. 28. I; 11.confusion of Cybele with Demeter. 1. Apparently exsequi is used with 10. teneris digitis: cf. v. 8 n . sectam only here, though Cicero niueis manibus; Ov. Ib . 456 [ ut uses sectam persequi ( Verr. II. 5.Attis] quatiasmolli tympana rauca 70. 181), and sectam sequi is fre manu; Fast. IV. 342 feriunt molles quently found ( cf. Liv. XXIX. 27.taurea terga manus. — caua: the 2 qui meam sectam secuntur, a for word tympanum also denoted a mal expression in an invocation ) .kettle- drum with a hemispherical 16. rapidum: of the rushing resounding cavity and a single head waves of the sea, as explained in of hide, and so caua, which would truculenta pelagi; cf. 64. 358 ra .properly characterize it, is here used pido Hellesponto.—truculenta peof its cognate instrument, the tam- lagi: with the construction cf. Verg.bourine; cf. Ov. Fast. IV. 183 ina- Aen . IX. 81 pelagi alta; Hor . Carm .nia tympana tundent; Aus. Epist. IV. 4. 76 acuta belli; with the sen.24. 21 caua tympana. timent, Hor. Carm . I. 3. 10 truci 11. tremebunda: in the quiver of nervous excitement. 18. hilarate, etc.: i.e. haste to 12. agite: cf. 61. 38 n.- - Gal. gladden the heartof the goddess by lae: cf. v. 34 , and intr. note. the presence of this new accession-63. 25 ]CATULLUS. 123Mora tarda mente cedat; simul ite, sequimini30 Phrygiam ad domum Cybelles, Phrygia ad nemora deae,Vbi cymbalum sonat uox , ubi tympana reboant,Tibicen ubi canit Phryx curuo graue calamo,Vbi capita maenades ui iaciunt hederigerae,Vbi sacra sancta acutis ululatibus agitant,25 Vbi sueuit illa diuae uolitare uaga cohors,of enthusiastic votaries. -errori bus: the rabidus furor animi (v.38) would lead the band, not directly to the temple, but in Maenad-liketortuousness of course .21. cymbalum: cymbala were hollow hemispheres of metal a few inches in diameter, held one in each hand by the aid of small rings or thongs attached to the centre of their convex surfaces. Struck together, they gave a sharp , clanging sound that fitted well with that of the tympana and tibiae; cf. 64. 262 tereti tenuis tinnitus aere ciebant;Ov. Fast. IV. 184 aera tinnitusaere repulsa dabunt; 189 sonus aeris acuti; Aus. Epist. 24. 23 tin nitus aëni. reboant: cf. Aus.Epist. 24. 21 tentis reboant caua tympana tergis.22. Phryx: the tibiae were saidto be a Phrygian invention; cf. 64.264; Lucr. II. 620 Phrygio stimulat numero caua tibia mentis; Tib . II.1. 86 obstrepit et Phrygio tibia curua sono; Ov. Fast. IV . 181 inflexo Be recyntia tibia cornu . —curuo cala .mo: the tibia was originally made of a reed. The curved variety ap pears from bas- reliefs to have been shaped sometimes like the lituus,straight and of uniform diameter from the mouth-piece till near the bell, where it curved sharply back upon itself, but sometimes to havehad a gentle double curve and an increasing diameter from mouth piece to bell, like a cow -born . Thestraight varieties, more commonlyused, were generally played in pairs,one with each hand, being often supported in position at the player's mouth by a band admitting the two mouth -pieces and fastened at the back of the head. graue: cf. Stat. Theb. VI. 113 signum luctus cornu graue mugit adunco tibia .23. maenades: the poet bor rows for the priests of Cybele the name appropriate to the frenzied maidens that attended upon the similar rites of Dionysus. — capita ui iaciunt: frequent wall-paintings and engraved gems show the bac.chanals beating the tympana and swaying the head violently back and forth; cf. 64. 255 capita inflectentes;Maec. frag. 4 Baehr. sonante typano quate flexibile caput; Varr. Sat. Men . 132 Buech. semiuiri teretem comam uolantem iactant; Ov. Met.III . 726 ululauit Agaue, collaque iactauit, mouitque per aera cri hederigerae: άπαξ λεγόμενον .24. acutis ululatibus: cf. v. 28;Maec. frag. 5 Baehr. comitum cho rus ululet; Ov. Fast. IV. 341 exululant comites; Met. l.c. 25. illa: the demonstrative characterizes as well-known the wholestatement; in this use ille corresponds closely to our definite article.- uolitare uaga: so of Bacchus in 64. 251 , 390. —cohore: i.e. comi.tes; cf. v. II and 28. 1 Pisonicomites, cohors inanis.nem . -124 CATULLUS. [ 63. 26Quo nos decet citatis celerare tripudiis .'Simul haec comitibus Attis cecinit notha mulier,Thiasus repente linguis trepidantibus ululat,Leue tympanum remugit, caua cymbala recrepant,30 Viridem citus adit Idam properante pede chorus.Furibunda simul anhelans uaga uadit animam agens Comitata tympano Attis per opaca nemora dux,Veluti iuuenca uitans onus indomita iugi:Rapidae ducem secuntur Gallae properipedem.35 Itaque, ut domum Cybelles tetigere lassulae,Nimio e labore somnum capiunt sine Cerere.Piger his labante langore oculos sopor operit:eII26. tripudiis: of the wild, rhyth. Ida.- properante pede: cf. v. 34mic dance connected with the wor- properipedem .ship. 31. animam agens: to be ex 27. simul: sc . atque; cf. v. 45 plained from anhelans of theand 22. 15 n . - notha mulier: almost fainting condition resulting cf. Ov. Fast. IV. 183 semimares ( of from haste, excitement, and exhaus the Galli); Ib. 453 nec femina nec tion, gasping. It usually means ' to uir (of Attis); Varro Sat. Men. 132 give up the ghost '; cf. Cic. Fam .Buech . semiuiri ( of the Galli). VIII . 13. 2 Q. Hortensius, cum has 28. thiasus: of a band of raving litteras scripsi, animamagebat.devotees, as in 64. 252, and often , 32. comitata: usually with an of the attendants of Iacchus. ablative of person instead of thing trepidantibus: as v. treme- when, as here, it has a personal sub bunda, of the quivering of nervous ject .excitement; cf. Verg. Aen. VII. 395 33. ueluti iuuenca, etc.: thealiae tremulis ululatibus aethera comparison is usually employed by complent ( of the Bacchic worship- the poets of the yoke of love; cf. pers) . - ululat: cf. v. 24 n. ulula 68. 118 n.tibus. 35. domum Cybelles: appar 29. leue tympanum: cf. v. 8 leue ently the shrine of the goddess on typanum . - recrepant: the word the mountain-top:apparently occurs only here and in 36. Cerere: cf. Cic. N. D. II.Ciris 108 lapis recrepat Cyllenia 23. 60 fruges Cererem appellamus,murmura pulsus. uinum autem Liberum; ex quo 30. uiridem Idam: cf. v . 70; illud Terenti ' sine Cerere et Libero Culex 311 iugis Ida patens fronden . friget Venus ' ( from Ter. Eun.tibus; Ov. Art. Am . I. 289 sub 732 ). — The fasting in this case umbrosis nemorosae uallibus Idae; was probably not due to a require Fast. VI. 327 in opacae uallibus ment of ritual, but simply to the Idae; Met. XI. 762 umbrosa sub utterly exhausted condition of the Ida; Stat. Silu. IIL. 4. 12 pinifera new Galli..125 -63. 47] CATULLUS.Abit in quiete molli rabidus furor animi.Sed ubi oris aurei Sol radiantibus oculis40 Lustrauit aethera album, sola dura , mare ferum ,Pepulitque noctis umbras uegetis sonipedibus,Ibi Somnus excitam Attin fugiens citus abiit:Trepidante eum recepit dea Pasithea sinu.Ita de quiete molli rapida sine rabie 45 Simul ipsa pectore Attis sua facta recoluit,Liquidaque mente uidit sine quis ubique foret,Animo aestuante rusum reditum ad uada tetulit.ns.34hanForhaone.sum38. quiete molli, etc.: cf. v. 44 . 41. sonipedibus: first in Lucil -rabidus furor; cf. v. 4 furenti XV. 15. Muel. Campanus sonipes;rabie. also in Cic . De Or. III. 47. 18339. oris aurei: doubtless to be paeon ...sicut ... sonipedes; andconstrued with Sol rather than with frequently in later poets.oculis; cf. Lucr. V. 461 aurea ... 42. ibi: temporal, as in v. 4 (seematutina rubent radiati lumina note ) . — Somnus, etc.: the morn solis; Verg. Geor. I. 232 sol aureus; having come, Somnus is releasedOv. Met. VII. 663 iubar aureus ex- from duty and flies eagerly (citus )tulerat sol. - radiantibus oculis: back to Pasithea, whose reciprocal cf. Ov. Trist. II . 325 radiantia eagerness of longing is indicated bylumina solis; and with the figure in V. 43 trepidante sinu. Pasithea oculis, F. W. Bourdillon, The night was one of the lesser Graces, andhas a thousand eyes and the day but was promised toSleep as a wife by Hera in Hom. Il. XIV . 267 ff.40. lustrauit, surveyed, rather 45. simul: cf. v. 27 n. simul.than “ illumined ,' as the figure in 46. liquida mente: of passion oculis shows. aethera album , less calm; cf. Plaut. Epid. 643 etc.: the adjectives album , dura, animo liquido et tranquillo's: tace!ferum describe permanent charac- Pseud. 232 nihil curassis: liquido's teristics and not those peculiar to animo: ego pro me et pro te curabo.the morning, and hence album sine quis: cf. v. 5 . - ubique:must be understood not merely of the quantity of the penult shows the the sky brightened by dawn, but of equivalence to et ubi.the bright, fiery aether; cf. Cic . aestuante:N. P. I. 13. 33 caeli ardorem; II. trasted with liquida mente; there 15. 41 in ardore caelesti qui aether was but a moment of clear anduel caelum nominatur. sola: calm mental vision succeeded byplural, since the sun views every the torture of recollection .region of earth . - dura, solid, to sum: so sometimes in earlier Latindistinguish the earth from the fluid ( including Lucretius) for later rur .aether and sea . — ferum: a tra. sus. — reditum tetulit: cf. v. 79ditional epithet of the sea; cf. v . uti reditum ferat; 61. 26 aditum 16 n. truculenta pelagi. ferens; 61. 43 aditum ferat. Ontheed by


-par47. animo con . IL2733ru .Eu!uireo thein the126 CATULLUS. [63. 48Ibi maria uasta uisens lacrimantibus oculisPatriam adlocuta maesta est ita uoce miseriter:50 Patria o mei creatrix, patria o mea genetrix,Ego quam miser relinquens, dominos ut erifugae Famuli solent, ad Idae tetuli nemora pedem ,Vt apud niuem et ferarum gelida stabula foremEt earum omnia adirem furibunda latibula,55 Vbinam aut quibus locis te positam, patria, reor?Cupit ipsa pupula ad te sibi derigere aciem,Rabie fera carens dum breue tempus animus est.Egone a mea remota haec ferar in nemora domo?Patria, bonis, amicis, genitoribus abero?60 Abero foro, palaestra, stadio, et gymnasiis?Miser ah miser, querendum est etiam atque etiam,anime.Quod enim genus figurae est ego non quod obierim?-the archaic form of the verb cf. v.52; 34. 8 n.48. maria uasta: cf. 31. 3 mari wasto; 64. 127 pelagi uastos aestus.49. miseriter: for misere, as puriter for pure in 39. 14; 76. 19.51. miser: while under the in fluence of his mad enthusiasm, Attis gloried in his emasculation , but now, in his recovered senses, he speaks of his condition only with loathing, using feminines (v. 68)to point this feeling, but of course not using a feminine adjective in thisexpression of passionate longing for his home.52. tetuli: see 34. 8 n.53. ferarum gelida stabula: cf. Verg. Aen. VI. 179 itur in anti quam siluam , stabula alta fera On the lengthening of the final syllable before initial st see Intr. 86 g .55. reor: indicative present with future meaning; cf. 1. i n. dono,56. pupula: cf. Cic . N. D. II.57. 142 acies ipsa, qua cernimus,quae pupula uocatur. - derigere:so, rather than dirigere, of the fixed gaze in a single direction; cf. 22. 8derecta plumbo.57. carens est: for caret; cf. 64. 317 n. fuerant exstantia.59. genitoribus: i.e. parenti bus; cf. Lucr. II. 615 ingrati geni.toribus (of the Galli).60. foro: the poet here employs the corresponding Latin word for the Greekαγορά .61. miser ah miser: cf. 61. 139.- etiam atque etiam: cf. Plaut.Trin . 674 te moneo hoc etiam atque etiam; Ter. Eun. 56 etiam atqueetiam cogita; and often in later writers.62. figurae: under the word is the Greek feeling for the beauty of the human form that had made Attisthe object of so much adoration; cf. Cic. Ñ . D. I. 18. 47 ff.rum.-63.683 CATULLUS. 127Ego mulier, ego adulescens, ego ephebus, ego puer,Ego gymnasi fui fios, ego eram decus olei:65 Mihi ianuae frequentes, mihi limina tepida,Mihi floridis corollis redimita domus erat,Linquendum ubi esset orto mihi sole cubiculum.Ego nunc deum ministra et Cybeles famula ferar?senes.63. mulier: starting with the latus; Prop. I. 16. 22 tristis et in torturing thought of his present tepido limine somnus erit; Ov.hateful condition , he retraces the Met. XIV. 709 posuit in limine steps of his former career as the duro molle latus.passionate admiration of a whole 66. corollis: the door- posts and city. - adulescens: cf. 12. 9 n. threshold were decorated with garpuer; Censor. Die Nat. 14. 2 lands by the lovers in token of their { Varro putat] usque annum XV. devotion; cf. Lucr. IV. 1177 atlacri.pueros dictos: ad tricensimum mans exclusus amator limina saepeannum adulescentes . usque quin floribus et sertis operit; Ov. Met.que et quadraginta annos iuuenis XIV. 708 interdum madidas lacri .adusque sexagensimum annum marum rore coronas postibus inten .seniores inde usque finem uitae dit; Prop. I. 16.7 mihi non desunt -ephebus: cf. Censor. Die turpes pendere corollae.Nat. 14. 8 de tertia autem aetate 67. linquendum ubi, etc .: the adulescentulorum tres gradus esse proudly careless boy affected so factos in Graecia prius quam ad completely to disregard the atten uiros perueniatur, quod uocent an tions of his lovers as to be aware of norum xiiii. taida, Mellépnßov them only as he left the house in autem xv . , dein sedecim &onßov, the morning for the stadium and tunc septemdecim εξέφηβον. palaestra. — esset: only one earlier 64. gymnasi flos: with the instance of the subjunctive of repe figure cf. 17. 14 n. olei: i.e. tition with ubi can be cited ( Plaut.palaestrae, as the contestants were Bacch. 431 ) . In the silver age the well rubbed with oil before the construction becomes more fresports; cf. Cic. De Or. I. 18. 81 quent; cf. Hor. Carm . III . 6. 41 nitidum: genus uerborum sol ubi montium mutaret umbras.sedpalaestrae: et olei. 68. deum ministra: not specifi 65. ianuae frequentes: devoted cally a servant of the general pan admirers flocked to his doors by theon, but simply a temple servant,day. — limina tepida: finding no an unknown priest instead of the entrance, his lovers spent the night beloved of a city: the needful complaints on his door -stone; ification follows in Cybeles fa cf. Plat. Symp. 183 A ol épaoral mula; cf. Tac. Ann. I. 10. 5; IV.ποιούμενοι κοιμήσεις επί 37. 5 effigie numinum. -ministra,θύραις; Aristaenetus 2. 20 ότε μεν famula: not content with the conγάρ αυτοί ποθείτε , άστρώτους και trast between the lord of a cityful of χαμαιπετείς κοιμήσεις επί θύραις lovers and the slave of a mysteriousTOLETO Be; Hor. Carm . III. 10. 20 divinity, Attis brands his present dis non hoc semper erit liminis patiens grace by using the feminine form .128 CATULLUS. [63.69Ego maenas, ego mei pars, ego uir sterilis ero?70 Ego uiridis algida Idae niue amicta loca colam?Ego uitam agam sub altis Phrygiae columinibus,Vbi cerua siluicultrix, ubi aper nemoriuagus?Iam iam dolet quod egi, iam iamque paenitet.'Roseis ut huic labellis sonitus citus abiit75 Geminas deorum ad aures noua nuntia referens,Ibi iuncta iuga resoluens Cybele leonibus Laeuumque pecoris hostem stimulans ita loquitur.

69. maenas: cf. v. 23 n. mae- 75. geminas: cf. 51. II gemina nades. teguntur lumina nocte ( where, how 70. uiridis Idae: cf. v. 30 n. ever, there is a transfer of epithet);71. altis Phrygiae columini- Culex 150 geminas aures; Verg.bus: the following verse makes it Aen. V. 416 temporibus geminis;clear that mountain - summits are Ov. Fast. II. 154 geminos pedes;meant, though the form appears to Stat. Silu . IV.4. 26 geminas aures;be used only here in that sense; Mart. X. 10. 10 geminas manus. —but the form culmen is so used by deorum aures: somewhat loosely Caesar ( B. G. III. 2) and by Sueto- said, as if Cybele were not alone on nius ( Dom. 23) , and perhaps colu- the summit of Ida, but in the comminibus is here used metri gratia . pany of the other gods. — nuntia: 72. siluicultrix , nemoriuagus: the neuter singular in the sense of each adjective is ån. dey ., though • news is very unusual, and theVergil ( Aen. X. 551) uses siluicola, neuter plural in the same sense is and Lucretius (II. 597) montiua . still more rare; cf. however Sedul.gum . II . 474 grandia nuntia .73. iamiam: with the repetition 76. iuga resoluens: while un cf. Cic. Phil. II. 34. 87 iam iam fastening the lion from the yoke minime miror te otium perturbare; she addresses him. Cybele is often Verg. Aen. XII. 875 iam iam lin- depicted by the poets as riding in aquo acies. —iam iamque: not = et chariot drawn by yoked lions; cf. iam iam , for the passionate excla- Lucr. II. 600 hanc ueteres Graium mation of sorrow demands an asyn- docti cecinere poetae sedibus in curru deton; the phraserather iam et biiugos agitare leones; Verg. Aen.iam; cf. Cic. Att. VII. 20. I at il- III. 113 et iuncti currum dominae lum ruere nuntiant et iam iamque subiere leones; X. 253 biiugi ad adesse; XVI. 9 iam iamque uideo frena leones.bellum: and in Catullus himself 38. 77. laeuum: the nigh ' lion;3 and 64. 274 magis magis beside the specification is doubtless intro 68. 48 magis atque magis. duced for the sake of increasing the 74. roseis labellis: the youthful realistic effect of the lion's attack by beauty of Attis is thus contrasted details of word painting. —pecoris with the intensity of his suffering hostem: probably with reference and the bitterness of his plaint; cf. to the Greek descriptions of the liun 45. 12 n. purpureo ore. as raupoßópos (Anth. Plan . 94 )-63. 88 ]CATULLUS. 129' Agedum ' inquit, ‘ age ferox i, fac ut hunc furor agitet,Fac uti furoris ictu reditum in nemora ferat,80 Mea libere nimis qui fugere imperia cupit.Age caede terga cauda, tua uerbera patere,Fac cuncta mugienti fremitu loca retonent,Rutilam ferox torosa ceruice quate iubam. 'Ait haec minax Cybelle religatque iuga manu.85 Ferus ipse sese adhortans rabidum incitat animo,Vadit, fremit, refringit uirgulta pede uago.At ubi umida albicantis loca litoris adiitTenerumque uidit Attin prope marmora pelagi,347ταυροκτόνος ( Soph . Ph. 40ο) , ταυρο- same meaning cf. Pallad . Rut. III.λέτωρ (Man. Chron. 252) , ταυρο- 13 prouidendum est omnibus annisσφάγος (Lyc. 47) , ταυροφόνος uitem resolui ac religari. For reli( Orph. Hym . 14. 2); for pecus in- gare in the other sense cf. 64. 174.dicates neat cattle as well as sheep; 85. rabidum: Cybele's exhorta cf. Varro R. R. II. 1. 12 de pecore tion was to arouse the lion to furymaiore, in quo sunt boues, rather than to haste, and that is asini, equi. -stimulans: probably the characteristic passion of hisnot with a goad, but with her words. subsequent action; hence rapidum ,78. agedum , age: with the repe- the reading of V , must be an error tition cf. Ter. And. 310 age age, for rabidum, as rapidos for rabidosfac ut: with the construction cf. v. in v. 93, where a similar collocation 79; 64.231; 109: 3; but for fac occurs, incitatos rabidos being like and subjunctive without ut, v. 82; rabidum incitat.68. 46. 86. pede uago: the lion rushes 79. reditum ferat: cf. v. redi- now here , now there, in search oftum tetulit. his prey; otherwise in 64. 277.81. caede terga cauda: this 87. albicantis: not of the genhabit of the lion in rage is noted eral color of sea -sand, but of theby Plin. N.H. VIII. 16. 49, and by whiteness and sparkle of a foam Luc. Phar. I. 208 mox ubi se saeuae wet beach, as the position and use stimulauit uerbere caudae erexitque of umida indicate. loca litoris:iubam et uasto graue murmur hiatu cf. v. 70 Idae loca.infremuit. 88. tenerum: not of the beauty,82. fac retonent: with the con- but of the present effeminate condi struction cf. 68. 46 and v. 78 n. tion of Attis; cf. Juv. I. 22 tenerretonent is άπαξ λεγόμενον. spado. marmora pelagi:84. minax: of Cybele's attitude Hom. II . XIV. 273 άλα μαρμαρέην.toward Attis. —religat iuga, frees The word seems to describe thethe lion from the yoke, completing sparkling of the sea that occurs the action begun in v. 76 iuncta when it is covered with ripples only,iuga resoluens; with this conjunc- and hence to convey the idea of ation of resoluere and religare in the calm expanse (nitens aequor ) .cf.-130 CATULLUS. [ 63.89Facit impetum: ille demens fugit in nemora fera:90 Ibi semper omne uitae spatium famula fuit.Dea magna, dea Cybelle, dea domina Dindymi,Procul a mea tuus sit furor omnis, era, domo:Alios age incitatos, alios age rabidos.64.Peliaco quondam prognatae uertice pinusDicuntur liquidas Neptuni nasse per undas89. demens: sc . with present epyllion is wrought another which fear, not with past recollections. details the story of Theseus and Ari.90. famula: repeating the femi- adne under the guise of describing nine used by Attishimself in v. 68, the embroidered drapery of the and leaving with the reader, as the marriage- couch of Thetis. Thisfinal thought, the irrevocable char- second epyllion is even longer than acter of the awful self -consecration the first, covering vv . 50–266, while with which the poem opened. the entire poem contains but 408 91-93. The epilogue is a brief verses. —The date of composition hymn to the dread goddess herself. is uncertain, though the finish of 91. dea magna: cf. Prop. IV. thought and expression seem to 17. 35 dea magna Cybelle. do- point to maturity of development onmina Dindymi: cf. v . 13;_35. 14. the part of the author. Metre, dac 92. procul, etc.: cf. Ov. Fast. IV. tylic hexameter.116 a nobis sit furor iste procul. 1-30. Introductory, explaining 93. age: with the verb in this the circumstances that led to thesense with an adjective expressing, marriage of Peleus and Thetis. as it were, the result of the action, 1. Peliaco: cf. the imitation ofcf. Ov. Met. V. 13 quae te, germane, this proem by Ovid, Am. II. 11. Ifurentem mens agit in facinus? prima malas docuit, mirantibus Tac. Agr . 41 sic Agricola ... in aequoris undis, Peliaco pinus uer ipsam gloriam praeceps agebatur. - tice caesa uias; Prop. IV. 22. II incitatos ... rabidos; cf. the tuque tuo Colchum propellas remige same collocation in v. 85 rabidum Phasin, Peliacaeque trabis totum incitat. iter ipse legas. prognatae: cf. 64. This poem, often called in the similar figure in Hor. Carm . I. the later MSS. and earlier editions 14. 12 [ pinus] siluae filia nobilis.the Epithalamium of Peleus and 2. dicuntur: the poet makes it Thetis, is rather a brief epic, or clear that he is repeating an ancient epyllion, after the Alexandrian tradition; cf. vv. 19 fertur, 76 and style, having for its basis the wed. 124 perhibent, 212 ferunt. - liqui ding of Peleus and Thetis, and for das: not an otiose epithet, but one of its divisions the marriage- indicating the unstable water as song of the Parcae. But into this unfitted to support a heavy body;-64.11 ) CATULLUS. 131Phasidos ad Aluctus et fines Aeeteos,Cum lecti iuuenes, Argiuae robora pubis,5 Auratam optantes Colchis auertere pellemAusi sunt uada salsa cita decurrere puppi,Caerula uerrentes abiegnis aequora palmis.Diua quibus retinens in summis urbibus arces Ipsa leui fecit uolitantem flamine currum,10 Pinea coniungens inflexae texta carinae.Illa rudem cursu prima imbuit Amphitriten.-

cf. Verg. Aen. V. 859 liquidas pro- carina . cito decurrere puppi.iecit in undaspraecipitem; Nemes. cf. Ov. Fast. VI. 777 celeri decurrite Buc. 2. 76 nec tremulum liquidis cumba.lumen splenderet in undis. 7. caerula uerrentes aequora:nasse: cf. 4. 3 natantis trabis; cf. Verg. Aen. III . 208 adnixi 66. 45 iuuentus per medium nauit torquent spumas et caerula uer Athon .runt. palmis: cf. 4. 4 n. pal.3. Phasidos: the chief river of mulis.Colchis, rising in the Caucasus and 8. diua retinens, etc.: i.e. flowing into the Euxine Sea at its Athena Polias; cf. Verg. Ecl. 2.eastern end. — Aeeteos: Gr. Ain- 61 Pallas quas condidit arces ipsa Telovs: Acetes was king of Colchis colat. quibus: referring to v. 4and father of Medea. lecti iuuenes. summis: with the 4. lecti iuuenes: so the Argo- partitive force.nauts are called by Ennius ( Med. 9. ipsa fecit: Catullus here fol.Exsul 209 R. Argiui delecti uiri) lows the tradition ofApollonius I. and Vergil ( Ecl. 4. 34 altera quae 111 αυτή γάρ και νηα θοήν κάμε,uehat Argo delectos heroas ); cf. also with which cf. Phaedr. IV. 7. 9Theocr. 13. 18 magây ék mollwn fabricasset Argus opere Palladio ra TT polereyuévou ( of the Argonauts). tem; Sen. Med . 368 non Palladia 5. auratam pellem: for the compacta manu Argo; Val. Flac. I. story of the Argonautic expedition 94. currum: the newly invented see Hom. Od. XII. 69; Hes. Theog. vehicle for the sea is described by 992; Apollod. I. 9. 16 ff.; and the its similarity to those in use on land;poems by Pindar ( Pyth. 4) , Apollo- cf. Cic. N. D. II. 35. 89 diuinum et nius, and Valerius Flaccus. nouum uehiculum Argonautarum;tere, to win; especially used of and v. 6 decurrere.plunder; cf. Caes. B. C. III . 59. 4 11. cursu imbuit: cf. Val. Flac.praedam omnem domum auerte- I. 69 ignaras Cereris qui uomere bant; Cic. Verr. II . 3. 69. 163 terras imbuit; Sil . Ital. III. 64 ir innumerabilemfrumenti numerum uenem primo Hymenaeo imbuerat auersum ab re publica esse; Verg. coniunx. Amphitriten: i.e. the Aen. VIII. 207 quattuor a stabulis sea, as in Ov. Met. I. 14 bracchia tauros auertit. porrexerat Amphitrite. For the 6. uada salsa: cf. Verg. Aen. descent of the goddess see v. 29 n .V. 158 longa sulcant uada salsa Tethys.auer132 CATULLUS. [ 64. 12Quae simul ac rostro uentosum proscidit. aequorTortaque remigio spumis incanduit unda,Emersere freti candenti e gurgite uultus 15 Aequoreae monstrum Nereides admirantes.Illa, siqua alia, uiderunt luce marinas Mortales oculis nudato corpore nymphasNutricum tenus exstantes e gurgite cano.Tum Thetidis Peleus incensus fertur amore,20 Tum Thetis humanos non despexit hymenaeos,Tum Thetidi pater ipse iugandum Pelea sensit.rum. -12. uentosum aequor: cf. Verg. of Nereus and Doris; cf. v . 29 n .Aen . VI. 335 a Troia uentosa per Tethys.acquora uectos; Ov. Her . 16. 5 17. oculis: emphasizing the re uentosa per aequora uectum . ality of the wonderful sight; cf. 13. torta: cf. Verg. Aen. III . 208, Ter. Eun. 677 hunc oculis suis nos cited on v.7.- incanduitunda: cf. trarum nunquam quisquam uidit.Ov. Met. IV. 530 percussa recanduit 18. nutricum: the word occursunda; and with incanduit in this only here in the sense of papillasense Plin . Pan . 30 pars magna ter tenus: with the genitive,rarum alto puluere incanduit. as in Cic. Arat. 83 lumborum tenus,14. With the general picture cf. Verg. Geor. III. 53 crurum tenus.Sil. Ital. VII. 412 ff. ac totus multo -gurgite cano: cf. v. 14 n.; spumabat remige pontus, cum trepi- Ciris 514 cano de gurgite.dae fremitu uitreis e sedibus antri 19. tum: Catullus represents this aequoreae pelago simul emersere as the first meeting of Peleus andsorores . freti: the MS. feri Thetis; but, according to Apolloniushardly describes the beautiful faces ( I. 558) , Peleus, though an Argo and forms of Thetis and her com- naut, was long since married; while panions, being usually joined with Valerius Flaccus ( I. 130) representssuch adjectives as immanis, inhu- the wedding of Peleus and Thetis as manus, immansuetum; but on freti pictured among the adornments of cf. Oct. 720 talis emersam freto spu- the Argo itself, and Achilles as mante Peleus coniugem accepit The- broughtby Chiron to bid his father tim . — candenti e gurgite: cf. v. good -by before the sailing ( I. 255 ) .13 incanduit unda; v. 18 e gurgite - fertur: cf. v. 2 n . dicuntur,cano; Lucr. II. 767 [mare] uerti- 20. hymenaeos: plural, as in tur in canos candenti marmore v. 141; but singular with the same fluctus; Sil. Ital. XIV. 362 spumat meaning in 66. 11. On the length canenti sulcatus gurgite limes. ening of the preceding short syllable 15. monstrum admirantes: cf. see Intr. 86 g.the wonder expressed by the shep- 21. pater ipse: i.e. Zeus, who herd at the sight of the Argo in had himself intended to wed The Accius ap. Cic . N.D. II. 35. 89. — tis; but being warned by the Fates Nereides: sea -nymphs, daughters (or, according to other stories, by-04. 30 ] CATULLUS. 133O nimis optato saeclorum tempore natiHeroes, saluete, deum genus, o bona matrum 23b Progenies, saluete iterum ...Vos ego saepe meo, uos carmine compellabo,25 Teque adeo eximie taedis felicibus aucteThessaliae columen Peleu, cui Iuppiter ipse,Ipse suos diuum genitor concessit amores.Tene Thetis tenuit pulcherrima Nereine?Tene suam Tethys concessit ducere neptem30 Oceanusque, mari totum qui amplectitur orbem?butThemis , or by Prometheus) that the 27. amores: not of Thetis her.son of Thetis would be greater than self (cf. 6. 16 n.) , but of the passion his father, he gave up his purpose, of Zeus for her, -'in whose favor and furthermore, fearing that his the father of the gods himself reown throne might be endangered signed his passion . With the plu by the existence of a rival, declared ral cf. 38. 6; 64. 334, 372; 68. 69;that Thetis should wed no immor- 96. 3; Plaut. Merc. 2 et argumen .tal; cf. Aesch. Prom . 167 ff., 907 ff.; tum et meos amores eloquar; Hor.Ov. Met. XI. 221 ff. Carm . II. 9. 10 nec tibi Vespero 22. nimis optato: cf. 43. 4 n. surgente decedunt amores; Verg.nimis, and with the general senti- Ecl. 9. 56 nostros in longum ducis ment of the verse, Verg. Aen. VI. amores.649 magnanimi heroes , nati meli- 28. tenuit: sc. complexu; cf. oribus annis. 72. 2; but otherwise in 11. 18; 55.23 f. saluete . saluete ite- 17. – Nereine: Gr. Nnpntun;rum: cf. Verg. Aen. V. 80 salue, elsewhere the Latins use either sancte parens; iterum saluete, etc. Nereis ( cf. v. 15 ) or Nerine ( cf. matrum: either there is hypal- Verg. Ecl. 7. 37 Nerine Galatea ).lage of the adjective, or bonarum 29. Tethys: the daughter of must be supplied in the lacuna, as Uranus and Ge, and the wife of her Peerlkamp suggested. With the own brother Oceanus, by whomidea cf. 61. 226 ff. she became the mother of the sea 23b. Cf. Crit. App. nymphs called Oceanides, of the 24. Cf. Theocr. I. 144. i χαίρετε rivers of earth, and of Nereus.πολλάκι Μοίσαι, χαίρετ ' . εγώ δ' From the marriage of Nereus with ύμμιν και ες ύστερον άδιον άσω. his sister Doris, one of the Oceani.25. taedis aucte: cf. 66. II des, sprang the sea-nymphs called auctus hymenaeo. Nereides, of whom the most famous 26. Thessaliae columen: cf. were Thetis, Amphitrite, the wife Ter. Phor. 287 columen familiae; of Poseidon, and Galatea, the be Hor. Carm . II. 17. 3 mearum colu- loved of rerum; Sen. Troad. 128 30. totum amplectitur or columen patriae; Hom. Il. & pkos bem: cf. Hom. ll. XVIII. 399 'Αχαιών. αψορρόου Ωκεανοίο; Aesch . Prom.134 CATULLUS. [64-31Quae simul optatae finito tempore luces Aduenere, domum conuentu tota frequentatThessalia, oppletur laetanti regia coetu:Dona ferunt prae se, declarant gaudia uultu .35 Deseritur Cieros, linquunt Phthiotica Tempe Crannonisque domos ac moenia Larisaea,Pharsalum coeunt, Pharsalia tecta frequentant.Rura colit nemo, mollescunt colla iuuencis,Non humilis curuis purgatur uinea rastris,пат.138 του περί πασάν θ ' είλισσομένου extending not so far north even as χθόν ακοιμήτω ρεύματι Pharsalus.pos • Keawoo; Val. Flac. I. I95 ter- 36. Crannon and Larisa were ras salo complecteris omnes; Pan. both towns of Pelasgiotis near the Mess. (Tib. IV. 1 ) 147 Oceanus Peneus.ponto qua continet orbem; Bryant 37. Pharsalum coeunt: theThanatopsis 42 and, poured round commoner form of the legend all, Old Ocean's gray and melan- made Mt. Pelion the place of thecholy waste. wedding, and Chiron the host.31-42. The introductory narra- 38. mollescuntcolla iuuencis:tive finished, the poet turns to the since they no longer bore theyoke;main theme, and describes first the in this expression, as in the follow gathering of the mortal wedding- • ing verses, the absolute desertion ofguests. the farm is pictured by representing31. quae luces: with a general it as if it had lasted a long time.reference to the fixing of the wed- 39 f. Cf. Verg. Ecl. 4. 40, 41 ding-day in v. 29. — simul: sc. non rastros patietur humus, non atque; cf. 22. 15 n. —optatae: cf. uinea falcem; robustus quoque iam with the thought, 62. 30; 66. 79. tauris iuga soluet arator. -humi 32. domum: sc. of Peleus. lis uinea: here, as,according to 34. dona: wedding-gifts, not pro- Varro ( R. R. I. 8) , in Spain and pitiatory offerings to a superior. some parts of Asia, the vines were prae se: thus commonly of things not trained on trees, but either ran carried in the hands; cf. Verg. along the ground or were so cut as Aen. XI. 249 munera praeferimus. to be kept low. The latter plan 35. Cieros: otherwise Cierium, is followed to- day in the great vine a town of Thessaliotis, according to yards of California, and to some Strabo 435. — Phthiotica Tempe: extent in Italy itself. —curuis: per with a poet's license concerning haps referring to the crescent-shaped geography, Catullus calls the famous iron, the two points of which form vale of Tempe through which the the teeth of the rastrum pictured Peneus flows ( cf. v. 285 ) Phthiotic, in Rich's Dict. Ant. s.v. -rastris:as synonymous with Thessalian in the rastrum was a heavy sort of general, though in strictness the rake of from two to four strong iron district of Phthiotis was the south- teeth, used to break up clods and to ernmost of the divisions of Thessaly, loosen the surface of the ground.-64.49 ] CATULLUS. 13540 Non glaebam prono conuellit uomere taurus,Non falx attenuat frondatorum arboris umbram,Squalida desertis robigo infertur aratris.Ipsius at sedes, quacumque opulenta recessitRegia, fulgenti splendent auro atque argento.45 Candet ebur soliis, conlucent pocula mensae,Tota domus gaudet regali splendida gaza.Puluinar uero diuae geniale locaturSedibus in mediis, Indo quod dente politumTincta tegit roseo conchyli purpura fuco.vy .40. prono: of the point of the share down -pressed, that it may cut a deep furrow; cf. Verg. Geor . I. 45 depresso aratro; II. 203 presso sub uomere.41. attenuat arboris umbram:that the sun may reach and ripen the grapes. Attempts have been made by various critics to rearrange 38-42 so as to produce a more consistent picture by bringing to gether details that concern the same objects; but there seems to be no good reason for criticising the alter nation of the description between the tasks which men performed alone and those in which cattleshared (after the general statement made in v. 38 that men and beasts ceased from toil ) .43–266. The adornment of the palace of Peleus.43. ipsius: i.e. Peleus; such aremote reference of ipse, so that it is equivalent to some such word as do minus, is not uncommon; cf. 114.6; Ter. Andr. 360 paululum obsoni;ipsus tristis; Verg. Ecl. 3. 3 ipse Neaeram dumfouet , Juv. 1. 61 lora tenebat ipse. opulenta recessitregia: the guest standing at the door looks through an imposing vista of room succeeding room;cf. on the word Verg. Aen. II.300 Anchisae domus arboribus ob tecta recessit; Plin. Ep. II. 17. 21 contra parietem medium zotheca recedit; and with the idea, the de scription of the first series of rooms in Pliny's villa (Ep. II. 17. 5).44 ff. Cf. Vergil's description of Dido's palace in Aen. I. 637–641.45. candet ebur soliis: the couches arranged about the tables have ivory legs; cf. v. 303 and 61 .115; like mensae, soliis is a dative.46. gaudet: i.e. wears a festive appearance, as Sirmio was to do atthe master's return ( 31. 12); cf. Hor. Carm . IV. 11. 6 ridet argentodomus.47. puluinar geniale: for lectus genialis, as a more formal and im posing term, and one especially con nected with divinity.48. sedibus in mediis: the poet is apparently thinking of a Roman house, where the lectus genialis stood in the atrium . - Indo dentepolitum = ebore polito; cf. Ov.Met. VIII . 288 dentes ( apri ] aequantur dentibus Indis.49. Observe the favorite contrast of color between the ivory of the couch and its crimson drapery; cf. Hor. Sat. II. 6. 102 rubro ubi coccotincta super lectos canderet uestiş eburnos.-136 CATULLUS. (64.5050 Haec uestis priscis hominum uariata figurisHeroum mira uirtutes indicat arte.Namque fluentisono prospectans litore DiaeThesea cedentem celeri cum classe tueturIndomitos in corde gerens Ariadna furores,55 Necdum etiam sese quae uisit uisere credit,Vt pote fallaci quae tunc primum excita somnoDesertam in sola miseram se cernat harena.Immemor at iuuenis fugiens pellit uada remis,Irrita uentosae linquens promissa procellae.60 Quem procul ex alga maestis Minois ocellis50. With this verse begins the episode of Ariadne's Lament, which extends through v. 266, thus form ing more than half of the entire poem, and setting in striking con trast the unhappy love of Ariadne with the happy love of Thetis.Episodic digressions of a similar character, depicting actions repre sented in graving or embroidery,are as old as the description ofthe shield of Achilles ( Hom. Il. XVIII.478 ff.), and are multiplied in later writers. With the episode of Catul lus may be compared the story of Ariadne as told by Ovid in Art.Am. I. 527-564; Her . 10.52. fluentisono: oraš leybue vov, though fluctisonus and undisonus are found in post-Augustan poets. The word has reference to the crash of breakers uponrock -bound coast, perhaps here to point the impossibility of escape;cf. v. 121 spumos nosa ad litora Diae,and the more neutral epithet used by Homer in Od . XI. 325 Alp èv å uølpúty.-Diae: asserted by sev eral of the Greeks to be but an ear lier name for Naxos. But Homer( Od. XI. 321 ff.) very probably thought of the island of Dia that lies very near the north coast ofCrete, whence the tradition may have been transferred to Naxos, the favorite haunt of Dionysus, as the later story of Ariadne's rescue by Dionysus gained ground. Catullus certainly must have followed the later tradition , if he had any definite tradition in mind.53. A favorite subject in the Pompeian frescoes is Ariadne awak .ing from sleep and gazing after the departing ship of Theseus; cf. RouxHerc. et Pompeii, passim . —classe:cf. v. 212 n.54. indomitos furores: of un controllable love; cf. 50. II; 64.94; 68. 129.55. Cf. Ov. Her, 10. 31 aut uidi,aut tanquam quae me uidisse putarem .a56. fallaci: sleep is traitorous since he made the secret flight of Theseus possible; cf. Ov. Her . 10 .5 in quo me somnusque meus male prodidit et tu .57. desertam , miseram: withthis use of the adjective miser, in stead of the adverb, with another adjective, cf. 65. 21 miserae oblitae.58. immemor: used absolutely and with similar meaning in 30. I. 59. Cf. 30. 1o n.60. ex alga: i.e. from the beach;264.69 ] CATULLUS. 137Saxea ut effigies bacchantis prospicit, eheu,Prospicit et magnis curarum fluctuat undis,Non flauo retinens subtilem uertice mitram,Non contecta leui uelatum pectus amictu,65 Non tereti strophio lactentis uincta papillas,Omnia quae toto delapsa e corpore passimIpsius ante pedes fluctus salis adludebant.Sic neque tum mitrae neque tum fluitantis amictusIlla uicem curans toto ex te pectore, Theseu,v . 168; Mart. X. 16. 5 quidquid Erythraea niger inuenit Indus inalga.61. The figure is that of a Bac chante speechless, motionless, and utterly forgetful of her own appear.ance through the very exaltation of her wild emotions; cf. Hor. Carm .III. 25.8 non secus in iugis Edonis stupet Euhias Hebrum prospiciens;Ov. Her. 19. 49 mare prospiciens in saxo frigida sedi, quamque lapis sedes, tam lapis ipsa fui. –prospi cit, eheu , prospicit: she stands absorbed in long-continued, but alas, fruitless gazing.62. curarum: cf. 2. 10 n.undis: with the figure cf. Lucr.III. 298 irarum fluctus; VI. 34 uoluere curarum tristis in pectore fluctus; Verg. Aen . IV. 532 saeuit amor, magnoque irarumfluctuat aestu; VIII. 19 magno curarum fluctuat aestu .63. flauo, etc.: cf. the apparent reminiscence in Ciris 511 purpureas flauo retinentem uertice uittas.Fair hair is traditionally a mark of beauty in the poets. subtilemmitram: the finely-woven, varie gated coif worn by Greek women ,as by Orientals in general. In Greeceit seems to have consisted of a sortof scarf arranged either as headdress or as girdle.64. non contecta, etc.: herbreast unshielded by its veil of light drapery. With the reinforcement of the idea by the introduction of uelatum cf. v. 103 ingratafrustra (but see Crit. App .). — leui amictu: doubtless the chiton; cf.Ov. Art. Am. I. 529 ut erat esomno tunica uelata recincta , nuda pedem , croceas inreligata comas.65. strophio: a girdle woven or wound like a cord ( cf. tereti, andthe mother's dress in the wellknown Herculanean Toilet of theBride) , and worn by women over the inner tunic just below the breasts, to which it was apparently designed to furnish support. — lac tentis: not of the color, but of the full development, of the breasts in the mature woman; cf. Verg. Geor.I. 315 frumenta in uiridi stipula lactentia turgent; Ov. Fast. I. 351sata uere nouo teneris lactentiasucis; and especially Petron. 86 impleui lactentibus papillis manus.67 f. adludebant: with the fig .ure cf. Cic. N. D. II . 39. 100 ipsummare terram appetens litoribus ad ludit; Top. 7. 32 solebat Aquilius quaerentibus iis quid esset litus ita definire, qua fluctus eluderet.69. toto pectore, toto animo,tota mente: cf. Vulg. Luc. 10. 27 diliges dominum deum tuum ex toto corde tuo, et ex tota anime tua , ex omni mente tua .138 CATULLUS. ( 64.7070 Toto animo, tota pendebat perdita mente.Ah misera, adsiduis quam luctibus exsternauitSpinosas Erycina serens in pectore curas Illa tempestate, ferox quo ex tempore Theseus Egressus curuis e litcribus Piraei75 Attigit iniusti regis Gortynia tecta.Nam perhibent olim crudeli peste coactam Androgeoneae poenas exsoluere caedisElectos iuuenes simul et decus innuptarumCecropiam solitam esse dapem dare Minotauro.80 Quis angusta malis cum moenia uexarentur,was SO71. exsternauit: apparently the first appearance of this rare word;cf. also only v. 165; Ov. Met. I. 641;XI. 77; and much later Latin .72. Erycina: Venus called by the Romans from her ancient and famous shrine on Mt.Eryx in western Sicily.73. illa tempestate quo ex tempore: a variation of the ordi nary prose pleonasm illo die quo die. For one simple ablative re peated by another with ex cf. 35. 13 quo tempore ex eo, where, as here, the starting-point of a contin ued effect is indicated . ferox:used absolutely, as in v. 247.74. curuis litoribus: embracing the harbor.75. iniusti: so called of course from the Athenian standpoint, since he required such a heavy penalty for the death of one man, his son; but cf. Ov. Her . 10. 69 pater et tellus iusto regnata parenti, and the refer ences to Minos as appointed because of his justice to judge souls in the lower world, e.g. Hom. Od. XI. 568 " Ένθ' ή του Μίνωα ίδoν , Διός αγλαόν υιόν, χρύσεον σκήπτρον έχοντα , θε MLO TEÚOVTA VÉKVOOLV; Hor. Carm .IV. 7. 21 cum semel occideris et dete splendida Minos fecerit arbitria .–Gortynia: probably simply Cre tan '; cf. v. 172 Gnosia litora .76. nam perhibent: the poet drops the thread of his story for amoment to relate the circumstancesthat led to the present condition of Ariadne; cf. v. 2 n. dicuntur.77. Androgeoneac caedis: An drogeos, son of Minos and Pasiphae,conquered all his competitors at wrestling in Athens, and was through jealousy assassinated while on his way to the games at Thebes.According to another story, King Aegeus himself caused his death by sending him against the fire -breath ing Marathonian bull. Minos there.upon besieged the Athenians, who were compelled to yield to him by a pestilence sent bythe gods, and to accept his hard conditions of peace.78. electos: cf. v. 4 lecti iuuenes.The number is commonly given as seven of each sex ( as also, perhaps,in Verg. Aen. VI. 20 ff.) . — innup tarum: for uirginum , as in 62. 6 .79. Cecropiam: traditionally the ancient name of the city of King Cecrops, which was called Athenaeafter the goddess Athena became recognized as its patron .80. angusta: of the small size of the young city, and not of the:-64-92 ] CATULLUS.139Ipse suum Theseus pro caris corpus AthenisProicere optauit potius quam talia CretamFunera Cecropiae nec funera portarentur.Atque ita naue leui nitens ac lenibus auris85 Magnanimum ad Minoa uenit sedesque superbas.Hunc simul ac cupido conspexit lumine uirgo Regia, quam suauis exspirans castus odoresLectulus in molli complexu matris alebat,Quales Eurotae progignunt flumina myrtos90 Auraue distinctos educit uerna colores,Non prius ex illo flagrantia declinauitLumina quam cuncto concepit corpore flammam-straitening by the hardships of resembles that given by Apolloniussiege. (III . 275 ff.) in describing Medea's 83. funera nec funera: with the love for Jason . - uirgoregia: i.e. oxymoron cf. 112. I multus neque Ariadne; cf. Ov. Met. II. 570 fue multus (where, however, there is an ramque ego regia uirgo.á upißoria ); Cic. Phil. I. 2. 5 inse- 87. suauis exspirans odores pultam sepulturam; Ov. Art. Am. lectulus: cf. Ciris 3 suaues ex II. 93 pater nec iam pater (repeated spirans hortulus auras. The ideain Met. VIII. 231); and especially seems to have been suggested by such favorite Greek expressions as the Homeric phrase θάλαμος θυώδηςπόλεμος άπόλεμος , τάφος άταφος, ( e.g. Od. IV. 121) .etc. The reference is doubtless to 88. in molli complexu matris:the life - in - death of the victims on cf. 61. 58; 62. 21 .their way to Crete, who were 89. quales, etc.: cf. 61. 22 n.mourned as dead from the moment 90. aura educit: cf. v. 282; 62.of their sailing. 41 n. —colores: by metonymy for 84. atque ita: i.e. with the pur- flores; cf. Val. Flac. Arg. VI. 492 pose mentioned in the preceding lilia per uarios lucent uelut alba verses; cf. v. 315 atque ita. colores.leui et lenibus auris: the happy 91. non prius, etc.: cf. 51.6 (and indications of a swift and prosper- note) , and contrast the idea with theous voyage are contrasted with the more complex treatment of Medea's shrinking horror and dread in the first passion in Ov. Met. VII. 86 ff. hearts of the passengers. - nitens, 92. cuncto, etc.: cf., however,pressing forward. the commoner phrase in Verg. Aen.85. magnanimum: the Ho- VII. 356 necdum animus toto percemeric μεγάθυμος . - sedes super pit pectore flammam; Ov . Met.bas, the abode of tyranny; with VII. 17 excute uirgineo conceptas reference to v. 75 iniusti regis. pectore flammas; Petron. 127 lup 86 ff. This account of thesudden piter et toto concepit pectoreflam .love of Ariadne for Theseus closely On the figure see 2. 8 n.nauemas.146 CATULLUS. [64-93Funditus atque imis exarsit tota medullis.Heu misere exagitans immiti corde furores,95 Sancte puer, curis hominum qui gaudia misces,Quaeque regis Golgos quaeque Idalium frondosum ,Qualibus incensam iactastis mente puellam Fluctibus in flauo saepe hospite suspirantem!Quantos illa tulit languenti corde timores,100 Quanto saepe magis fulgore expalluit auri,Cum saeuum cupiens contra contendere monstrum Aut mortem appeteret Theseus aut praemia laudis.Non ingrata tamen frustra munuscula diuisPromittens tacito succendit uota labello.105 Nam uelut in summo quatientem bracchia TauroQuercum aut conigeram sudanti cortice pinum Indomitus turbo contorquens flamine roburEruit (illa procul radicitus exturbataProna cadit, † lateque cum eius obuia frangens),110 Sic domito saeuum prostrauit corpore Theseus-93. imis medullis: cf. 35. 15 n.95. sancte: a general epithet of divinity; cf. 36. 3 n.; Tib. II. 1 .81 sancte [ Amor ], ueni dapibus festis, sed pone sagittas. curis,etc.: cf. the similar phrase concerning Venus in 68. 18 quae dulcem curis miscet amaritiem .96. Cf. 36. 12 ff.98. flauo hospite: cf. v. 63 n .100. quanto magis expalluit:with the construction cf. Cic. Acad.I. 3. 10 quanto magis philosophi de lectabunt; with the figure , 81. 4.Dark -complexioned people, as the people of southern Europe usually are, turn yellow rather than white when pale.103. ingrata, frustra: with the pleonasm cf. v. 64 contecta , uelatum;with ingrata in this passive sense,without due return ,' cf. 73. 3; 76 .6; but in the active sense, ‘ ungrateful,' 76. 9.104. tacito succendit uota la bello: the beautiful figure of the incense of prayer is unique in Latin in this pure form , but is so simple that its authenticity is above suspicion. The connection of prayers with incense -offering is not infrequently noted; cf. Stat. Theb.XI. 236 uota incepta tamen libata que tura ferebat. Ariadne's prayer was offered silently, as became her maidenly feeling, and the necessary concealment of her love from herfriends.105 ff. uelut, etc.: with the figure cf. Verg. Aen. II. 626 ff.; Hor.Carm . IV . 6. 9 ff.; and often .110. saeuum: apparently used-64. 120 ] CATULLUS.141Nequiquam uanis iactantem cornua uentis.Inde pedem sospes multa cum laude reflexitErrabunda regens tenui uestigia filo,Ne labyrintheis e flexibus egredientem115 Tecti frustraretur inobseruabilis error .Sed quid ego a primo digressus carmine plura Commemorem, ut linquens genitoris filia uultum ,Vt consanguineae complexum, ut denique matris,Quae misera in gnata deperdita laetabatur,120 Omnibus his Thesei dulcem praeoptarit amorem,-uacuoshere, though perhaps here only, as asubstantive, indicating the distinc tive characteristic of this monster,as ferus, so often used substantively,(eg. 63. 85 ) , characterizes ordinary wild beasts.111. nequiquam , etc.: cf. Cic.Αtt. VΙΙΙ . 5. Ι πολλά μάτην κεράεσ σιν ες ήέρα θυμήναντα; cf. also Verg. Aen. XII. 105 [ taurus] uen tos lacessit ictibus. uanis: unsubstantial, offering no resistance;cf. Val. Flac. I. 421 saltem in ut bracchia uentos spar gat; but ShelleyMedresa of Da Vinci 23 to saw The solid air with many a raggedjaw .112. pedem reflexit: perhaps the verb is selected because it sug gests the turnings (v. 114) of the labyrinth. — multa cum laude:cf. Hor. Carm . IV. 4. 66 multa proruit integrum cum laude uic torem .113. Cf. of the same incidentVerg. Aen. VI. 30 caeca regens filo uestigia; Prop. III . 14. 8 Daeda lium lino- cum duce rexit iter; Ov.Her . 10. 103 nec tibi quae reditus monstrarent fila dedissem .114. labyrintheis: & tað leyóμενον .115. inobseruabilis error: cf. Verg . Aen . V. 591 irremcabiliserror; VI. 27 inextricabilis error (of the Labyrinth ); Apoll. Sid. Ep. ÎI . 5 inextricabilem labyrinthum negotii multiplicis; Plin. N. H. XXXVI. 85 itinerum ambages occursusque ac recursus inexplica biles continet; Ov. Met. VIII. 160 turbatque notas, et lumina flexum ducit in errorem uariarum ambage uiarum; Shelley Medusa of Da Vinci 35 that inextricable error.118. consanguineae: for sororis.Apollodorus ( III. 1. 2) speaks of three other daughters of Minos be sides Ariadne, Acale, Xenodice,and Phaedra, of whom Catullus probably had in mind Phaedra, who is the most prominent of them in mythology, and was later the wife of Theseus himself.119. misera: contrasting the present wretched condition of Ari.adne, betrayed by a false love, with the affection formerly lavished upon her by her family. -deperdita: of the limitless love of the mother,rather than of her present unhappi.ness; cf. 45. 3; 104. 3.120. Thesei: dissyllabic, like v.382 Pelei, and Culex 278 Orphei ( cited on v. 139). —praeoptarit:with the synizesis cf. Plaut. Trin .648 praebptauisti amorem tuom uti uirtutipraeponeres; Ter. Hec.142 CATULLUS. [ 64. 121Aut ut uecta rati spumosa ad litora DiaeVenerit, aut ut eam deuinctam lumina somnoLiquerit immemori discedens pectore coniunx?Saepe illam perhibent ardenti corde furentem125 Clarisonas imo fudisse ex pectore uoces,Ac tum praeruptos tristem conscendere montes Vnde aciem in pelagi uastos protenderet aestus,Tum tremuli salis aduersas procurrere in undas Mollia nudatae tollentem tegmina surae,130 Atque haec extremis maestam dixisse querelis,Frigidulos udo singultus ore cientem:Sicine me patriis auectam , perfide, ab aris,Perfide, deserto liquisti in litore, Theseu?Sicine discedens neglecto numine diuum135 Immemor ah deuota domum periuria portas?197 ardens.532 ddeon peruicdci esse animo ut 129. mollia, soft; cf. 65. 21 molli púerum praeoptarés perire. sub ueste. —nudatae: proleptic.121. spumosa litora Diae: cf. 130. extremis: for her grief soV. 52 n. far overcomes her thatshe supposes 122. deuinctam lumina som- herself to be dying; cf. Prop. cf. Ciris 206 iamque adeo dulci 55 flens tamen extremis dedit haecdeuinctus lumina somno Nisus erat. mandata querelis.124. perhibent: cf. v . 2 n. di. 131. frigidulos singultus: carcuntur . ardenti corde: cf. v. rying on the idea of extremis, indicating the last panting breaths as 125. clarisonas: a rare word, chill death creeps on; cf. Ciris 347 occurring only here (of the shrill super morientis alumnae frigidulos cries of anguish ), in v. 320 (of the ocellos.shrill voice of age) , and in Cic. 132–201. With the complaint of Arat. 280 a clarisonis auris Aqui Ariadne cf. similar passages in lonis (of the shrilling blast) . –imo Verg. Aen. IV. 590 ff. ( the com ex pectore: i.e. after a long-drawn, plaint of Dido); Ov. Met. VIII.sighing inspiration; cf. Verg. Aen. 108-142 ( of Scylla) .I. 371 suspirans imoque trahens a 132. patriis ab'aris = a domo;pectore uocem . cf. Verg. Aen. XI. 269 patriis red 126 f. Cf. Ov. Her. 10. 25–28. ditus aris, and often; Charis. 33 K. 128. tremuli, rippling; cf. Ov. arae pro penatibus.Her. 11. 75 ut mare fit tremulum , 134. neglecto numine diuum;tenui cum stringitur aura . — pro- the gods punish infidelity of all currere: with the vain impulse to sorts; cf. 30. 3-4.ollow the fleeing vessel. 135. deuota: i.e. under the-64.151 )CATULLUS .143Nullane res potuit crudelis flectere mentisConsilium? tibi nulla fuit clementia praestoImmite ut nostri uellet miserescere pectus?At non haec quondam blanda promissa dedisti140 Voce mihi, non haec miserae sperare iubebas,Sed conubia laeta, sed optatos hymenaeos:Quae cuncta aerii discerpunt irrita uenti.Nunc iam nulla uiro iuranti femina credat,Nulla uiri speret sermones esse fideles:145 Quis dum aliquid cupiens animus praegestit apisci,Nil metuunt iurare, nihil promittere parcunt:Sed simul ac cupidae mentis satiata libido est,Dicta nihil meminere, nihil periuria curant.Carte ego te in medio uersantem turbine leti150 Eripui et potius germanum amittere creuiQuam tibi fallaci supremo in tempore deessem:ban of Ariadne's curse; cf. v .192 ff.139. blanda uoco: after thewont of persuasive lovers; cf. Enn.Ann. 51 blanda uoce uocabam; Cu lex 278 turba ferarum bla da uocesequax regionem insederat Orphei;Ov. Art. Am. I. 703 quid blanda uoce moraris? III . 795 nec blandae uoces cessent.140. miserae: the dative withdedisti seems to be continued intothe iubebas- clause, though a sim ple infinitive and dative is a rare construction with that verb.141. sed, etc.: cf. the close verbal and metrical resemblance of Verg.Aen . IV. 316 per conubia nostra,per inceptos hymenaeos. The repe tition of sed corresponds to that of non haec in v. 139 f. - conubia:plural with singular meaning, as in v. 158; but singular in 62. 57. -hymenaeos: cf. v. 20 n.142. uenti, etc.: cf. 30. 1o n.143. nunc, etc.: cf. Ov. Fast. III.475 nunc quoque ' nulla uiro'cla .mabo “ femina credat' ( spoken by Ariadne with reference to the infidelity of Bacchus ).145. praegestit: the word ap parently occurs only here, in Cic.Cael. 67 praegestit animus iam uidere, and in Hor. Carm . II. 5.9 iuuencae ludere cum uitulis prae gestientis.149. turbine leti: cf. Val. Flac.VI. 279 doloris turbine.150. germanum: i.e. the Mino taur; cf. v. 181; Ov. Her. 10. 115 dextera crudelis quae me fratrem que necauit. creui: archaic fordecreui; cf. Lucil. XIII. I acribus inter se cum armis confligere cer nit; Plaut. Cist. I mihi amicamesse creui matrem tuam .151. supremo in tempore: i.e. in extreme danger of life; cf. v. 169 extremo tempore; Hor. Carm . II.7. II tempus in ultimum ,144 CATULLUS. (64. 1520Pro quo dilaceranda feris dabor alitibusquePraeda neque iniecta tumulabor mortua terra.Quaenam te genuit sola sub rupe leaena,155 Quod mare conceptum spumantibus exspuit undis,Quae Syrtis, quae Scylla rapax, quae uasta Charybdis,Talia qui reddis pro dulci praemia uita?Si tibi non cordi fuerant conubia nostra,Saeua quod horrebas prisci praecepta parentis,160 At tamen in uestras potuisti ducere sedesQuae tibi iucundo famularer serua laboreCandida permulcens liquidis uestigia lymphisPurpureaue tuum consternens ueste cubile.Sed quid ego ignaris nequiquam conqueror auris152. dilaceranda, etc.: cf. Hom.Π . Ι.4 αυτούς δε ελώρια τεύχε κύνεσσιν olwvoĉol te râOı; Verg. Aen. IX.485 canibus data praeda Latinis aliti busque iaces; Ov. Her. 10. 96 destituor rapidis praeda cibusque feris.153. iniecta ...terra: the pas sage of the soul across the Styx was secured only by due burial under at least three handfuls of earth; cf. Hor. Carm . I. 28. 36 licebit iniecto ter puluere curras.154 ff. Cf. c . 60 .155. mare, etc.: cf. Hom. II.XVI.34γλαυκή δε σε τίκτε θάλασσα πέτραι δ ' ηλίβατοι , ότι τοι νόος έστιν απηνής.156. Scylla rapax: cf. Ap. Sid.Carm . 9. 165 Scyllae rabidum uo racis inguen .157. dulci uita: cf. Hom. Od .V. 152 γλυκύς αιών.158. tibi cordi conubia: cf. 44 .3; 81.5; 95. 9; Ter. Andr. 328 tibi nuptiae haec sunt cordi.159. prisci, stern , as the older days were proverbially the stricter;cf. Hor. Carm . III. 21. II narraturet prisci Catonis saepe mero caluisseuirtus. — parentis: of course Ae geus, and not Minos, is meant, and the commands that would shut Ariadne, the rescuer of his son, out of his home she justly calls saeua;cf. Hyg. Fab. 43 Theseus in insula Dia cogitans, si Ariadnen in pa triam portasset, sibi opprobrium futurum , etc. 160 , uestras: i.e. of Theseus and his family; cf. v. 176 nostris.161. serua, etc.: cf. Shakspere Tempest III. 1 to beyourfellow You may deny me; but I'll beyour ser vant, Whether you will or no.162. permulcens, etc.: a com mon duty of female slaves, and Ariadne would especially delight in performing personal service for her hero; cf. Hom. Od. XIX. 386 Ws άρ' έφη, γρήυς δε λέβηθ' ελε παμφα νόωντα, του πόδας εξαπένιζεν, etc .. uestigia: for pedes, an extremely rare use; but cf. Sen. Thy. 1043 rupta fractis cruribus uestigia;Oed. 833 forata ferro uestigia.164. sed quid, etc.: with the rhetorical question in self -address cf. v. 116 ff .-64. 180 ] CATULLUS. 145165 Exsternata malo, quae nullis sensibus auctaeNec missas audire queunt nec reddere uoces?Ille autem prope iam mediis uersatur in undis,Nec quisquam adparet uacua mortalis in alga.Sic nimis insultans extremo tempore saeua-70 Fors etiam nostris inuidit questibus auris.Iuppiter omnipotens, utinam ne tempore primoGnosia Cecropiae tetigissent litora puppes,Indomito nec dira ferens stipendia tauroPerfidus in Creta religasset nauita funem,175 Nec malus hic celans dulci crudelia formaConsilia in nostris requiesset sedibus hospes!Nam quo me referam? quali spe perdita nitor?Idaeosne petam montes? ah, gurgite latoDiscernens ponti truculentum ubi diuidit aequor?180 An patris auxilium sperem, quemne ipsa reliqui-165. exsternata: cf. v. 71. n .exsternauit. - auctae, endowed; cf.Lucr. III. 628 animas sensibusauctas.168. alga: cf. v. 60 n.169. extremo tempore, at my last hour; cf. v. 151 n.172. Gnosia: doubtless simply • Cretan ’; cf. v. 75 Gortynia tecta .173. tauro: so the Minotaur is called also in v. 230 .174. religasset funem: ofmoor ing to the shore; cf. Verg. Aen. VII. 106 gramineoripaereligauit ab aggere classem; Luc. Phar. VII.860 nullus ab Emathio religasset litore funem nauita .175. malus hic: cf. 29. 21 n.177 ff. Cf. Eurip .Med. 502 ff.; Ov. Met. VIII. 113 ff. nam quo de serta reuertar? in patriam? de serta iacet, patris ad ora?quem tibi donaui? C. Gracchus (Cic. De. Or. III. 214 ) quo me miserconferam? quo uertam? in Capi.toliumne? at fratrissanguine domum? matremne ut miseramlamentantem uideam et abiectam?178 ff. Ariadne proposes to her self three courses, and rejects them successively as impossible, the first,because ofher isolation from home,the other two, because also of her past deeds. —Idaeos montes: i.e. Crete, the thought being simply of returning home.180. sperem: sc. even if I could reach Crete. quemne =quippe quem; cf. v. 183; 68. 91. The in terrogative particle -ne is not infre quently joined to relatives to point the reason for controverting a pre vious assertion , or for answering in the negative a previous question;cf. Plaut. Trin . 360 quin comedit quod fuit, quod non fuit? Ter.Phor. 923 quodne ego discripsi porro illis quibus debui? and Minton146 CATULLUS. [ 64. 181Respersum iuuenem fraterna caede secuta?Coniugis an fido consoler memet amore,Quine fugit lentos incuruans gurgite remos?Praeterea nullo litus, sola insula, tecto,185 Nec patet egressus pelagi cingentibus undis:Nulla fugae ratio , nulla spes: omnia muta,Omnia sunt deserta, ostentant omnia letum.Non tamen ante mihi languescent lumina morte,Nec prius a fesso secedent corpore sensus190 Quam iustam a diuis exposcam prodita multam Caelestumque fidem postrema comprecer hora .Quare, facta uirum multantes uindice poenaEumenides, quibus anguino redimita capillo Frons exspirantis praeportat pectoris iras,195 Huc huc aduentate, meas audite querelas,Quas ego, uae miserae, extremis proferre medullisCogor inops, ardens, amenti caeca furore.Warren, Amer . Four. Phil. Vol. II.P. So f.181 , fraterna: cf. v. 150 n.183. quine, etc.: i.e. as if it were not my husband who is now fleeing from me.184. nullo, etc.: the appositive phrase sola insula is inserted be tween the subject and its modifying ablative of characteristic tecto in asomewhat unusual form of hyperbaton; cf. however Juv. 3. 48 mancus et exstinctae corpusnonutile dextrae.186. nulla spes: on the length ening of the final syllable see Intr.868. - omnia muta: as no ear was open to her grief (v. 170) , so therewas no voice to speak sympathy; cf. Prop. I. 18. i haec certe deserta loca et taciturna querenti.193. anguino redimita capillo:cf. Aes. Choeph. 1049 TTET NEKTavnué pal TukVoîs Öpákovo LV; Hor. Carm .II. 13. 35 intorti capillis Eumeni.dum angues; Verg . Aen. VI. 280 discordia demens, uipereum crinem uittis innexa cruentis.194. exspirantis: i.e. the angry,hissing serpents but betoken the anger that breathes forth from the breasts of the furies. — praeportat:of a thing prominently displayed;cf. Lucr. II . 621 tela praeportant,uiolenti signa furoris.195. huc huc aduentate: cf.61. 8 huc huc ueni.196. uae miserae: cf. 8. 15 n .; Ter. Andr. 743 uae miserae mihi;Ov. Her . 3. 82 hic mihi, uae mise rae, concutit ossa metus. extremis medullis, from my inmost soul; but this instance of the abla tive alone with proferre is perhaps unique. Cf. 35. 15 n.197. ardens: like v. 124 ardenäi corde.--64. 215]CATULLUS. 147Quae quoniam uerae nascuntur pectore ab imo,Vos nolite pati nostrum uanescere luctum,200 Sed quali solam Theseus me mente reliquit,Tali mente, deae, funestet seque suosque.'Has postquam maesto profudit pectore uocesSupplicium saeuis exposcens anxia factis,Adnuit inuicto caelestum numine rector,205 Quo nutu tellus atque horrida contremuerunt Aequora concussitque micantia sidera mundus.Ipse autem caeca mentem caligine TheseusConsitus oblito dimisit pectore cunctaQuae mandata prius constanti mente tenebat,210 Dulcia nec maesto sustollens signa parentiSospitem Erechtheum se ostendit uisere portum .Namque ferunt olim, classi cum moenia diuaeLinquentem gnatum uentis concrederet Aegeus,Talia complexum iuueni mandata dedisse:215 ' Gnate mihi longe iucundior unice uita ,so200 f. quali, etc .: i.e. as Theseus forgot his vows (v. 58 immemor iuuenis; v. 123 immemori pectore ),let forgetfulnessbring upon him the fatal penalty ( cf. vv. 247-248 ).203. anxia: explained by v. 197;cf. 68. 8.204 ff. adnuit, etc.: cf. Hom. II.I. 528–530; Verg. Aen. IX. 106 adnuit et totum nutu tremefecit Olympum; Stat. Theb. VII. 3 con cussitque caput, motu quo celsa laborant sidera proclamatque adici ceruicibus Atlas.206. mundus, the firmament, as in 66. I; but cf. 47. 2.207. caeca caligine: cf. Cic .Arat. 345 adiment lucem caeca ca ligine nubes; Lucr. III. 304 caecae caliginis umbra; Verg. Aen. III.203incertos caeca caligine soles.208. consitus, beset; very raro in this figurative sense till post.classical times; but cf. Plaut. Men.756 consitus sum senectute.209. Cf. the close verbal resem . blance of v. 238; Lucr. II. 582 memori mandatum mente teneri.211. Erechtheum portum:Homer calls the Athenians by the name of their fabulous king in II. II.547 δήμον 'Ερεχθήoς μεγαλήτορος.212. classi: perhaps of a single ship; cf. v. 53 with vv. 84 and 121 .- diuae: the use of the unmodifiednoun to indicate Athena seems to be made possible by the reference to Athens in v . 211 Erechtheum portum .215. iucundior uita: cf. 68. 106 uita dulcius atque anima; and on similar expressions, 3. 5 n.148 CATULLUS. ( 64. 216Gnate, ego quem in dubios cogor dimittere casus,Reddite in extrema nuper mihi fine senectae,Quandoquidem fortuna mea ac tua feruida uirtusEripit inuito mihi te, cui languida nondum220 Lumina sunt gnati cara saturata figura,Non ego te gaudens laetanti pectore mittam ,Nec te ferre sinam fortunae signa secundae,Sed primum multas expromam mente querelasCanitiem terra atque infuso puluere foedans,225 Inde infecta uago suspendam lintea malo,Nostros ut luctus nostraeque incendia mentis Carbasus obscurata decet ferrugine Hibera.Quod tibi si sancti concesserit incola Itoni,Quae nostrum genus ac sedes defendere Erechthei217. extrema, etc.: Theseus Aen . XII. 611 canitiem immundopassed his early life with his mother perfusam puluere turpans. Aethra in the home of her father 225. uago, swaying; cf. Enn. Pittheus, king of Troezene, and trag. 151 R. arbores uento uagant.when he finally came to Athens, 227. obscurata ferrugine Hi found Aegeus already an old man. bera: cf. Verg. Aen. IX. 582 fer — fine: feminine, as regularly in rugine clarus Hibera; Geor. I. 467 Lucretius, and not very infrequently caput obscura ferrugine texit; other writers of all ages, in the Met. V. 404 obscura tinctas ferru singular; but note the masculine gine habenas. The dye was appar.plural in 64. 3; 66. 12. ently produced from a variety of 221. gaudens laetanti pectore: ochre, and its hue is described by cf. 67. 26 n. Plaut. Mil. 1181 palliolum habeas 222. fortunae signa secundae: ferrugineum (nam is colos thalasi in this instance, white sails. On cust) , and by Servius on Verg. Il. cc white as the color proverbially con- uicinus purpurae subnigrae; pur nected with good fortune, cf. 68. pura nigrior. It was, therefore, a148 n.; Pers. I. 110 per me equi- sort of dull, dark violet.dem sint omnia protinus alba . 228. sancti incola Itoni: the224. terra , etc.: shrine of Athena in the Boeotian sign of extreme grief among the city (and mountain) of Itonus was ancients; cf. Vulg . Iob 2. 12 plora. well known to the Romans; cf. uerunt, scissisque uestibus sparse- Liv. XXXVI. 20 ibi statua regisrunt puluerem super caput suum Antiochiposita in templo Mineruae in caelum; Hom . ll. XVIII. 23 Itoniae iram accenait.αμφοτέρησι δε χερσίν ελών κόνιν 229. defendere: the simple com αιθαλόεσσαν χεύατο κακ κεφαλής , plementary infinitive with adnuere χαρίεν δ ' ήσχυνε πρόσωπον; Verg . in this sense is very rare, but isa common-64.246 ] CATULLUS, 149230 Adnuit, ut tauri respergas sanguine dextram ,Tum uero facito ut memori tibi condita cordeHaec uigeant mandata, nec ulla oblitteret aetas,Vt simul ac nostros inuisent lumina collis,Funestam antennae deponant undique uestem 235 Candidaque intorti sustollant uela rudentes,Quam primum cernens ut laeta gaudia menteAgnoscam, cum te reducem aetas prospera sistet.'Haec mandata prius constanti mente tenentemThesea ceu pulsae uentorum flamine nubes240 Aerium niuei montis liquere cacumen .At pater, ut summa prospectum ex arce petebat Anxia in adsiduos absumens lumina fletus,Cum primum inflati conspexit lintea ueli,Praecipitem sese scopulorum e uertice iecit345 Amissum credens immiti Thesea fato .Sic funesta domus ingressus tecta paterna238. Cf. v. 209.239 f. ceu, etc.: cf. Hom . 1. V. 522 ff.justified by the similar construc tion with other verbs of promis ing. Erechthei: genitive; cf. v . 120 Thesei ( but v. 382 Pelei,66. 94 Hydrochoi, dative ).230. tauri: cf. v. 173 n.232. oblitteret aetas: cf. 68 .43; 64. 322. In these three places,and in v. 237, aetas has the sense of tempus; elsewhere in Catullus,of uita .233. inuisent: cf. 31. 4 n .234. funestam uestem, the garb of mourning; cf. Acc. Trag. 86 R. sed quaenam haec mulier est funesta ueste, tonsu lugubri? -undique:the word is probably used merely to emphasize the urgency of the bidding, every stitch of mourning.'237. te reducem sistet: cf. Liv .XXIX . 27. 3 domos reduces sistatis.- aetas: cf. v. 232 n.241. summa ex arce: i.e. from the Acropolis, whence he would have an unimpeded view over the sea southward. This form of thestory is followed also by Diodorus ( IV. 61. 7) and Pausanias (I. 22.5 ); but another form makes the promontory of Sunium the place whence Aegeus watched for the re turn ofthe ship , on descrying which he threw himself into the thencenamed Aegean Sea; cf. Stat. Theb.XII. 624 ff. linquitur Eois longe speculabile proris Sunion , unde uagi casurum in nomina ponti Cresia decepit falso ratis Aegea ueio .243. inflati: the spread of can.vas made the vessel the sooner visi.ble to his straining eyes.150 CATULLUS. [ 64. 2470Morte ferox Theseus, qualem Minoidi luctum Obtulerat mente immemori, talem ipse recepit.Quae tum prospectans cedentem maesta carinam250 Multiplices animo uoluebat saucia curas.At parte ex alia florens uolitabat IacchusCum thiaso satyrorum et Nysigenis silenis Te quaerens, Ariadna, tuoque incensus amore.Quae tum alacres passim lymphata mente furebant 255 Euhoe bacchantes, euhoe capita inflectentes.Harum pars tecta quatiebant cuspide thyrsos,247. ferox: cf. with the absolutease of the adjective v. 73. —Mino idi: Gr. dative; cf. 66. 70 Tethyi.247 f. qualem Minoidi, etc.: cf.V. 200 f.249. quae tum, etc.: the poet has hastened on to describe theeffect of Ariadne's curse, and nowreturns to tell her own fate .250. saucia: of the wounds of love; cf. Verg. Aen. IV. I regina graui iam dudum saucia cura .251. at, etc.: in immediate con trast with the absorbing grief of Ariadne is brought the joyous rev elry of the Bacchic rout, the leader of which comes to fill the place of the fugitive lover. — parte: sc. of the coverlet. florens: cf. 17.- Iacchus: a mystical nameof Bacchus especially used by the poets.252. thiaso: cf. 63. 28 n.satyrorum , silenis: of the maleattendants upon Bacchus the poets usually designate the wantonyounger as satyri and the drunken elder as sileni. - Nysigenis: Bac chus is apparently thought of as returning from his great journey to the far East; cf. Verg. Aen . VI. 804 qui pampineis uictor iuga flectithabenis Liber , agens celso Nysae do uertice tigris, and Apollonius calls Dionysusthe prince of Nysa, when speaking of his marriage with Ari.adne ( V. 431 ) . Nysa is variously described by ancient authorities as acity ( or mountain ) in India ( Plin .),Arabia ( Diod. ) , or Thrace ( Hom.; Strabo ).253. tuo: for the objective gen .itive, a not very common use; cf.87. 4 amore tuo; Sall. Iug. 14. 8uos in mea iniuria despecti estis.254. quae: the following actions are those characteristic of the fe .male followers of Bacchus ( cf. also v. 256 harum ), while only bis male followers have thus far been referred to. Bergk is therefore correct in believing that a verse has been lost after v. 253. — lymphata mente:i.e. crazed with the mad enthusiasm inspired by the god; cf. Hor. Carm .I. 37. 14 mentem lymphatam Mare otico.255. capita inflectentes: cf. 63.23 n.256. tecta cuspide thyrsos: 1.4 the vine-rod, or spear, the tra .ditional sceptre and weapon of Bacchus. Its stroke inspired mad ness; cf. Hor. Carm . II. 19. 114 n.-64.266) CATULLUS. 151Pars e diuulso iactabant membra iuuenco,Pars sese tortis serpentibus incingebant,Pars obscura cauis celebrabant orgia cistis,260 Orgia quae frustra cupiunt audire profani,Plangebant aliae proceris tympana palmis Aut tereti tenuis tinnitus aere ciebant,Multis raucisonos efflabant cornua bombosBarbaraque horribili stridebat tibia cantu .265 Talibus amplifice uestis decorata figuris Puluinar complexa suo uelabat amictu.cuhoe, parce, Liber, parce, graui metuende thyrso. It was also car ried by his worshippers, as here,and was tipped with a pine-cone or with a bunch of vine-leaves (Verg.Aen. VII. 396 pampineas gerunt hastas), or ivy -leaves ( Prop. IV. 3.35 haec hederas legit in thyrsos).All forms of the thyrsus are seen in the frequent representations of Bac chic processions in ancient wall paintings and bas-reliefs (cf. Rich Dict. Antiq. s. u. ) .257. e diuulso, etc.: cf. Pers .1. 100 raptum vitulo caput ablatura superbo Bassaris. The action is oſten represented in ancient monu ments. So the frenzied Bacchantes tore Pentheus in pieces (Ov. Met.III. 701 ff.).258. tortis, etc.: cf. Hor. Carm .II. 19. 18 tu separatis uuidus in iugis nodo coerces uiperino Bistoni dum sine fraude crines; Ov. Met.IV. 483 [ Tisiphone] torto incingiasuninitiated eyes when carried in procession ( celebrabant) .261–264 . plangebant, etc.: cf. 63. 21 n.; Lucr. II . 618 ff. tympana tenta tonant palmis et cymbala cir cum concaua, raucisonoque minan.tur cornua cantu , et Phrygio sti mulat numero caua tibia mentis.proceris: perhaps with the unusual meaning of lifted high(see the monuments).262. tereti aere: i.e. the hemi.spherical cymbals; cf. 63. 21 .tenuis tinnitus, the sharp shrill,contrasted with raucisonosbombos of the horns. Note thealliteration, and cf. Lucr. l.c., and the triple alliteration in v . 320 .263. raucisonos: cf. Lucr. l.c.; IV. 544 et reboat raucum regio cita barbara bombum .264. barbara: i.e. Phrygian; cf. 63. 22. Catullus speaks from the standpoint of a Greek; cf. Lucr.1.c.; Hor. Epod. 9. 5 sonante mix tum tibiis carmen lyra, hac Do rium, illis barbarum .265 f. talibus, etc.: the story of Ariadne is left when happiness in a divine marriage is just coming to her; these verses, concluding the description of the embroidered spread, virtually repeat vv . 50-51,with which it began.tur angue .259. obscura, etc.: cf. Hor.Carm . I. 18. 12 nec uariis obsitafrondibus sub diuum rapiam (ad dressing Bassareus) . The cista was either a cylindrical basket or abox, in which the secret emblems ( orgia ) of the worship of Bacchus, or of Ceres, were concealed from152 CATULLUS. [ 64. 267Quae postquam cupide spectando Thessala pubes Expleta est, sanctis coepit decedere diuis.Hic, qualis flatu placidum mare matutino270 Horrificans Zephyrus procliuas incitat undasAurora exoriente uagi sub limina solis,Quae tarde primum clementi flamine pulsaeProcedunt, leuiterque sonant plangore cachinni,Post uento crescente magis magis increbescunt275 Purpureaque procul nantes ab luce refulgent,Sic tum uestibuli linquentes regia tecta Ad se quisque uago passim pede discedebant.Quorum post abitum princeps e uertice PeliAduenit Chiron portans siluestria dona:280 Nam quoscumque ferunt campi, quos Thessala magnis

TE267–277. The mortal guests give place to the immortals, who come also bringing gifts ( 278–302 ), and sit down to themarriage-feast ( 303 304), while the Parcae, still pursu ing their endless task of spinning the thread of fate ( 305–322 ), sing the prophetic marriage-song ( 323– 381 ).267. Thessala pubes: cf. v. 32 tota Thessalia.268. sanctis: cf. 36. 3 n.269. hic: temporal, as in 68. 63.270. horrificans: the word oc curs only here in the sense of ' ruf fling,' but in later writers in that of shudder -causing. But cf. v. 205 horrida aequora; Acc. ap. Non.422. 33 mare cum horret fluctibus;Hor. Epod. 2. 6 horretiratum mare.271. uagi solis, the journeying sun, in distinction from the fixedheavenly lights; cf. 61. 117 n .;Tib. IV. i . 76 uagi pascua solis;Hor. Sat. I. 8. 21 uaga luna.273. leuiter sonant plangore:cf. Sen. Ag. 717 f. licet alcyones Cecya suum fluctu leuiter plangentesonent. cachinni: genitive sin gular; for the figure cf. Aesch.Prom . 89 rovrlwy κυμάτων ανάριθμον γέλασμα .274. magis magis: cf. 38. 3 n.275. purpurea luce: i.e. therosy light of dawn, reflecting which the more distant surface of the sea( undae procul nantes) loses in the gleam its own color.277. ad se, to his own home; cf.Plaut. Mil. 121 in aedis med ad seadduxit domum , and often .uago pede: corroborating passim ,with reference to the diverse directions in which the homes lay, and not with the implication of 63. 86.279. Chiron: the famous cen taur, a near neighbor and friend of Peleus, and later the trainer ofAchilles. — siluestria dona: butaccording to Homer one gift of Chiron to Peleus was more warlike;cf. II . XVI. 143 Πηλιάδα μελίην την πατρί φίλη πόρε Χείρων Πηλίου εκ κορυφής , φόνον έμμεναι ηρώεσσιν .280. quoscumque:continuedby the simple quos in the two fole-64.288 ] CATULLUS.153Montibus ora creat, quos propter fluminis undasAura parit flores tepidi fecunda Fauoni,Hos indistinctis plexos tulit ipse corollis,Quo permulsa domus iucundo risit odore.285 Confestim Penios adest, uiridantia Tempe,Tempe quae siluae cingunt super impendentes,Naiasin linquens Doris celebranda choreis,Non uacuus: namque ille tulit radicitus altaslowing clauses, in the latter ofwhich occurs the noun flores, which the relatives modify. Chiron has gathered the wealth of blossoms from plain, mountain, and riverside to deck the interior of the house,while Peneus (v. 285) brings masses of foliage to adorn the approaches to it.281. ora: i.e. the region; cf. Cic . N. D. II. 164 quacumque in ora acparte terrarum; Mark 5.17 to depart out of their coasts.282. aura parit: cf. v. 90; 62.41 n.283. indistinctis: the great number of the flowers precluded their artistic assortment. — plexos corollis: flowers usually woven into long cords for decorative use at banquets, and were sold among the Romans in that form;cf. the frescoes from Pompeii repre senting Amoretti in the business ofpreparing such cords.284. permulsa: often used of the delightful effect of pleasing sounds, but not often of odors; cf.,however, Stat. Silu . I. 3. Il per.mulsit crocis blandumque reliquitodorem . risit odore: cf. Hom .Hymn. Cer , 13 κηώδει δ ' οδμή πάς ουρανος ευρύς ύπερθεν γαιά τε πάσ 'εγέλασσε και αλμυρόν οίδμα θα λάσσης.286. Tempe, etc.: cf. the de scription of the famous vale in Ov.wereMet. I. 568 ff.; Plin . N. H. IV. 8.31; Anth. Lat. 315. 3 Mey. fron dosis Tempe cinguntur Thessala siluis.287. Naiasin: i.e. the nymphs of the vale of Tempe; cf. Cul. 18 Pierii laticis decus, ite, sorores Nai.des; 115 ff. hic etiam uiridi luden tes Panes in herba et Satyri Dryad esque choros egere puellae Naiadumcoetu . This form of the Greek da tive plural apparently occurs here first in extant Latin; but cf. cita tions from Varro in Charis. I. 15, p .38 schemasin, and Non. p. 374 ethe sin; Prop. I. 20. 12 Adryasin, 32 Hamadryasin, 34 Thyniasin; Ov.Her, 13. 137 Troasin; Art. Am.III. 672 Lemniasin , etc. linquens ( = relinquens, as often inCatullus): the nymphs who dance with and in honor of the river- god are this day left to dance alone . -Doris: see Crit. App.288. uacuus, empty-handed; the word is rare in this meaning; but cf. Juv. 10. 22 cantabit uacuuscoram latrone uiator; Vulg. Exod.23. 15 non apparebis in conspectu meo uacuus , Hom. I. II. 298 κενεών νέεσθαι. - ille: in contrastwith Chiron. -radicitus, roots and ali; cf. the figurative meaning in Plaut. Most. 1092 omnia malefacta uostra repperi radicitus , but in v.108 the meaning is the more usual one, * from the roots .'-154 CATULLUS. ( 64. 289Fagos ac recto proceras stipite laurus,290 Non sine nutanti platano lentaque sorore Flammati Phaethontis et aeria cupressu .Haec circum sedes late contexta locauit,Vestibulum ut molli uelatum fronde uireret.Post hunc consequitur sollerti corde Prometheus295 Extenuata gerens ueteris uestigia poenaeQuam quondam silici restrictus membra catenaPersoluit pendens e uerticibus praeruptis.Inde pater diuum sancta cum coniuge natisque Aduenit, caelo te solum, Phoebe, relinquens 300 Vnigenamque simul cultricem montibus Idri:Pelea nam tecum pariter soror adspernata est Nec Thetidis taedas uoluit celebrare iugalis.289. fagos, etc.: the wooded banks of the Peneus (v. 286 ) made trees his most natural gift.290. sorore flammati Phae thontis: i.e. the poplar. On the transformation of the Heliades intopoplar-trees see Ov. Met. II. 340 ff.; Verg. Aen. X. 189 ff. namque ferunt luctu Cycnum Phaethontis amati, populeas inter frondes um bramque sororum dum canit, etc.; Cul. 127 ff.294. sollerti corde: cf. Aesch .Prom. 5ο6 πάσαι τέχναι βροτοίσιν ék IIpoundéws. — Prometheus: ac cording to the accounts of Hyginus ( Astr. II. 15) and Servius (on Verg.Ecl. 6. 42), Prometheus warned Zeus of the prophecy concerning the son of Thetis ( cf. v. 21 n. ) ,and was therefore released fromhis confinement on Mt. Caucasus.So Prometheus is here a chief guest, as the promoter of the mar riage.295. extenuata uestigia, the fading scars, not the bit of rock set in a ring, mentioned by Servius( l.c.) and Pliny ( N. H. XXXVII.2) , which Zeus forced Prometheus to wear as a reminder of his punish ment.296. silici: dative modifying re strictus.298. sancta: cf. 36. 3 n. With the hypermeter cf. 34. 22; 115. 5 .299. caelo: ablative of place.300. unigenam: here twin -sis.ter; but cf. 66. 53. —montibus:dative modifying cultricem; cf. 66. 58 Canopiis incola litoribus;and with the idea, 34. 9 ff. n. —Idri: if the reading be correct,the name is perhaps that of the district in Caria called Idrias by Herodotus and Stephen of Byzan tium, where Artemis wasworshipped as Hecate.301. Pelea adspernata:story accounting for this disdain isknown, and Homer ( 1. XXIV. 62)expressly speaks of the presence of all the gods at the wedding, and of a marriage- song sung by Phoebus (cf. alsoAesch. ap. Plat. Rep. II.383).no-64. 314 ] CATULLUS. 155Qui postquam niueis flexerunt sedibus artus,Large multiplici constructae sunt dape mensae,305 Cum interea infirmo quatientes corpora motuVeridicos Parcae coeperunt edere cantus.His corpus tremulum complectens undique uestisCandida purpurea talos incinxerat ora,At roseae niueo residebant uertice uittae,310 Aeternumque manus carpebant rite laborem.Laeua colum molli lana retinebat amictum ,Dextera tum leuiter deducens fila supinisFormabat digitis, tum prono in pollice torquensLibratum tereti uersabat turbine fusum,303. niueis: being of ivory; cf.6. 45.305. cum interea: cf. 95. 3.infirmo, etc.: i.e. tremulous with age; cf. v . 307; 61. 161 .306. ueridicos cantus: cf. Hor.Carm . Saec. 25 ff. uosque ueraces cecinisse, Parcae, quod semel dic tum stabilis per aeuum terminus seruat.309. roseae: the contrast between the white robe and its crim son border (v. 308 ) matches that between the crimson fillets and the snowy locks; cf. Prop. V. 9. 52 [ sacerdos] puniceo canas stamine uincta comas. —niueo uertice: cf. Hor. Carm . IV. 13. 12 capitis niues .310. aeternum: the Fates nevercease from their task even to engagein festivities, and the course of des tiny is never interrupted.311 ff. The picture of the spin ning is entirely realistic. A mass of prepared wool but loosely fastened together is attached to oneend of the distaff (colus ), which is held in theleft hand. With the right hand the spinner draws the filaments fromthe mass and twists them betweenthumb and finger into a thread, the firmness of the twisting being as sisted by attaching the end of the thread to the spindle ( fusus),weighted by the turbo, which acts as a fly -wheel.312. supinis: the hand is turned palm upward as the fingers draw the filaments from the elevated distaff,but palm downward ( prono pol lice ) as they grasp the hanging thread near the spindle and set it twirling; cf. Tib . II. 1. 64 fusus apposito pollice uersat opus; Ov.Met. VI. 22 leui teretem uersabatpollice fusum .314. tereti turbine: a small circular plate of heavy material with ahole through the centre somewhat smaller than the thicker part of the long, tapering fusus. Through this the smaller end of the fususwas passed as far as it would go,and the symmetrically distributed weight of the turbo thus gave addi.tional momentum to the whirling spindle. When the thread wasspun to a convenient length, its lower part was wound around the fusus, and the process continued as before.156 CATULLUS. [64. 315315 Atque ita decerpens aequabat semper opus dens,Laneaque aridulis haerebant morsa labellisQuae prius in leui fuerant exstantia filo .Ante pedes autem candentis mollia lanaeVellera uirgati custodibant calathisci.320 Haec tum clarisona uellentes uellera uoceTalia diuino fuderunt carmine fata,Carmine perfidiae quod post nulla arguet aetas:O decus eximium magnis uirtutibus augens,Emathiae tutamen opis, clarissime nato,315. atque ita: i.e. while theprocess thus described was going on; cf. v . 84 atque ita . —decer pens: while both hands were busy,the yarn was passed between the lips to strip off the outstanding fibres, or to smooth them down so that they might be included in thetwist.316. aridulis, morsa: both amat Leybueva . On the diminutive of both noun and adjective in aridulis labellis see 3. 18 n. 317. fuerant exstantia ( = exsti terant): this periphrastic form is not very common ,and where occurring is generally with the present tense of esse, as in 63. 57 carens est.319. custodibant: older form ,chiefly poetic or colloquial, except from ire; cf. 68. 85; 84. 8.320. haec: for hae; so Varro,Lucretius, Vergil, etc., passim .clarisona: cf. v. 125 n . clarisonas.- uellentes uellera: i.e. beginning their spinning by drawing from the mass of wool on the distaff the filaments to form the yarn; cf. Ov.Met. XIV. 264 quae uellera motis nulla trahunt digitis nec fila sequentia ducunt. With the triple allitera tion cf. v. 262.322. aetas: cf. v. 232 n.323–381. The marriage -song ofPeleus and Thetis, arranged intwelve strophes, but without precise correspondence in the number ofverses in each (cf. on this point c .62) . In theme and general treatment, and in certain details (eg.the address in vv . 372 ff., with which cf. 61. 211 ff .), the song is a true epithalamium , such as might be sung outside the closed door of themarriage- chamber, and the conclusion of the description of the wed ding with the song reinforces this impression of it. But it is repre sented as sui.; by the Fates while the other guests were feasting, and vv . 328 ff. suggest that the bride isyet to arrive. Evidently the poetis not attempting to reproduce the exact features of a marriage ceremonial, and precise interpretation from an archaeological standpoint is impossible.323 f. Peleus boasts a glorious descent, and has made this glory greater by his own great deeds, butis to find his greatest glory in his son . — Emathiae: the name meantto the Greeks Macedonia, but with common poetic inexactness is here used of Thessaly; cf. Verg. Geor. I. 491 nec fuit indignum superis san guine nostro Emathiampinguescere (of the battle of Pharsalus) .-64. 341] CATULLUS. 157325 Accipe quod laeta tibi pandunt luce sorores,Veridicum oraclum. Sed uos, quae fata secuntur,Currite ducentes subtegmina, currite, fusi.Adueniet tibi iam portans optata maritisHesperus, adueniet fausto cum sidere coniunx,330 Quae tibi flexanimo mentem perfundat amoreLanguidulosque paret tecum coniungere somnosLeuia substernens robusto bracchia collo.Currite ducentes subtegmina, currite, fusi.Nulla domus tales unquam contexit amores,335 Nullus amor tali coniunxit foedere amantesQualis adest Thetidi, qualis concordia Peleo.Currite ducentes subtegmina, currite, fusi.Nascetur uobis expers terroris Achilles,Hostibus haud tergo, sed forti pectore notus,340 Qui persaepe uago uictor certamine cursusFlammea praeuertet celeris uestigia ceruae.325. sorores: cf. Ov. Trist. V. 3. 17 dominae fati quidquid ceci nere sorores; Mart. V. 1. 3 ueridicae sorores .326. quae fata secuntur, which the fatesfollow; the clause modifies subtegmina; cf. Stat. Theb. I. 213 uocemfata secuntur; Anth. Lat. 227 Baehr. consultumfata secuntur.327. subtegmina fila; cf. Hor. Epod. 13. 15 reditum certo subtegmine Parcae rupere.329. Hesperus: cf. c. 62 passim nn. -- adueniet coniunx: see introductory note to w. 323–381 .330. flexanimo, heart-compel ling; cf. Pac . fr. 177 R. o flexanima atque omnium regina rerum oratio;Verg. Geor. IV. 516 non ulli ani mumflexere hymenaei.331. languidulos somnos: cf. Verg. Aen. XII. 908 languida quies;Tib . IV . 1. 181 languida otia .332. substernens, etc.: cf. Ov.Am. III. 7. 7 illa quidem nostro subiecit eburnea collo bracchia. leuia bracchia: cf. 66. 10.334. contexit, sheltered , doubt.less with the notion of privacy usually connected with the verb.336. adest concordia: with the arrangement cf. 30. 3 n.-- Peleo:with synizesis, as in v. 382 Pelei,which is, however, the regular Greek dative.339. haud tergo, etc.: cf. Hom.Il. XIII. 289-290 oỦk av èv aúx év όπισθε πέσοι βέλος ουδ' ενί νώτα,αλλά κεν η στέρνων ή νηδύος αντιά=σειε.340. cursus: the commonestepithets of Achilles in the Iliad describe him as swift of foot.341. Cf. Pind. Nem . 3. 90 [Axc λεύς ] κτείνοντ' ελάφους άνευ κυνών δολίων θ' έρκέων · ποσσί γάρ κρά158 CATULLUS. [ 64. 342Currite ducentes subtegmina, currite, fusi.Non illi quisquam bello se conferet heros,Cum Phrygii Teucro manabunt sanguine campi345 Troicaque obsidens longinquo moenia belloPeriuri Pelopis uastabit tertius heres.Currite ducentes subtegmina, currite, fusi.Illius egregias uirtutes claraque factaSaepe fatebuntur gnatorum in funere matres,350 Cum incultum cano soluent a uertice crinemPutridaque infirmis uariabunt pectora palmis.Currite ducentes subtegmina, currite, fusi.Myrtilus into the sea near Geraes.tus in Euboea . But the dying curseof Myrtilus followed the house of Pelops thereafter. Cf. Pind. 01. 1 .114 ff.; Apoll. Rh . I. 752; Hyg.Fab. 84. tertius heres:Agamemnon, the succession being Pelops, Atreus, Thyestes, Agamem non, as Homer shows in II. II.2.e.105 ff.TEOKE; Stat. Ach. II. Ini ( 397)uolucres praeuertere ceruos et Lapi thas cogebat equos • Chiron .flammea, fiery -fleet; on the figure cf. Verg. Aen. XI. 718 uirgo per nicibus ignea plantis; Ov. Met. II.392 ignipedum uires expertus equoTuni.343. non illi, etc.: Achillesclaims this pre -eminence for himself in Hom. Il. XVIII. 105 roios é cv,οίος ού τις Αχαιών χαλκοχιτώνων, εν πολέμω .344. campi: the vigorousemen dation is supported by Stat. Ach. I. 86 cum tuus Aeacides tepido modo sanguine Teucros undabit campos;Il. Lat. 384 sanguine Dardanii manabantundique campi.345. longinquo: of the length of the war, not of its distance fromGreece.346. periuri Pelopis: Pelops won the chariot- race, and so the hand of Hippodamia, from her father, Oenomaus, by offering half of his kingdom to the latter's char ioteer, Myrtilus, if he would loosen the linch-pins of the chariot, or sub stitute pins of wax . Upon the suc cess of the plot, Pelops refused to carry out his agreement, and threw350 f. The traditional signs of grief on the part of women; cf. Hom. II . XVIII. 30 χερσί δε πάσαι othbea teniÝyouto; Verg. Aen. I. 480 crinibus Iliades passis supplici ter tristes et tunsae pectora palmis;Ov. Met. XIII. 491 [ Hecuba ] con sueta pectora plangit. Baehrens sup ports his emendation by citing Ov.Her . 9. 125 nec uenit incultis capta rum more capillis; Stat. Theb . VI.32 incultam ferali puluere barbam .-cano: here as elsewhere ( cf. 17.13; 61. 51; 68. 142) Catullus em.phasizes therelations between par ent and child, and appeals to our sympathy, by representing the for mer as in advanced age; cf. putrida ( Hor. Epod. 8. 7 pectus et mammae putres) and infirmis. — uariabunt:of the discoloration produced by the blows, which, to mark the depth of-64. 363 ] CATULLUS. 159Namque uelut densas praecerpens messor aristasSole sub ardenti flauentia demetit arua,355 Troiugenum infesto prosternet corpora ferro .Currite ducentes subtegmina, currite, fusi.Testis erit magnis uirtutibus unda Scamandri,Quae passim rapido diffunditur Hellesponto,Cuius iter caesis angustans corporum aceruis360 Alta tepefaciet permixta flumina caede.Currite ducentes subtegmina, currite, fusi.Denique testis erit morti quoque reddita praeda,Cum teres excelso coaceruatum aggere bustum-anwoe , wereviolent, though from weak hands; observe the juxtaposition of infirmis and uariabunt; cf. Plaut.Poen . 26 ne et hic uarientur uirgis et loris domi.353 ff. uelut, etc.: the figure is Homeric; cf. Il. XI. 67 ff. — prae cerpens, clipping down ( before him as he advances); the word apparently occurs only here in this meaning, though the figura tive meaning in Gell. II. 30. II cuius rei causam , cum Aristotelis libros problematorum praecerpere mus, notaui seems to point in thesame direction; cf. Apoll. Rh. III.1386 προτάμωνται αρούρας. – mes sor aristas demetit: cf. II.Lat. 886 maturasque metit robustusmessor aristas.354. sole sub ardenti: cf. Verg.Ecl . 2. 13 sole sub ardenti resonant arbusta cicadis. - flauentia arua:cf. Verg. Geor. IV. 126 qua niger umectat flauentia culta Galaesus.357 ff. Referring to the great re pulse of the Trojans at the hands ofAchilles in Hom. II. XXI.358. passim diffunditur: ofthe smaller stream losing itself in the larger. — rapido: perhaps of rushingwaves rather than of swiftcurrent; cf. 63. 16 rapidum salum;Hom. . ΙΙ . 845 Ελλήσποντοςαγάρροος .359. caesis corporum aceruis:with hypallage of the adjective, as not infrequently in poetry.gustans, etc.: cf. Hom . II. XXI.218 Η . πλήθει γάρ δή μοι νεκύων ερατεινά ρέεθρα, ουδέ τι πη δύναμαι προχέειν ρόον είς άλα δίαν στεινόμενος νεκύεσσι , συ δε κτείνεις αιδήλως ( from the address of the Scamander to Achilles; Verg. Aen. V. 806 ff.[ Achilles] milia multa daret leto,gemerentque repleti amnes, nec re perire uiam atque euoluere posset in mare se Xanthus.360. tepēfaciet: see Intr. 86 f.362. morti quoque reddita praeda: i.e. the power of Achilles will be shown by the fact that he continues even after death to make the Trojans his prey. Polyxena,daughter of Priam , in the course of the siege betrothed on pretence of peace to Achilles, was at the cap.ture of the city sacrificed to his manes by Pyrrhus; cf. Ov. Met.XIII. 439 ff.; Serv. on Verg.Aen .III. 321; Hyg. Fab. 110; Eurip.Hec. 37 ff.; 521 ff.363. teres, round, i.e. circular;160 CATULLUS. [ 64. 364Excipiet niueos percussae uirginis artus.365 Currite ducentes subtegmina, currite, fusi.Nam simul ac fessis dederit fors copiam Achiuis Vrbis Dardaniae Neptunia soluere uincla,Alta Polyxenia madefient caede sepulcra,Quae, uelut ancipiti succumbens uictima ferro,370 Proiciet truncum submisso poplite corpus.Currite ducentes subtegmina, currite, fusi.Quare agite optatos animi coniungite amores.Accipiat coniunx felici foedere diuam,Dedatur cupido iam dudum nupta marito.375 Currite ducentes subtegmina, currite, fusi.Non illam nutrix orienti luce reuisenscf. v. 314 . - bustum: Servius and 370. truncum , headless. sum .Hyginus apparently think of the misso poplite: cf. Ov. Met. XIII. tomb of Achilles as on the Sigean 477 super terram defecto poplite la shore; Ovid, following Euripides, bens (of Polyxena) .has in mind a cenotaph on the shore 372. animi amores: with this of Thrace. use of an apparently otiose genitive 366. copiam: with a dependent cf. 2. 10 animi curas; 68. 26 deli infinitive, soluere; cf. Sall. Cat. cias animi; 102. 2 fides animi.17.6 molliter uiuere copia; Verg. On the plural see v. 27 n.Aen. IX . 483 te adfari data copia . 374. iam dudum , forthwith,367. Neptunia: i.e. built by Nep- modifying dedatur; the emphasis tune. -soluere uincla: cf. Hom. rests on iam, as the speaker looks II . XVI. 100 όφρ' ολοι Τροίης ιερά from a distant beginning; cf. Verg.kpnoeuva Núwuev; similarly accord- Geor. I. 213 papauer tempus humo ing to Polybius (XVII. 11. 5 ) the tegere et iam dudum incumbere ara fortresses ofChalcis, Corinth , and De- tris; Aen. II , 103 iam dudum sumite metrias were called πέδαι Ελληνικαι . poenas. But in Plautus the phrase 368. maděfient: cf. v. 360 n. generally means a long time ago, 'tepefaciet. the emphasis usually resting upon 369. quae: referring to the ad- dudum , as the speaker looks back jective Polyxenia ( = Polyxenae); ward from the present; though the cf. Liv. II. 53. I Veiens bellum ex- play on Amphitruo's misunderstand.ortum , uibus Sabini arma con- ing of the term as a synonym for iunxerunt. — ancipiti, two-edged; modo ( Amph. 692) points toward probably with reference to the bi- the beginning of the use here fairly pennis, used both as a weapon of inaugurated by Catullus.warfare and as a sacrificial axe; cf. 376 f. The belief indicated by Lucil. 751 Lachm. uecte atque an- these verses was widespread in an cipiti ferro effringam cardines. tiquity; cf. Nem. Ecl. 2. 10 ff.64. 391) CATULLUS. 161Hesterno collum poterit circumdare filo(Currite ducentes subtegmina, currite, fusi),Anxia nec mater discordis maesta puellae280 Secubitu caros mittet sperare nepotes.Currite ducentes subtegmina, currite, fusi.'Talia praefantes quondam felicia. PeleiCarmina diuino cecinerunt pectore Parcae.Praesentes namque ante domos inuisere castas385 Heroum et sese mortali ostendere coetuCaelicolae nondum spreta pietate solebant.Saepe pater diuum templo in fulgente, reuisensAnnua cum festis uenissent sacra diebus,Conspexit terra centum procumbere tauros.390 Saepe uagus Liber Parnasi uertice summoThyiadas effusis euantis crinibus egit,nutrix: the nurse continued to bethe girl's confidential attendant throughout her married life, as was often the case in the times of slay.ery in the southern part of the United States. -orienti luce, with the morning light; cf. Lucr. V. 664 orienti lumine; Ov. Fast. IV. 832 oriens dies.380. Cf. 66. 15-16.382-408. Epilogue, commenting upon the withdrawal of divine presence from the ceremonies of men after the heroic age, on account of the impiety of therace .382. Pelei: with synizesis, as in v. 336 Peleo, which is, however, the pure Latin dative; but cf. 66. 94 hydrochoi ( dat . ) , and v. 120 Thesei,v. 229 Erechthei ( gen. ) .384. Ellis quotes Hes. frag. 218 ξυναι γάρ τότε δαίτες έσαν ξυνοι δε θόωκοι αθανάτοισι θεοίσι καταθνητοίς τ ' ανθρώπους. -praesentes,in bodily presence; cf. Hor. Carm .III. 5. 2 praesens diuus habebitur Augustus. — namque: cf. 66. 65 n. 385. coetu: dative, as in 66. 37.386. caelicolae: cf. 30. 4; 68.138.387. templo in fulgente: mod.ifying v. 389 conspexit, etc. Evidently the poet is thinking of the splendid temples of a later date rather than of the simple structures of heroic times. —reuisens: if the correct reading, probably used abso lutely; cf. the ordinary use of re uisere with ad.388. annua, etc.: doubtless atypical occasion only, rather than a known festival.390. uagus: often used of the aimless, frenzied rushing to and fro of the god's followers; cf. 63.Parnasi: this famousmountain of Phocis, the haunt of the gods, rose just behind Delphi.391. effusis, etc.: cf. the de.scription of the Bacchic rout in vv .13, 86 .-162 CATULLUS. [ 64. 392Cum Delphi tota certatim ex urbe ruentesAcciperent laeti diuum fumantibus aris.Saepe in letifero belli certamine Mauors395 Aut rapidi Tritonis era aut Rhamnusia uirgoArmatas hominum est praesens hortata cateruas.Sed postquam tellus scelere est imbuta nefando,Iustitiamque omnes cupida de mente fugarunt,Perfudere manus fraterno sanguine fratres,400 Destitit exstinctos natus lugere parentes,Optauit genitor primaeui funera natiLiber ut innuptae poteretur flore nouercae,=subfin.254 ff.; Ov. Fast. VI. 514 Thyiades, 5. 5 audiat infesto licet hoc Rham .effusis per sua colla comis. nusia uultu . Ares and Athena of.392. Delphi: i.e. the inhabitants ten encourage men to battle in theof the city; cf. Just. XXIV . 7. 8 Iliad, but this function on the part urbem suam Delphi aucti uiribus of Nemesis is nowhere else mensociorum permuniuere, and Grk. tioned. Perhaps it is from an un Aelpol often . The city was early known Alexandrian source, or else connected withthe worship of Bac- the conjecture of Baehrens is right chus as of Apollo; cf. Aesch. Eum. ( Amarunsia uirgo Artemis of25 εξ ουτε [ i ... Δελφών] Βάκχαις Amarynthus in Euboea; cf. Strabo.εστρατήγησεν θεός , λαγώ δίκην Πεν- X. 448; Paus. I. 31. 4) .θεί καταρράψας μόρον; Paus . Χ. 4. 3 397 ff. With this description ofαι δε θυιάδες γυναίκες μέν εισιν the iron age cf. Hes. Op. 182 ff.;' Αττικαί, φοιτώσαι δε ες τον Παρνα- Ov. Met. I. 127 ff.; Verg. Geor. II.σον παρά έτος αυταί τε και αι γυναίκες Δελφών άγουσιν όργια 398. iustitiam, etc.: cf. Ov. Fast.Διονύσφ. I. 249 nondum iustitiam facinus 394. Mauors: antique and po- mortale fugarat.etic form for Mars. 399. perfudere, etc.: cf. Lucr.395. rapidi Tritonis hera: i.e. III. 72 crudeles gaudent in tristi Athena, called Tpitoyévela by funere fratris; Verg. Geor. II. 510 Homer ( 11. VIII. 39, etc. ) , prob- gaudent perfusi sanguine fratrum . ably from the river Triton in Boeo- 401 f. genitor, etc.: was the op.tia ( Strab. IX. 407; Paus. IX . 33. timate Catullus thinking of Catiline 7 ) , rather than from the lake, or in his own day ( cf. Sall. Cat. 15. 2) ,river, Triton in Libya (Herod. IV. or of the story of Hippolytus (to 178; Plin . N. H. V. 28 ). — Rham- which, however, v. 402 hardly ap nusia uirgo: i.e. Nemesis, so called plies)? Cf., however, v. 402 n . from her famous temple at Rham- 402. innuptae, virgin; the idea nus in Attica; cf. 66. 71; 68. 77; apparently is that the father con Ov. Met. III. 406 adsensit precibus ceives a passion for his son's prom Rhamnusia iustis; Stat. Silu . III. ised bride, bas him put out of the-65.2]CATULLUS. 163Ignaro mater substernens se impia natoImpia non uerita est diuos scelerare parentes,405 Omnia fanda nefanda malo permixta furoreIustificam nobis mentem auertere deorum.Quare nec talis dignantur uisere coetusNec se contingi patiuntur lumine claro .65 .Etsi me adsiduo defectum cura doloreSeuocat a doctis, Ortale, uirginibus,way upon the eve of the marriage,and proceeds to contract a practi callyincestuous union with her him self, uniting two unnatural crimes .And as the father sins with the daughter, so (v. 403) the mother with the son. nouercae: said by a sort of anticipation , to empha size the unnaturalness of the position of the former wife and sister, now become the stepmother.403. ignaro, etc .: again, is the story from the poet's own day, or only that of Jocasta ( though impia hardly applies to the action of the innocent mother, equally ignorant with her son)?404. diuos parentes: i.e. the deified ancestors of the family, who would be especially outraged by such impiety in their descendants; cf. Grk. Ocol tarp@ou; Leg. Reg. diuis parentum sacer esto; C. I. L. I. 1241 deis inferum parentum sacrum .405. fanda nefanda: cf. similar phrases in Ter. Ad . 990 iusta in iusta; Hor. Ep. I. 7. 72 dicenda tacenda; Verg . Aen. XII. 811 digna indigna; but without asyndeton in Verg. Aen. I. 543 fandi atque ne fandi; Ov. Art. Am. I. 739 mix tum fas omne nefasque.406. iustificam , justly-dealing;άπαξ λεγόμενον.408. lumine claro: i.e. the open light of day, as distinct from the cloud in which the gods commonlyhide themselves.65. An address to Ortalus ac companying a translation from Cal limachus (which is quite possibly c. 66) , and explaining that it is sent instead of an original poem because the death of the poet'sbrother has made all poetic com position impossible for him; cf. in general c . 68®, and with the lament 68. 20 ff. and 92 ff. Date of com position , about 59 B.C. ( see Intr.22) . Beginning with c . 65, all the remaining poems of the liber Ca. tulli are in the elegiac metre, which is used in none of the previous poems. See Intr. 48.1. defectum: the word apparent ly occurs here first in this sense, and even later is more common either inthe absolute use or with an ablative of specification than with an ablative of means; cf. Ov. Ex Pont. III . 4.37 his [ incitamentis ] ego defectus;Phaedr. I. 21. 3 defectus annis et desertus uiribus.2. doctis uirginibus: i.e. the Muses; cf. Ov. Art. Am. III . 411 doctis Musis; Met. V. 255 doctas Ortale: Q. Hortensius Ortalus (see Intr. 65) .sorores .164 CATULLUS. [65. 3Nec potis est dulcis Musarum expromere fetus Mens animi: tantis fluctuat ipsa malis, -5 Namque mei nuper Lethaeo gurgite fratrisPallidulum manans adluit unda pedem,Troia Rhoeteo quem subter litore tellusEreptum nostris obterit ex oculis.IO Nunquam ego te uita frater amabiliorAdspiciam posthac: at certe semper amabo,Semper maesta tua carmina morte canam,Qualia sub densis ramorum concinit umbris Daulias absumpti fata gemens Ityli, -3. Musarum fetus: cf. Cic.Tusc. V. 24. 68 animi fetus.4. mens animi: cf. Plaut. Epid.530 pauor territat mentem animi;Lucr. IV. 755 cum somnus membra profudit mens animi uigilat. -fluctuat malis: for the same fig .ure carried a little further see 64.62 curarum fluctuat undis; 68.3, 13.5. Lethaeo gurgite: the river of getfulness is first mentioned by Piato Rep. 621 C. Riese cites te (earlier) phrase of Simonides 171 Añons 8buoi, where the reference,however, is only to the lower worldin general ( cf. Hor. Carm . IV.7. 27 Lethaea uincula ). Vergil ( Aen .VI. 705 ) describes the river as far within the lower world, Lethaeum que domos placidas qui praenatat amnem; but in Culex 215 Lethaeas transnare per undas is clearly meant, as here, the boundary-stream of Orcus, from beyond which thereis no return ( elsewhere the Styx );cf. Prop. V. 7. 91; Tib . III. 3. 1o nudus Lethaea cogerer ire rate;III. 5. 24 cognoscere Lethaeamratem .6. pallidulum: the diminutiveof affection; the paleness is that of death. adluit unda pedem: asa general expression for crossing ariver, although it strictly refers only to fording, while Lethe was crossed by boat; cf. Prop. I. 20. 8 siu Aniena tuos tinxerit unda pedes.7. subter: the idea is closely connected with that of v. 8 obterit,crushes, the utterance of the brother ly love that shudders at the grave;contrast the familiar sit tibi terra leuis.10 ff. te, etc.: the fresh grief of the writer carries him away from his theme into an apostrophe to his dead brother.- uita amabilior:cf. 64. 215 n.14. Daulias: so the transformed Philomela (Ov. Met. VI. 424 ff.)was called, according to Thuc. II.29 , from Daulis, the town of Phocis,where Tereus lived; Homer, how ever ( Od. XIX. 518 ff.), represents Itylus as the only son of Zethus,king of Thebes, by Aedon, daughter of Pandareus, king of Crete, and slain unwittingly by his own mother,who was jealous of the motherhood of Niobe, and supposed herself to be killing Niobe's eldest son.-65.24 ) CATULLUS. 16515 Sed tamen in tantis maeroribus, Ortale, mittoHaec expressa tibi carmina Battiadae,Ne tua dicta uagis nequiquam credita uentis Effluxisse meo forte putes animo,Vt missum sponsi furtiuo munere malum Procurrit casto uirginis e gremio,Quod miserae oblitae molli sub ueste locatum ,Dum aduentu matris prosilit, excutitur;Atque illud prono praeceps agitur decursu,Huic manat tristi conscius ore rubor.20-

15. sed tamen: after the long Atalanta, and the explanation of the parenthesis the poet returns to his aureolum malum (2. 12) by the theme, sed, as often , being resump- quotations fromVergil and Petronius.tive. 20. procurrit, etc.: Festus ( p. 16. haec: probably c. 66 is re- 165 ) refers to a proverb based ferred to. —expressa, translated; on such accidents. casto: thecf. Ter. Ad. ii uerbum de uerbo ex- girl is not of loose character, but pressum extulit. — Battiadae: Cal- à carefully trained daughter who limachus, the famous Alexandrian has not learned how not to blush. scholar and poet at the court of - gremio: the girdle around the Ptolemy Philadelphus, was the son body just below the breasts made of a certain Battus of Cyrene, and the upper part of the robe a conclaimed descent from the founder venient, if not safe, receptacle for of that city; cf. 7. 4, 6 n.; 116. 2. small objects.17. credita uentis: with the fig . 21. miserae oblitae: with thisure cf. 30. 10 n . use of the adjective instead of the 19. ut, etc.: the comparison is of adverb misere with another adjecthe irrevocable swiftness with which tive cf. 64. 57. —molli carries still the apple falls and the reminders further the general impression of vanish . — missum munere: cf. 101 . gentle innocence conveyed by casto,8 tradita munere. sponsi: the and thus emphasizes the painful secrecy of the gift, and the confu- blush of her embarrassment.sion of the maiden at its discovery, 22. prosilit: the girl rises reshow that a secret lover is meant. spectfully as her mother enters, but - malum: apples were prover- hastily, because she is surprisedbially the gifts of lovers; cf. the while dreaming of her lover, and is Callimachean story of Cydippe; at first oblivious of other matters;Theocr. 3. 10, et al.; Verg. Ecl. thus her sudden movement dis3. 71 aurea mala decem misi; 64 lodges the apple.malo mie Galatea petit; Prop. I. 3. 23. The spondaic verse well ex24 nunc furtiua cauis poma dabam presses the girl's dismay, which manibus; Petron. Frag. 33. 1 Büch. makes even the swift fall of theaurea mala mihi, dulcis mea Mar. apple seem to occupy a life -time.cia mittis. Cf. also the story of 24. huic: contrasted with v . 23166 CATULLUS. [ 66. In66 .Omnia qui magni dispexit lumina mundi,Qui stellarum ortus comperit atque obitus,Flammeus ut rapidi solis nitor obscuretur,Vt cedant certis sidera temporibus,5 Vt Triuiam furtim sub Latmia saxa relegansillud; the eye turns from the tell tale apple to the tell- tale face of the maiden.66. This translation of the Bepeνίκης Πλόκαμος of Callimachus, afew fragments of which are extant,is quite possibly the poem sent to Hortensius with c. 65. It is complex and artificial, and, indeed , if the translation was made when Catulluswas burdened with grief for the loss of his brother, it is not strangethat his native genius shows so little through it. Whether the ob scurity of some passages in it is due to lack of care on the partof the translator, or to an excessive fidelity to the original, cannot be determined; but the general char acteristics of Alexandrian poetrywould lead us to refer the fault toCallimachus himself. The theme,a compound of court tradition and of astronomical knowledge, is as follows: Berenice, daughter of Ma gas, king of Cyrene, and wife of her cousin Ptolemy Euergetes(reigned 247-222 B.C. ) , king of Egypt, had for her husband's safety vowed to the gods a lock of her hair, when, shortly after his acces sion to the throne and marriage,the king was setting out on an expedition against Syria. Upon his safe return the vow was paid,and the tress deposited in the tem ple of the deified Arsinoe on the promontory of Zephyrion. Next morning, however, it had disap peared; but the anger of the kingwas appeased by the court astron .omer, Conon, who said that hehad descried it among the stars,where it must have been placed by divine agency. To verify hiswords Conon pointed out the hith .erto undistinguished minor constel lation which is now known as Coma Berenices. Date, about 59 B.C. ( cf. introductory note to c. 65) .1. omnia qui: the antecedent clause begins in v. 7. -dispexit,descried; as distinguishing in the darkness, or amid the multitude of other stars. — mundi, the firma ment; as in 64. 206; but with adifferent meaning in 47. 2.3. rapidi, scorching, as the words flammeus nitor clearly indicate;cf. Verg. Geor. I. 92 rapidi potentia solis acrior; IV. 425 rapidus torrens sitientis Sirius Indos. - obscu.retur: sc . in an eclipse; cf. Plin.N. H. II . 47 nullum aliud sidus eodem modo obscuretur.4. ut cedant, etc.: in v. 2 thereference is to the apparent dailymotion of the stars, due to the revolution of the earth on its axis; in v. 4 , to their yearly motion with reference to the apparent position of the sun, due to the revolution ofthe earth about the sun.5. Triuiam: cf. 34. 15 n . —Latmia saxa: Selene was wont tomeet secretly upon Mt. Latmus in Caria the beautiful shepherd En dymion, with whom she had fallenin love (cf. Paus. V. I ); sub saxa = in antrum .-66 . 20 )CATULLUS.1671οDulcis amor gyro deuocet aerio,Idem me ille Conon caelesti in lumine uiditE Bereniceo uertice caesariemFulgentem clare, quam cunctis illa deorumLeuia protendens bracchia pollicita est,Qua rex tempestate nouo auctus hymenaeo Vastatum finis iuerat Assyrios,Dulcia nocturnae portans uestigia rixaeQuam de uirgineis gesserat exuuiis.15 Estne nouis nuptis odio Venus, atque parentumFrustrantur falsis gaudia lacrimulisVbertim thalami quas intra limina fundunt?Non, ita me diui, uera gemunt, iuerint.Id mea me multis docuit regina querelisInuisente nouo proelia torua uiro.20a6. aerio: so Horace of the heavuns, Carm . I. 28. 5 aerias temptasse domos.7. me: the poem is a monologue spoken by the lock (v. 51 ) of Bere nice's hair itself. ille: i.e. theperson referred to in v. I ff., me illeConon corresponding to omnia qui.- Conon: the astronomer-royal of Ptolemy, a native of Samos, andfriend of Archimedes. He wrote some astronomical treatises, which,however, have not been preserved;cf. Verg. Ecl. 3. 40 ff . Conon et quisfuit alter descripsit radio totum qui gentibus orbem , tempora quae messor , quae curuus arator haberet?7-10. Cf. Callim . Frag. 34 ħ ue Κόνων έβλεψεν έν ήερι τον Βερενίκης βόστρυχον, όν κείνη πάσιν έθηκεθεοίς .9. cunctis deorum: cf. v. 33 cunctis diuis, and Call. l.c.10. leuia bracchia: cf. 64. 332.protendens: standing in the attitude of prayer, with arms outstretched and lifted , and palms turned upward .11. auctus hymenaeo: cf. 64.25 taedis felicibus aucte. On thehiatus nouo auctus in thesis and thelengthening of the short syllable before hymenaco see Intr. 86 d , g.12. Assyrios: for Syrios; cf. 68. 144; Verg . Geor. II. 465; Hor.Carm . II. 11. 16, etc. The war wasto avenge the murder of Berenice,sister of Ptolemy Euergetes and widow of Antiochus Theos, by her step -son Seleucus Callinicus, who had in 246 B.C. succeeded his father on the throne of Syria.15. parentum gaudia: i.e. in their hope of descendants; cf. 64.379 f.18. ita me diui iuerint: cf. 61 .196; 97. 1; and with the hyperba ton, 44. 9. With the syncopation of the consonant u in the verb cf.Enn. Ann. 339 Vabl. (ap. Cic. De Sen. init.) adiuero.20. inuisente: apparently unique168 CATULLUS. [66. 21At tu non orbum luxti deserta cubile,Sed fratris cari flebile discidium?Quam penitus maestas exedit cura medullas!Vt tibi tunc toto pectore sollicitae25 Sensibus ereptis mens excidit! at te ego certeCognoram a parua uirgine magnanimam.Anne bonum oblita es facinus, quo regium adepta es Coniugium, quod non fortior ausit alis?Sed tum maesta uirum mittens quae uerba locuta es!30 Iuppiter, ut tristi lumina saepe manu!in the sense of active participation in an affair.21. at: introducing a possible protest of Berenice against the charge of inconsistency. luxti:for luxisti; see 14. 14 n. misti.22. fratris: Berenice was thefirst cousin of Ptolemy ( III. ) Euer getes, both being grandchildren onthe father's side of Ptolemy I. But frater may be used here, like theGr. å deadós, of this relationship ( cf. 111. 4 n. ); or, more likely, it repre sents the way in which Ptolemy and Berenice were usually spoken of; for the custom in the Egyptian royalhouse of marriage between brotherand sister is well known; cf. the de cree of Canopus 1. 7 βασιλεύς Πτολεμαίος .. και βασίλισσα Βερενίκη ήαδελφή αυτού και γυνή θεοί ευεργέται.23. quam, etc.: beginning the tri umphant rejoinder to the protest in vy. 21 and 22; sisters show no suchextremity of grief over separation from brothers. penitus exedit medullas: cf. 35. 15 n .; Verg.Aen. IV. 66 est mollis flamma medullas.25. sensibus ereptis: cf. 51. 5misere quod omnis eripit sensusmihi.27 f. Hyginus ( Poet. Astr. II. 24) ,evidently referring to this passage,says that Berenice ( whom he calls the daughter of Ptolemy Phila delphus) once saved her father's life by mounting a horse and rally ing his wavering troops. But this would not have won her husband.The reference is doubtless to the story told by Justin ( XXVI. 3) that Berenice's mother was opposed toher betrothal to Ptolemy, and de sired to marry her rather to Deme.trius, brother of Antigonus, king of Macedonia. Demetrius, however,formed a criminal connection withthe mother, and was assassinated by a band of conspirators, atwhose head stood Berenice, who therebywas enabled to fulfil her former engagement.28. coniugium maritum; cf. 68. 107; Tac. Ann. II. 13. 3 matri monia ac pecunias hostium praedae destinare. -quod . . . alis: i.e. adeed which none other would dare,and prove himself thereby the brav er. Ellis compares Hor. Carm . III.23. 18 non sumptuosa blandior hostia molliuit auersos Penates. alis:cf. 29. 15 n. alid .29. tum: directing the thought once more to the later period and greater fear. mittens: cf. 96.4 n. missas.30. Iuppiter: cf. 1. 7 n. --66.42 ]CATULLUS.169Quis te mutauit tantus deus? an quod amantes Non longe a caro corpore abesse uolunt?Atque ibi me cunctis pro dulci coniuge diuis Non sine taurino sanguine pollicita es,35 Si reditum tetulisset. Is haud in tempore longoCaptam Asiam Aegypti finibus addiderat.Quis ego pro factis caelesti reddita coetuPristina uota nouo munere dissoluo.Inuita, o regina, tuo de uertice cessi,Inuita: adiuro teque tuumque caput:Digna ferat quod si quis inaniter adiurarit:Sed qui se ferro postulet esse parem?40tristi: cf. v. 21 luxti; 14. 14 n.misti. The action was, of course,that of dashing the tears away.31. an, etc.: i.e. ( utrum deus te mutauit) an eo factum est quod, etc. 33. cunctis diuis: but cf. v. 9cunctis deorum .34. taurino sanguine: the sac rifices of cattle may have been in acknowledgment of past favors,while the new vow was made for the future; or they may have been part of the vow to be paid in the future; cf. in either case the uoto rum nuncupatio of the Roman con suls at their entry upon office, and Hannibal's offering ( Liv. XXI. 21 .of the present; the lock has but lately reached its present seat, and is explaining to its mistress the cause of its mysterious disappear ance. —dissoluo: on the diaeresis see Intr. 86 b.39. inuita, etc.: cf. Verg . Aen.VI. 460 inuitus, regina, tuo de litore cessi.40. adiuro, etc.: cf. Callim . Frag.356 σήν τε καρήν ώμοσα σόν τε βίον;oaths are sworn by that which is dearest, especially, then, by the life or head of the person himself or of his nearest friend. So with espe cial fitness the lock swears by the head from which it was severed; cf.Verg. Aen. IV. 492 testor te, ger mana, tuumque dulce caput; IX.300 per caput hoc iuro per quod pater ante solebat; Ov. Trist. V. 4.45 per caput ipse suum solitus iurare tuumque; Plin. Ep. II . 20. 6 ( of the perjury of Regulus by the head of his son) . In direct imitation of Callimachus ( l. c. ) Catullus uses the accusative with adiuro in this sense,a construction which appears nextin the Augustan age; cf. Verg. Aen. XII.816 adiuro Stygii caput impla cabile fontis.9 ).35. tetulisset: see 34. 8 n. 36. Asiam: Ptolemy ravaged Asia Minor and the eastern dis tricts, at least as far as the Eu phrates; cf. Inscr . of Adule; Just.XXVII. 3.37. caelesti reddita coetu: the lock speaks from its final resting place among the stars, passing overthe brief interval of deposit in the temple of Zephyritis. On the formcoetu see 34. 8 n .38. pristina, of thepast. —nouo,170 CATULLUS. [66. 43Ille quoque euersus mons est quem maximum in orisProgenies Thiae clara superuehitur,45 Cum Medi peperere nouum mare, cumque iuuentus Per medium classi barbara nauit Athon .Quid facient crines, cum ferro talia cedant?Iuppiter, ut Chalybon omne genus pereat,Et qui principio sub terra quaerere uenas50 Institit ac ferri fingere duritiem!Abiunctae paulo ante comae mea fata sorores Lugebant, cum se Memnonis AethiopisVnigena impellens nutantibus aera pennis Obtulit Arsinoes † elocridicos ales equus,cum43. maximum: cf. Strab. 331 fr. 33 úynlótatov ( of Mt. Athos ).in oris: not restrictive of maxi.mum, but modifying quem directly ( = in litore stantem ), that most mighty promontory -mountain .'44. progenies Thiae: i.e. thesun; Hesiod ( Theog . 371) says that Thia bore Helios and Selene to Hyperion; cf. Pind. Isth. 4. I. 45 f. The cutting by Xerxes of a ship -canal through the isthmus of Athos is described in Herod. VII. 24 .47. quid facient cedant: cf. the inverse construction of moods in Verg. Ecl. 3. 16 quid domini faciant, audent cum talia fures?48. Chalybon, etc.: cf. Callim .Frag . 35° Χαλύβων ως απόλoιτο γένος, γειόθεν αντέλλοντα κακόν φυτόν οι μιν έφηναν; Hor. Sat. ΙΙ.1. 42 o pater et rex Iuppiter, ut pereat positum robigine telum . The Chalybes here referred to are un doubtedly not those of Spain, but the tribe of iron -workers in Pontus;cf. Xen. Anab. V. 5. I å LKVOÛVTAL εις Χάλυβας. ούτοι ολίγοι τε ήσανκαι ο βίος ήν τοϊς πλείστοις αυτών από σιδηρείας.50. fingere: the verb, usually applied to easily worked substances (such as wax and clay ) , is strongly contrasted with duritiem; the Chalybes worked against nature in learning to dig iron from the con cealing earth , and to mould its hardness so wonderfully into form .51. With this verse begins a pas sage of peculiar and probably un surmountable difficulty. — abiunc tae (sc. a me), bereaved; modifying comae. The lock had been severedbut a short time from its sister-lockson the head of Berenice, and their sorrow was still fresh (lugebant),when it was snatched from the tem ple and carried to heaven.53. unigena: born of the same parents, the brother (cf. 64. 300 );i.e. Emathion ( cf. Apollod. III . 12. 4 Τιθωνόν μεν ουν Ηώς αρπάσασα δι' έρωτα εις Αιθιοπίαν κομίζει, κάκει συνελθούσα γεννά παϊδας Ημαθίωνα και Μέμνονα) , who was apparently identified mythically with the ostrich ( cf. v. 54) as was Memnon himself with a certain species of black hawk ( cf. Ov. Met. XIII. 600 ff. ).54. Arsinoes: Arsinoe was the sister -wife of Ptolemy Philadelphus,-66 65)CATULLUS.17155 Isque per aetherias me tollens auolat umbrasEt Veneris casto conlocat in gremio.Ipsa suum Zephyritis eo famulum legarat,Graia Canopiis incola litoribus,† Hi dii uen ibi uario ne solum in lumine caeli60 Ex Ariadneis aurea temporibusFixa corona foret, sed nos quoque fulgeremusDeuotae flaui uerticis exuuiae,Vuidulam a fletu cedentem ad templa deum meSidus in antiquis diua nouum posuit:65 Virginis et saeui contingens namque Leonisand was worshiped under the attri- 58. Graia: as the daughter of butes of Aphrodite in a temple Ptolemy I. , Arsinoe was of Greek erected to her honor on the prom- descent. —Canopiis: i.e. Egyptian;ontory of Zephyrion, betweenAlex- cf. Luc. Phar. X.64 imbelli Canopo;andria and Canopus, whence she Verg. Geor. IV. 287 Pellaei gens was called Zephyritis. —No satisfac- fortunata Canopi. --incola litori.te ry emendation of elocridicos has bus: cf. 64. 300 cultricem monti yet been proposed. — ales equus: bus.according to Pausanias Arsinoe was 59. See Crit. App.represented riding upon an ostrich; 61. corona: thewedding-wreath ΙΧ. 31. 1 τήν δέ 'Αρσινόην στρουθος of Ariadne, given by Dionysus uponφέρει χαλκή των απτήνων. her marriage with him, was placed 55. aetherias umbras: it was among the stars; cf. Ov. Met. the night that the lock disap- 177 ff. utque perenni sidere clara peared. With aetherias in the foret, sumptam de fronte ( Ariad sense of aerias cf. Lucr. IV. 182 nae] coronam immisit caelo , Germ.clamor in aetheriis dispersus nubi- Phaen. 71 clara Ariadnaeo sacrata bus austri; Ov. Fast. I. 682 aetheria e crine corona . — nos: perhapsspargite semen aqua. auolat: plural under the influence of ex though the ostrich does not fly, yet uuiae ( v. 62 ) .his exceedingly swift running when 62. flaui: so of Ariadne's hair aided by his wings was enough like in 64. 63 flauo uertice . exuuiae:Alight to satisfy the poet. since the lock had yielded only to 56. Veneris: i.c. Arsinoes; cf. force; cf. v. 39 ff.V. 54 n. Arsinoes. 63. uuidulam a fletu: the lock 57. famulum: as the ostrich is does not cease to emphasize its owncalled the famulus of Arsinoe, so unwillingness to leave its mistress;the hind is the famula of Diana in the words refer to v. 51 f.Silius Italicus (XIII. 124 numen 65. uirginis: according to the erat iam cerua loci, famulamque older account she was Astraea, the Dianae credebant), and the lion daughter of the Titan Astraeus,the famulus of Cybele in Manilius whofought against the gods. She, ( IV . 760 Idacae matrisfamulus). however, descended to earth and172 CATULLUS. [ 66.6670Lumina, Callisto iuncta Lycaoniae,Vertor in occasum, tardum dux ante Booten,Qui uix sero alto mergitur Oceano.Sed quamquam me nocte premunt uestigia diuum,Lux autem canae Tethyi restituit,(Pace tua fari hic liceat, Rhamnusia uirgo:Namque ego non ullo uera timore tegam ,Nec si me infestis discerpent sidera dictis,Condita quin ueri pectoris euoluam )adwelt among men, and was the lastof the immortals to leave earth whenthe brazen age came on; cf. Hyg.Astrom . II. 25; Ov. Met. I. 149 uirgo caede madentes, ultima cae lestum , terras Astraea reliquit.According to another traditionVirgo was Erigone, who hanged herself through grief at the murder of her father , Icarius, by shepherdsto whom he had for the first timein their lives given wine to drink,and whosupposed themselves pois oned by him; cf. Apollod. III. 14.7; Hyg. Fab. 130; Astron . II. 4.- namque: postpositive, as in 64.384; but nowhere else before Vergil does it stand after so many words in its clause; cf. Draeger Hist. Synt.11.2 p. 162. —Leonis: according to Hyg. Astron . II. 24 the Nemean lion slain by Heracles.66. Callisto: dative; she was the daughter of the Arcadian Ly caon, and an attendant of the huntress_Artemis; but being ravished by Zeus and banished from the presence of her mistress, she was changed by Hera into a bear, and later, on being slain by her own son Arcas, was placed among the stars as the constellation Ursa Major or Helice; cf. Ov. Met. II.401 ff.; Fast. II. 153 ff.67. Booten: said by some to be Icarius ( cf. v. 65 n. ); by others,to be Arcas ( v. 66 n .) or Lycaon;cf. Ov. Fast. VI. 235 f.68. uix sero, etc .: this was atraditional characteristic of Bootesfrom the time of Homer ( cf. Od. V. 272 όψε δύοντα Βοώτης) and is ex plained by Sir Geo.C. Lewis ( Astron of the Anc. , p. 59 ap. Ellis) as de.rived from the fact that Bootes risesin a horizontal, but sets in a verti cal, attitude.69 f. sed quamquam, etc.: i.e. although I am one of the stars, and keep company with the gods; cf. Arat. 339 θεών υπό ποσσί φορείται;Verg. Ecl. 5. 57 sub pedibus uidet nubes et sidera Daphnis.70. lux, etc.: i.e. at the approach of dawn I set beneath the westernwave. — Tethyi ( = mari ): cf. 88.5, and with the Greek dative, 64.247.71. Rhamnusia uirgo: Neme sis ( cf. 64. 395 n.; 68. 77) might punish the arrogance that exalted in estimation things human above things divine.73. nec: apparently the first in stance of the use of nec in thesense of ne quidem . - discerpent:perhaps the only instance of the figurative use of this word in thesense of revile; cf. however carpo and concerpo.74. quin: depending on tegam , v. 73 being parenthetical.non-66.91 ] CATULLUS.17375 Non his tam laetor rebus quam me afore semperAfore me a dominae uertice discrucior,Quicum ego, dum uirgo quondam fuit, omnibus expersVnguentis, una milia multa bibi.Nunc uos optato quom iunxit lumine taeda,80 Non prius unanimis corpora coniugibusTradite nudantes reiecta ueste papillas,Quam iucunda mihi munera libet onyx,Vester onyx, casto colitis quae iura cubili.Sed quae se impuro dedit adulterio,85 Illius ah mala dona leuis bibat irrita puluis:Namque ego ab indignis praemia nulla peto.Sed magis, o nuptae, semper concordia uestras,Semper amor sedes incolat adsiduus.Tu uero, regina, tuens cum sidera diuamPlacabis festis luminibus Venerem,Vnguinis expertem non siris esse tuam me,90-- euoluam: on the diaeresis seeIntr . 86 b.75 f. Observe the epanalepsis with inversion in me afore ... aforeme.77 ff. The sense is, ' I shared, to be sure, the simple life of my mistress before her marriage; but since that time have lived a life of indulgentluxury for which my present position is not a gratifying exchange. I miss my costly ointments; therefore do you, who, like her, are chaste andhappy brides, offer me that gift upon your marriage. ' – quicum: femi nine, as in 69. 8, but rare in this gender. -expers modifies ego and una goes with quicum.79. optato lumine: cf. 64. 31 optatae luces; with lumine = diecf. v. 90.8o . non: instead of ne, as belong ing more closely to prius than tothe clause as a whole. -prius . .quam mihi (v. 82): cf. Callim.Frag. 354 πρίν αστέρι το Βερενίκης.- unanimis: cf. 9. 4 n.; 30. I. 82. onyx: i.e. the alabaster box in which ointment was kept; cf. Prop. III. 13.30 cum dabitur Syrio munere plenus onyx .83. uester: restrictive, as de fined by the quae- clause. —iura:used absolutely as contrasted with illicita ( i.e. adulteria ).85. ah: here expressing strong reprobation; cf. 60. 5; 64. 135. bibat puluis: cf. Ov. Fast. III .472 en iterum lacrimas accipe,harena, meas; Prop. V. 11. 6 nempe tuas lacrimas litora surda bibent.87. sed magis: cf. 73. 4 immo etiam magis; 68. 30 n. magis.90. festis luminibus: cf. 64.388festis diebus.91. unguinis, etc.: i.e. do not174 CATULLUS. ( 66.92Sed potius largis adfice muneribus.Sidera cur retinent? utinam coma regia fiam:Proximus Hydrochoi fulgeret Oarion.67.O dulci iucunda uiro, iucunda parenti,Salue, teque bona Iuppiter auctet ope,suppose mehappy beyond limit now, Its tone of familiarity with, and per.and so subject me to the same pri- sonal interest in, the tittle - tattle of vations that I suffered before you the city seems to indicate that it became queen (v. 77) .--non: not was composed before Catullus leftinfrequent in poetry and post-Au- Verona to live at Rome, and not gustan prose instead of ne in pro- during one of his brief visits to his hibitions, in spite of Quintilian's old home. The motive is appar.censure; I. 5. 50 qui tamen dicat ently as follows (see also later pro illo ne feceris , non feceris, in notes): The Door is that of aidem incidat uitium [ soloecismum ], house in Verona (v. 34 ), formerlyquia alterum negandi est, alterum owned by an aged ( v. 4 ) bachelor uetandi. - tuam: Hor. Carm . I. or widower (v. 6 ) named Balbus,25. 7 me tuo pereunte; Ov. Her. 10. after whose death (v. 6) it came75 uiuimus, et non sum, Theseu , into the possession of his son ( v . I )tua; Prop. I. 9. 22 et nihil iratae Caecilius, who thereupon marriedposse negare tuae. ( v. 6) and brought home a young 94. proximus, etc.: the sense is, and lively widow (v .20) from Brixia' All I care for is to return to my (v. 32) , who claimed to be also aformer station; then the stars might maid (v. 19). Strange rumors do whatever they liked for all of me. ' about her life soon began to spread- Hydrochoi: dative, as from through Verona, and the poet in ºd poxoeús; cf. 64. 382 n. Pelei. The quires of the Door why it has constellation, called by the Romans betrayed its master's confidence Aquarius, extends over a space ( presumably by letting in lovers to from 90° to 140 ° distant from Ori- corrupt the young wife ). The Door -fulgeret: from fulgěre, an defends itself by saying that it has ante -classical and poetical variant not betrayed its trust, but the for fulgere. The imperfect subjunc- woman was a bad lot before shetive follows naturally upon an easily came to Verona, and the currentunderstood protasis like si modo hoc gossip is true of the period of her fieret. - Oarion: from the Greek former marriage; for though herΩαρίων. husband was notoriously impotent,67. This pasquinade, in the form his father stepped in to fill the of a conversation between the poet son's place in the household , and and the door of a certain house, the woman moreover was too in abounds in difficulties of interpreta- timate with certain other people tion for us, though its directness of named and hinted at. The proof personal reference must have made of this culpability is found not only it clear enough to the Veronese. in rumors that have followed heron. -67. 13] CATULLUS. 175Ianua, quam Balbo dicunt seruisse benigneOlim, cum sedes ipse senex tenuit,s Quamque ferunt rursus uoto seruisse maligne,Postquam es porrecto facta marita sene,Dic agedum nobis quare mutata ferarisIn dominum ueterem deseruisse fidem .• Non (ita Caecilio placeam, cui tradita nunc sum)Culpa mea est , quamquam dicitur esse mea,Nec peccatum a me quisquam pote dicere quicquam:+ Verum istius populi ianua qui te facit!Qui, quacumque aliquid reperitur non bene factum ,10from Brixia, but in her own familiar talk with her maids in the presenceof the Door, which she treated as if it could neither hear nor speak. The conception of the door as abar in the way of would-be lovers is familiar enough in ancient poetry ( cf. 63. 65 and Plautus, Horace,Òvid, Propertius, etc. passim ); Pro pertius ( I. 16) also represents the door as speaking of its experiences.1-8. The poet speaks: You have been the trusted servant of thenewly -made husband ( Caecilius) ,as you were of his father ( Balbus);the latter you served faithfully ( vv.3, 4 ); now that he is dead (v . 6)you know well what he would wish you to do (v. 5 uoto) , but you have wilfully disregarded it ( ser uisse maligne), and have entirely changed ( v. 7 mutata) your chor acter; why have you thus aban doned your former habit of fidelity to your master's interests (v. 8)?i . dulci uiro: cf. 66. 33 dulci coniuge.2. teque, etc.: cf. the formal expression in the invocation ofScipio, Liv. XXIX. 27 ea uos omnia bene iuuetis, bonis auctibus auxitis.- bona ope: cf. 34. 23 bona ope.auctet: the word apparently oc curs only here and in Plaut. Amph.6 bono atque amplo auctare lucro,and Lucr. I. 56 unde oninis natura creet res, auctet, alatque.4. ipse senex: the aged master,in contrast to his son and heir.5. rursus, on the contrary; cf. 22. 11. —uoto seruisse maligne:observe the emphatic contrast to v. 3 Balbo seruisse benigne.6. porrecto: sc. in death; cf. Prop . II . 8. 33 uiderat informem multa Patroclon harena porrectum .marita: i.e. you have come into the possession of a married couple ( Balbus having been, therefore, abachelor or a widower ); cf. Liv .XXVII. 31. 5 uagabatur per ma ritas domos; and on the other hand such phrases as 68. 6 in lecto caelibe.7. agedum: cf. 63. 78.9. ita Caecilio placeam: the Door is sincere in its desire to be faithful to the husband, Caecilius,and to be acquitted in his sight, for it evidently views him as sinned against by a designing and criminal wife; cf. 20 ff. n.11. pote: see 17. 24 n .12. See Crit . App.13. qui ... omnes: apparently referring to v. 12 t populi. — qua.176 CATULLUS. [67. 14620Ad me omnes clamant, “ Ianua, culpa tua est."15 Non istuc satis est uno te dicere uerbo,Sed facere ut quiuis sentiat et uideat.Qui possum? nemo quaerit nec scire laborat.'Nos uolumus; nobis dicere ne dubita.• Primum igitur, uirgo quod fertur tradita nobis,Falsum est. Non illam uir prior attigerit,Languidior tenera cui pendens sicula betaNunquam se mediam sustulit ad tunicam:Sed pater illius gnati uiolasse cubileDicitur et miseram conscelerasse domum,25 Siue quod impia mens caeco flagrabat amore,Seu quod iners sterili semine natus erat Et quaerendus is unde foret neruosius illudQuod posset zonam soluere uirgineam .'Egregium narras mira pietate parentem,30 Qui ipse sui gnati minxerit in gremium.

  • Atqui non solum hoc se dicit cognitum habere Brixia † chinea suppositum specula,

cumque: sc . ratione, modifying factum .15. non satis, etc.: the poet sug .gests that a categorical denial isnot enough, but convincing proof of innocence should be offered .18. nos ... nobis: referring to the speaker only, as in v. 7 .19 ff. uirgo, etc.: i.e. to be sure,though a widow , she passed herselfoff as a maid, and every one knew that she might well be so as far asher husband was concerned.19. nobis: the Door unites in.terests with the injured husband against the guilty wife.20. uir prior: carefully to dis tinguish her weakling husband from Caecilius. attigerit: subjunctiveof concession.21. tenera beta: so Augustus is said (Suet. Oct. 87) to have used betissare for languere. - sicula:άπαξ λεγόμενον.23. illius: elsewhere in Catullus thisand similar genitives have the penult short.24. conscelerasse domum: cf. 64. 404 diuos scelerare parentes,also of unnatural crime.26. iners sterili semine: on therepetition of idea in the adjectives cf. 64. 64, 103, 2211; 90. 5; and (with Ellis) v. 48.28. zonam, etc.: cf. 2. 13 n.32. Brixia; the modern Brescia,the capital ofthe (Gallic ) Cenom ani ( Liv. XXXII. 30) . It is about as far to the westward of Sirmio as Verona is to the eastward (one half.-67.46 ] CATULLUS. 177Flauus quam molli praecurrit flumine Mella,Brixia, Veronae mater amata meae,35 Sed de Postumio et Corneli narrat amore,Cum quibus illa malum fecit adulterium .Dixerit hic aliquis, “ Quid? tu istaec, ianua, nosti,Cui nunquam domini limine abesse licet,Nec populum auscultare, sed hic suffixa tigilloTantum operire soles aut aperire domum? "Saepe illam audiui furtiua uoce loquentemSolam cum ancillis haec sua flagitia,Nomine dicentem quos diximus, ut pote quae mi Speraret nec linguam esse nec auriculam .45 Praeterea addebat quendam, quem dicere nolo Nomine ne tollat rubra supercilia.40hour by rail). — The remainder of the verse is involved in great diffi culty; it might naturally be taken to refer to the situation of Brixia at the base of a hill, but suppositum is apparently not used elsewhere in the sense of lying at the foot of,'and no hill in the neighborhood of Brixia is called by a name resem bling chinea till about A.D. 1500 ,when this passage from Catullus might have influenced local nomen clature ( cf. the case of the Gram pian Hills) .33. praecurrit Mella: the Mella( cf. Verg. Geor. IV. 278 curua prope flumina Mellae) flows about a mile to the westward of Brixia .34. mater: Brixia is nowhere elsecalled the mother- city of Verona,though some writers speak of Vero na as a Gallic town; cf. Ptol. III . 1 .27; Just. XX. 5. 8; not so, perhaps,Livy ( V. 35. 1 ) , nor, certainly,Pliny ( N.H. III. 130 ) .35. The two men , evidently in habitants of Brixia, are otherwise37-40 . A remark of the Dooritself, which, having been fairly started on its story by v . 18, con tinues it to the end, preferring to anticipate rather than to await criticism. dixerit aliquis: seeRoby ( Lat. Gram . vol. II. Pref.),who thinks the verb in this con struction probably indicative.39. tigillo: the lintel, not the jamb, as suffixa sufficiently indi.cates. The ancient door, like some heavier specimens of modern make,swung on two vertical pivots fitting into sockets near the extremity of lintel and sill respectively.46. tollat supercilia: sc . in an ger; cf. Schol. on Ar. Vesp. 655 τας οφρύς αίρειν έθος τοϊς οργιζο uévous. — rubra: perhaps not of the color of the brows, as a mark of identification, but of the flush of anger on the forehead: the hintstoward identification follow later.47. longus, tall; as in 86. Ilonga. — magnas cui, etc .: i.e. he had been sued on a charge of bas tardy ( though the expected birth-unknOWD178 CATULLUS. [67. 47Longus homo est , magnas cui lites intulit olimFalsum mendaci uentre puerperium .' id ( 9 ) Quod mihi fortuna casuque oppressus acerbo Conscriptum hoc lacrimis mittis epistolium,finally did not take place) , and the case had been a noteworthy (mag nas) one.684. Over the question of the unity of c. 68 students of Catullus havelong been at variance, some believe ing that vv . 1-40 have nothing to do with vv. 41-160 , and others claim ing that a more or less perfect union exists throughout the two, or perhaps three ( cf. vv. 149–160 ), divisions of the poem. On the whole the weight of evidence seems to lie in favor ofabsolute division of vv . 1-40 from 41-160. ( 1 ) The absence of division indicated by the MSS. is paral leled by similar omission in thecase of other poems: (2) the per son addressed in 68à is Malius(or Manlius; cf. v. II n. ) , in68b, Allius, while the use of two nomina by one man was at this time unprecedented, and there is also nowhich is incorporated an account of the poet's happiness entirely in congruous in 688: ( 5 ) in 682 the poet is so overcome with grief that he waives all reference to his re lations with Lesbia (vv. 28, 29 );in 686 he is happy with her, and is disposed to condone her frailties ( vv. 135 ff.), while his grief is not ever-present, but is aroused only by a chance allusion to Troy, and is forthwith suppressed: (6 ) therepe.tition of vv. 20 ff. of 684 in 68b (vv. 92 ff.) shows that the two poems were not far separated time, but is more consistent withthe theory of division than of unity ( see also heading 5 ) . 682 was evi.dently written ( at Verona or Sirmio )not long before 686 ( see 5 above,and later notes) , and both before Catullus had become thoroughly aware of Lesbia's real character,and had finally broken away from her. Perhaps her loose life during this period of separation finally opened his eyes. For convenience of general reference the continuous numbering of verses is retained throughout 68a and 68b.1. quod, etc.: the poetical epis tle opens in pure prose form .2. conscriptum lacrimis:somewhat forced figure for ' tear stained. ' – epistolium: ( Gr. ério otblcov) a rare word, occurring else where only in Apul. Ap. 6 and 79 ,and in glossaries.3. naufragum , etc.: the figureis not infrequently used of greatreason why one should be consistently used in vv .1-40 and the other in vv . 41-160:( 3) Malius, in 682, is in extremest sorrow , which the expressions ( see notes) show can be only over the death of his wife, while Allius, in 686, is happy with either wife or mistress ( cf. v. 155 ): (4) Malius asks for consolation in the shape of love- poems, and Catullus explains why he cannot send them; there is no reference to any request on the part of Allius, but he receives an apparently spontaneous expression of thanks for his services to Catullus in the affair with Lesbia, withname2-684. 12]CATULLUS.179pumposecansaltemporalNaufragum ut eiectum spumantibus aequoris undisSubleuem et a mortis limine restituam,s Quem neque sancta Venus molli requiescere somnoDesertum in lecto caelibe perpetitur,Nec ueterum dulci scriptorum carmine musaeOblectant, cum mens anxia peruigilat, —Id gratum est mihi, me quoniam tibi dicis amicumMuneraque et Musarum hinc petis et Veneris.Sed tibi ne mea sint ignota incommoda, Manli,Neu me odisse putes hospitis officium ,IO9and overwhelming misfortune; cf. horis) and fails; he therefore ap V. 13; 64. 62; 65. 4. peals to his friend for writings of 4. a mortis limine restituam: his, either new or Lucr. II. 960 leti iam limine ab 10. munera Musarum et Veneipso; Culex 224 te restitui superis ris: i.e. love-poems; cf. Theog.leti iam limine ab ipso. 25ο αγλαά μουσάων δώρα ιοστεφά 5. sancta Venus: cf. 36. 3 n. νων; Anacr. 945 μουσέων τε και-molli somno: cf. Hom. II. X. αγλαά δώρ' 'Αφροδίτης συμμίσγων 2 μαλακώ δεδμημένοι υπνω; Verg. ερατής μνήσκεται ευφροσύνης.Geor. III. 435 mollissub diuo car. 11 ff. Manlius, who apparently has pere somnos; Prop. I. 3. 7 mollem not heard of the affliction of Catul spirare quietem; Tib. I. 2. 74mollis lus, had in the first part of his letter et inculta sit mihi somnus humo; begged for consolatory verses fromOv. Met. I. 685 ille tamen pugnat him, and in the second, urged his molles euincere somnos. return to Rome, supporting his 6. lecto caelibe: cf. 6. 6 uiduas urgency by hints about the loose noctes; Ov. Her. 13. 107 aucupor life of Lesbia during theunexplained in lecto mendaces caelibe somnos. absence of her lover. Catullus hereThe great grief expressed in vv. and in vv. 33 ff. replies to the first 1-6 can hardly be attributed to part of the letter, and to the second temporary estrangement or separa- part in vv. 27 ff.-Manli: the read tion from wife or mistress, but only ing of V mali can readily stand forto her death; cf. also v. 13 n. manli, as 61. 16 mallio, and 61. 222 7. ueterum scriptorum musae: maulio sufficiently show; and verycf. Eur. Med. 421 uollo al malal- tempting is the conjecture of Mure γενέων αοιδών. The ancient poets tus that the happy bridegroom of would be chiefly Greeks, and the 61 is now the grief-stricken widower word with those following stands in of 682 who turns to his friend for sharp contrast to v. 9 me, and the comfort in his sorrow as he had for following words. Manlius tries to congratulation in his joy. Yet bothfind distraction from his grief in the Malius and Mallius are nomina books of the ancient (Greek ) poets supported by inscriptions of this age.( cf. Hor. Sat. II.6.61 nunc ueterum 12. hospitis: apparently, like libris, nunc somno et inertibus Févos, of one with whom a treaty ofstupom , anknown meaning toratenpant to midters lonely180 CATULLUS. [ 684, 13lown offenaseneryearlyAccipe quis merser fortunae fluctibus ipse,Ne amplius a misero dona beata petas.15 Tempore quo primum uestis mihi tradita pura est,Iucundum cum aetas florida uer ageret,Multa satis lusi; non est dea nescia nostriQuae dulcem curis miscet amaritiem:Sed totum hoc studium luctu fraterna mihi morsAbstulit. O misero frater adempte mihi,Tu mea tu moriens fregisti commoda, frater,Tecum una tota est nostra sepulta domus,Omnia tecum una perierunt gaudia nostra ,Quae tuus in uita dulcis alebat amor.25 Cuius ego interitu tota de mente fugaui Haec studia atque omnes delicias animi.20 engagements sin existentestatCharge)friendship and hospitalityhas been amplification of the preceding made; cf. Cic. Lael. 37 hospes fa- phrase; for love- poems with Catul.miliae uestrae. lus were closely connected with 13. The reason that leads Manlius love apply to Catullus for help, the 18. dulcem amaritiem: cf. death of one dearly loved, is the Sappho Frag. 40 γλυκύπικρον αμά .very reason why Catullus is unable xavov ÓPTETOV (of love); comply with the request, so rea- 1353 πικρός και γλυκύς έστι sonable from an amicus et hospes. — épws; Plaut. Pseud. 63 dulce ama.merser fortunae fluctibus: cf. v. rumque una nunc misces mihi; 3 n.; Hor. Ep. 1. 2. 22 aduersis Goethe Egmont III. 2. freudvoll rerum immersabilis undis. und leidvoll . . . die Seele die liebt;15. tempore quo, since the time Ellis quotes Romaunt of the Rose, p.when; cf. 35. 13 n. - uestis .. 86 Bell For ever of love the siknesse pura: the exchange of the crimson- Is meinde with swete andbitternesse.bordered toga praetexta for the 19 ff. Cf. c. 65; 68. 92 ff.; 101. 6.toga uirilis of pure white marked 22. tecum, etc.: not so much,the legal coming of age at about 16 perhaps, that the bachelor Catullusyears. looked to his brother's prospective 17. multa satis lusi: i.e. I have children to keep alive the family written love- poems enough; cf. name, as that brotherly love led him Hor. Carm . I. 32. 2 lusimus tecum , ascribe his brother all thebarbite; Ov. Am . III. 1. 27 quod qualities that honored the family,tenerae cantent, lusit tua Musa , and to himself none.puellae. Apollinaris Sidonius 26. haec studia: i.e. the writing ( Ep. V. 21 ) says of himself mihi of love -poems; corresponding to quoque semper a paruo cura Musa . v. 17 multa satis lusi as omnes rum. -non est, etc.: a repetitive delicias animi does to non est dea,-68.33 )CATULLUS.1810.34garotsd mare. Romase , aa teQuare, quod scribis Veronae turpe Catullo Coisat VeronaEsse quod “hic "quisquis de meliore nota Frigida deserto tepefactet membra cubili,30 Id, Manli, non est turpe, magis miserum est.Ignosces igitur, si, quae mihi luctus ademit,Haec tibi non tribuo munera, cum nequeo.Nam quod scriptorum non magna est copia apud me,etc. With delicias cf. 45. 24. n; 74. 28. hic: at the place where 2; with the otiose genitive animi, Manlius was writing, the word be 2. 10 animi curas; 64. 372 animi ing quoted directly from his letter:amores; 102. 2 fides animi. there is no reason for believing the 27–30 . The reference to love. place to be other than Rome.affairs in v. 26 leads Catullus to the quisquis: apparently the masculinesecond part of the letter of Manlius, is here used absolutely (without wherein the writer, desiring the per- est) after analogy of established use sonal presence and , sympathy of of the neuter in that way. – de Catullus, and not knowing any meliore nota, ofthe better sort; cf. reason for his long tarrying in Cic . Fam . VII. 29. I Sulpicii succes Verona, endeavored to draw him sori nos de meliore nota commenda.thence by a warning ( though using Clodia's lovers were naturally not no names) that his duty to himself from the lowest orders of theprotection of his honor sum- 29. frigida membra: they had moned him back to Rome; Catul- been excluded while Catullus was lus replies that his grief makes it on hand. - tepěfactet: on the impossible for even such consider . quantity cf. 64. 360 n. tepefaciet;ations to move him. the word is άπαξ λεγόμενον.27. Veronae turpe Catullo 30. magis: in a sense approachesse: apparently the predicate in. ing that of the French mais; cf. finitive esse is ( though contrary to Sall. Tug. 85. 49 neque quisquam general usage) omitted here, or else parens liberis uti aeterni forent,( andmost improbably ) the later esse optauit, magis uti boni honestique serves as both subject and predicate; uitam exigerent. — miserum , piti for in spite of v. 28 hic and the MS. ful; cf. 91. 2; 99. 15; Cic . Fin. V. Catulle, a direct quotation in such 84 bonum liberi, misera orbitas.a setting would be extremely rare. 33 ff. Catullus now returns to the The meaning evidently is, ' to be first part of the letter of Manlius staying at Verona is dishonorable and explains why he cannot send for Catullus, when his place with poems earlier composed, —he has Lesbia is being filled by promiscu- none with him, or none that would ous lovers.' The reply is, ' the mat- be new and pleasing to Manlius.ter is not one of dishonor but of The lack of logical order, with the sorrow. ' —Catullo: the poet likes prosaic sentence -openings in v. I ,to refer to himself in the third per- 27, 33, and prosaic expression else son , and V not infrequently gives where, may be taken to indicate the e for 0; hence the MS. reading is distracted state of the writer's great argument for a direct 33. scriptorum copia: thegene quotation. tive is neuter; cf. Hör. Ep. I. 18.182 CATULLUS . [ 689 34Hoc fit quod Romae uiuimus: illa domus,35 Illa mihi sedes, illic mea carpitur aetas;Huc una ex multis capsula me sequitur.Quod cum ita sit, nolim statuas nos mente maligna Id facere aut animo non satis ingenuoQuod tibi non utriusque petenti copia parta est:Vltro ego deferrem , copia si qua foret.Mugares Puolaet Veneris40 pario bring forth68 % .Non possum reticere, deae, qua me Allius in reIuuerit aut quantis iuuerit officiis,Ne fugiens saeclis obliuiscentibus aetas109 sit bona librorum copia; Ov. of some position in Rome for Trist. III . 14. 37 non hic librorum Clodia's visits to his house (v. 68 )copia. not to arouse question. —The invo 36. capsula: i.e. scrinium . lution of theme, with the introduc 37. mente maligna, etc., in tion of the Laodamia episode, itself grudging temper or ungracious interrupted by the lament over thespirit. death of the poet's brother, is 39. non: modifying the entire thoroughly Alexandrian . - See also expression, though placed before introductory note to c. 684.the pronoun, as frequently in Catul 41. non possum reticere: the lus. Riese gives a full list of such earnestness of the poet's feeling is phrases. -utriusque: i.e. of verses well expressed by the abruptness of composed especially for you at this the opening, carried out by the time, and also of earlier verses . emphatic repetition of iuuerit.— 40. ultro ego deferrem , etc.: deae: the poem opens, in epic style ,Catullus had apparently known of with an address to the Muses; cf. the sorrow of Manlius before his Theocr. 17 (the panegyric uponletter came, but because of his own Ptolemy).grief had taken no notice of it till 43. ne, etc.: it gives an easier personally appealed to. passage of thought to v. 45 sed 686. A panegyric on Allius for dicam to take vv . 43 and 44 as ahis assistance in furthering the final clause directly dependent upon poet's affair with Lesbia, into char- non possum reticere, rather than acterization of whose love as like to read with the MSS. nec and under that of Laodamia the poem straight- stand the clause as a parenthetical way glides, to be recalled to Allius wish ( for a potential subjunctiveonce more only with v. 149. —The here seems impossible). With MS.Allius addressed is otherwise un- nec for a genuine ne cf. v . 103; 21 .known, though the name is found 13; 62. 59; 99. 9 . fugiens .. not infrequently in inscriptions; he aetas, theflight oftime through ages must, however, have been a man of forgetfulness; cf. 64. 232.1-10 To Allius , in gratitudo 11-3 for his helf aim ('s love of haar 38-50 of love of loodama for Protesilausat Troy 51-60 where is brother , was buried so two ho lost har lang banda 1 842 such was my love to me imes felem w serial wegáns do Atlas24-686 . 57 ]CATULLUS.183Illius hoc caeca nocte tegat studium:45 Sed dicam uobis, uos porro dicite multis Milibus et facite haec charta loquatur anus510Notescatque magis mortuus atque magis,Nec tenuem texens sublimis aranea telam50 In deserto Alli nomine opus faciat.Nam mihi quam dederit duplex Amathusia curam Scitis, et in quo me corruerit genere,Cum tantum arderem quantum Trinacria rupesLymphaque in Oetaeis Malia Thermopylis,55 Maesta neque adsiduo tabescere lumina fletuCessarent tristique imbre madere genae,Qualis in aerii perlucens uertice montis15.14 n.45. porro , in time to come; cf. statue of the goddess at Amathus.45. 3. Amathusia: i.e. Venus; cf. 36.46. anus: with the adjectival use of the word cf. 9. 4 n.; 786. 4; 52. in quo genere, after what Mart. XII. 4. 4 ( hoc te ] famafuisse manner. –corruerit, overwhelmed;loquax chartaque dicet anus, I. 39. love's visit to him was with a vigor 2 famaque nouit anus.ous assault that carried all defenses 48. magis atque magis: a fre- at once. With the active meaning quent and classical phrase; but cf. of the verb cf. Lucr. V. 367 quae the asyndetic form in 38. 3 n.; 64. possint forte coorta corruere hanc274 . rerum summam.49 f. The figure is of a for- 53. quantum , etc.: the compar.gotten memorial inscription. The ison of figurative flames to the fires spider -web as a sign of human de- of Etna is not uncommon; cf. Hor.sertion is as old as Homer; cf. Od. Epod . 17. 30 ardeo quantum XVI. 34 'Odvooños dé mou eůvn nec Sicanaferuida uirens in Aetna Xütel évevvalwv kök' ápáxvia keltai flamma; Óv. Epist. Sapph. 12 me έχουσα; and the reminiscence in calor Aetnaeo non minor igne tenet.Prop. IV. 6. 33 putris et in uacuo - rupes: for mons, as in 61. 28;texetur aranea lecto; also Ov. Am. cf. Grat. Cyn . 430 in Trinacria 1. 14. 7 uel pede quod gracili dedu- rupe.cit aranea filum , cum leue deserta 54. lympha, etc.: the waters re sub trabe nectit opus. ferred to are the hot springs that by 51. duplex: of the twofold char- their vicinity gave its name to the acter of Venus as causing grief as pass of Thermopylae.well as joy; cf. v. 18 n .; 64. 95; but 57. qualis, etc .: i.e. the lover's the expression is sometimes under- tears ran as freely and constantlyas stood to refer to the hermaphroditic an unfailing mountain -brook. The184 CATULLUS. [68b. 5820Riuus muscoso prosilit e lapide.Qui, cum de prona praeceps est ualle uolutus,50 Per medium densi transit iter populi,Dulce uiatori lasso in sudore leuamenCum grauis exustos aestus hiulcat agros.Hic, uelut in nigro iactatis turbine nautisLenius adspirans aura secunda uenit65 Iam prece Pollucis, iam Castoris implorata,Tale fuit nobis Allius auxilium.Is clausum lato patefecit limite campum,Isque domum nobis isque dedit dominae,Ad quam communes exerceremus amores.25development of the details of the figure is but a poetical embellish .ment. With the figure in generalcf. Ηom. II . IX. 14 ίστατο δάκρυ χέων ως τε κρήνη μελάνυδρος, etc .; XVI. 3; and a similar comparison of tears to melting snows in Sen. Phaedr. 389 ff. perlucens: of the thread - like sheen of a stream seen afar off on a mountain-side.59 ff. The stream rises among lofty mountains, finds its way down through a valley, and finally emerges from its solitudes upon the plains in the midst of the paths of a great people ( v. 60 ), whom it furnishes with refreshment on their journeys.63. hic: temporal, as in 64. 269.-nigro turbine: cf. Verg. Aen.X. 603 torrentis aquae uel turbinis atri more furens.64. lenius, etc.: cf. Sil. Ital.XV. 162 leuis inde secunda adspi rans aura propellit carbasa flatus.65. Pollucis: objective genitive;cf. Verg. Aen. XI.4 uota deum uictor soluebat; Liv. Praef. 13 cum preca,tionibus deorum dearumque; and on the divinities appealed to, 4.26 n. — implorata: probably anominative modifying aura ( cf.Hor. Ep. II . 1. 135 caelestes implo rat aquas docta prece blandus),though Nipperdeyand Jordan be lieveit to be an ablative with preceabsolute, after the analogy of Plaut.Rud. 258 qui sunt, qui a patrona preces mea expetessunt? Corn. Nep.Ep. Corn . non pudet te deum preces expetere?66. nobis: for mihi, as in vv .68 and 156, where Lesbia ( domina )is mentioned separately .67. clausum , etc.: i.e. he gave us free course, by allowing us to meet under the protection of his roof; with the figure cf. Sen. De Ben . 15. 2 minus laxum limitemaperire.68. domum dedit: with the order cf. 30. 3 n. —dominac; i.e.Lesbia, as in v. 156 and elsewhere;the emendation appears certain for MSS. dominam ( from dominē; cf. v. 73 MSS. amorem for amore ).69. ad quam: for in qua ( sc.domo); cf. Cic . Verr. II. 4. 2 ad aedem Felicitatis; Att. XII. 36. 2ad uillam; Liv. XXXIX . 4. 2 ad aedem Apollinis in senatu; and Draeger Hist. Synt. I.2 p. 585. –communes: i.e. shared mutually25 -681.78 ] CATULLUS. 185301Quo mea se molli candida diua pede Intulit et trito fulgentem in limine plantamInnixa arguta constituit solea,Coniugis ut quondam flagrans aduenit amore Protesilaeam Laodamia domum -75 Inceptam frustra, nondum cum sanguine sacroHostia caelestis pacificasset eros.Nil mihi tam ualde placeat, Rhamnusia uirgo,Quod temere inuitis suscipiatur eris.35an toPreci Par. Senprecesin1218Cby Catullus and Lesbia; cf. Lucr. (vv. 75, 76 ) and fatal effects ( vv.IV. 1200 est communis uoluptas 85, 86) of the passion , even if sc. to two lovers); Ov. Am. II. Catullus could have admitted to 5. 31 haec tibi sunt mecum , mihi himself such an extension of thesunt conimunia tecum . resemblance. — Part of the story is 70. molli: an almost formal epi- as old as Homer ( cf. Il. II. 695 ff.),thet, as often . diua: only here though nothing is said there of the as an appellation of a mistress, final cause of the death of Protesi.though comparisons to particular laus. Euripides in his Protesilaus deities are not uncommon; cf. v. 133 appears first to embody the tale of where Lesbia is invested with the the hero's return to earth for oneattributes of Venus. day in accordance with his wife's 71. trito: a formal epithet of a prayer (cf. also Hyg. Fab. 103, and threshold , as worn smooth by use; Wordsworth Laodamia ). On the cf. the Homeric ουδός ξεστός , and subject cf. also Ov . Her . 13.v. 115 tereretur. - fulgentem: of 75. inceptam frustra: i.e. his the smooth, luminous skin; cf. home- life was indeed begun , but Hom. λιπαροί πόδες. was not to last; cf. Hom. II. II.72. arguta: apparently of sound 7Οι δόμος ημιτελής.rather than of shape (cf. 6. 11 ) , but 76. hostia: probably not with whether some omen was connected reference to a special pre-nuptial with the creaking of the sandal, or sacrifice, but to the sacrifices thought it was simply the happy presage of necessary before entering upon any her coming to the eagerly listening new undertaking. -caelestis eros,lover, is doubtful. the lords of heaven; repeated, with 73-130. The comparison of the out distinguishing epithet, in v. 78.warmth of Lesbia's love to that of 77 f. Cf. Verg. Aen. II. 402Laodamia's. The episode is thor heú nihil inuitis fas quemquamoughly Alexandrian in its length fidere diuis. — Rhamnusia uirgo:and complexity. Itseems unneces- cf. 64. 395 n.; 66. 71.— inuitis sary and unfitting after observation eris: cf. 76. 12 dis inuitis; Hom.of other similar mythological illus- II . XII. 8 θεών αέκητι, where the trations in Catullus to suppose the lack of divine favor was due solely:comparison to extend to the de- as here, to the omission of prelimitails of the unrighteous beginning nary sacrifice (XII. 6) .of his


illherein fu业 , 以 “ d2).zó 218tually186 CATULLUS. ( 686.7940Quam ieiuna pium desideret ara cruorem80 Docta est amisso Laodamia uiro,Coniugis ante coacta noui dimittere collumQuam ueniens una atque altera rursus hiemsNoctibus in longis auidum saturasset amorem,Posset ut abrupto uiuere coniugio:85 Quod scibant Parcae non longo tempore abesse, 45Si miles muros isset ad Iliacos:Nam tum Helenae raptu primores ArgiuorumCoeperat ad sese Troia ciere uiros,Troia (nefas) commune sepulcrum Asiae Europaeque,90 Troia uirum et uirtutum omnium acerba cinis:Quaene etiam nostro letum miserabile fratri5079. quam ieiuna, how thirstily;with the adjective in this meaning cf. Prop. IV. 15. 18 uilem ieiunaesaepe negauit aquam .8o. amisso: i.e. by his departure for Troy, whither he was compelled to go by the other Greeks.82. una atque altera hiems:i.e. winter after winter; cf. v. 152.84. uiuere: i.e. to endure life;cf. 5. I n.85. quod, etc., which i.e. thefinal severing of the marriage bond by death ) the Fates knew to be not far distant. — scibant: as if the Fates were powerless to alter this decree of Necessity, and couldonly register it; with the form cf. 64.319 custodibant; 84. 8 audibant.abesse: the MSS. abisse can be only the perfect for the future in adefinitely decided contingency, and that effect is interfered with by the occurrence of a phrase (non longo tempore ) pointing definitely to the future. With the MSS. error cf. Prop. III. 16. 32 where V reads abire for abesse.89. Troia: the word leads the poet into a digression on his brother's death, from which he returns to the main digression with v. 101. nefas: aparentheticalexclamation ,as in Verg. Aen. VII. 73 uisa (nefas) longis comprendere crinibus ignem . commune sepulcrum:so of the earth itself in Lucr. V. 259 omniparens eadem rerum com .mune sepulcrum; but of a public burying-ground in Hor. Sat. I. hoc miserae plebi stabat commune sepulcrum .90. uirum et uirtutum: cf.Verg. Aen. I. 566 uirtutesque uiros que. — acerba: of the ' untimely 'death of young warriors; cf. on this meaning of the word Mayor on Juv. 11. 44,who gives numerous cita tions. — cinis, funeral-pyre; found only here in this sense. The nounis feminine also in the singular in101. 4 (as in Lucr. IV. 926 andnot infrequently in late Latin ), but masculine in the plural in 68. 98;cf. Non. 198 ( cinis ] feminino apud Caesarem et Catullum et Caluumlectum est, quorum uacillat aucto ritas.91. quaene = quippe quae: cf 64. 180 n .; 64. 183.-686, 108 ] CATULLUS. 187Attulit. Hei misero frater adempte mihi,Hei misero fratri iucundum lumen ademptum ,Tecum una tota est nostra sepulta domus,95 Omnia tecum una perierunt gaudia nostra, 55Quae tuus in uita dulcis alebat amor.Quem nunc tam longe non inter nota sepulcra Nec prope cognatos compositum cineres,Sed Troia obscena, Troia infelice sepultumDetinet extremo terra aliena solo. 60Ad quam tum properans fertur simul undique pubesGraeca penetralis deseruisse focos,Ne Paris abducta gauisus libera moecha Otia pacato degeret in thalamo.105 Quo tibi tum casu, pulcherrima Laodamia,Ereptum est uita dulcius atque animaConiugium: tanto te absorbens uertice amorisAestus in abruptum detulerat barathrum,1006592–96. hei, etc.: cf. vv . 20–24.98. compositum: in the mean ing of buried the word is poetical and post-Augustan only; its next appearance is in Hor. Sat. I. 9. 28 omnes composui.99. obscena, malign . The word was originally applied to things of ill omen. - infelice, baleful. Elsewhere in Catullus the ablative in -i(of the simple adjective ) occurs;cf. 62. 30; 64. 373.100. extremo, far distant; cf. II . 2 in extremos Indos.102. penetralis focos: the sa cred hearths that formed the centreof the home and its life.103. libera, unchallenged; cf.105. quo casu: i.e. by the sud den despatch of a Greek army against Troy.106. uita dulcius atquc anima:107 ff. tanto , etc.: explaining uita dulcius, etc .; he was dearer to you than life; for your love was deeper than the abyss of Pheneus ( vv. 109–118 ), and your joy in him greater ( vv. 129, 130) than that of the aged grandfather in the birth of an heir ( vv. 119-124) , or of a dove in the endearments of her mate (vv. 125-128) . And such was the joy with which Lesbia came to me ( vv. 131-134) .107. coniugium: cf. 66. 28 n. absorbens, etc.: cf. Verg. Aen. III. 421 [Charybdis) imo barathri ter gurgite uastos sorbet in abrupt um fluctus.108. barathrum: this name was sometimes applied by the Greeks to an artificial, in many cases sub terranean, channel for the of a lake or overflowing river;cf. the emissarium of the Alban Lake.64. 3. 50188 CATULLUS. [68b. 109IIO 70Quale ferunt Grai Pheneum prope CylleneumSiccare emulsa pingue palude solum ,Quod quondam caesis montis fodisse medullisAudit falsiparens Amphitryoniades,Tempore quo certa Stymphalia monstra sagittaPerculit imperio deterioris eri,115 Pluribus ut caeli tereretur ianua diuis,Hebe nec longa uirginitate foret.Sed tuus altus amor barathro fuit altior illo,Qui tunc indomitam ferre iugum docuit.Nam nec tam carum confecto aetate parenti75amor ..109. Pheneum: Pheneus was acity in northwestern Arcadia , near Mt. Cyllene. Pausanias (VIII. 14 )mentions the ascription to Heracles of an existing outlet for the swollen waters of the neighboring river Olbios.III . montis medullis: cf. themore common figure in Verg. Aen.III. 575 uiscera montis.112. audit = dicitur; perhaps only here in this sense with an infinitive; but cf. Grk. ÅKotely,and Latin cluere (eg. Lucr. IV. 46 imago cuiuscumque cluet de corpore fusa uagari).- falsiparens: drag Leyouevov, possibly suggested by Call. Hymn. Cer. 99 yeudotrátwp ( though in a different sense from that ) . Heracles . was the reputed son of Amphitruo, but really the son of Zeus.113. Stymphalia: the place lay just to the east of Pheneus, and the destruction of the ravenous birds congregating there was the fifth ofthe labors imposed upon Heracles by Eurystheus, the deterioris eri ( v. 116) . — certa sagitta: cf. Hor.Carm . I. 12. 23 metuende certa Phoebe sagitta .114. deterioris eri: cf. thewords of.Heracles himself in Hom .Od. XI. 621 μάλα γαρ πολύ χείρονι φωτί δεδμήμην , ο δέ μοι χαλεπούς επετέλλετ’ άεθλους.115 f. The mighty deeds of Heracles were proving his fitness for a place among the gods and for the hand of Hebe.116. Hebe: called Iuuentas by the earlier Romans; her marriagewith Heracles is mentioned as early as Homer ( Od. XI. 602).118. qui: sc. tunc:i.e. at the time of v. 107 f. -indo mitam: sc. prius; cf. Hor. Carm .III. 3. 14 tigres indocili iugum collo trahentes: with the compari son of the maiden to an untamedheifer cf. Hor. Carm . II. 5. Inondum subacta ferre iugum ualet ceruice: on the yoke of love,Hor. Carm . III. 9. 17 Venus diductos iugo cogit aeneo; I. formas atque animos sub iuga aenea saeuo mittere cum ioco; Stat.Silu. I. 2. 138 thalami quamuis iuga ferre secundi saepe neget maerens.119 ff. Cf. Hom. II. IX. 481 kal μ ' έφίλησ ' ώς εί τε πατήρ ον παιδα φιλήση μούνον τηλύγετον. -con fecto aetate parenti: cf. Verg.Aen. IV. 599 confectum aetate pa.rentem .-680.130 ] CATULLUS. 189120 80Vna caput seri nata nepotis alit,Qui, cum diuitiis uix tandem inuentus auitisNomen testatas intulit in tabulas,Impia derisi gentilis gaudia tollensSuscitat a cano uulturium capiti:125 Nec tantum niueo gauisa est ulla columboCompar, quae multo dicitur improbius Oscula mordenti semper decerpere rostro Quam quae praecipue multiuola est mulier:Sed tu horum magnos uicisti sola furores,130 Vt semel es flauo conciliata uiro.8590lished in the Twelve Tables being sui heredes, agnati, gentiles.124. uulturium; i.e. the pre sumptive heir, awaiting the oldman's death as a vulture circles above his expected prey; cf. Sen. Epist 95.43 athoc hereditatis causafacit: uultur est, cadauer exspectat;Mart. VI. 62. 1 and 4 amisit paterunicum Salanus ... cuius uulturis hoc erit cadauer? and ( probably inthe same sense ) the reference to the coruus in Hor. Sat. II. 5. 56.- capiti: a very rare form of the ablative; see Neue Formenlehre I?p. 238.120. caput: cf. 15. 16 n.121 ff. The birth of an beir finally sets at naught the joy of the next of-kin at the prospect of his own succession to the old man's wealth .By the Voconian Law ( B.C. 169)no woman, not even an only daugh ter, could be the heir; cf. Gaius II.274; Aug. Ciu. Dei III. 21. 5 lata est etian illa lex Voconia , ne quis heredem feminam faceret, nec uni cam filiam .121. qui: sc. nepos. —inuentus:sc . heres.122. testatas tabulas: ¿ .e. the will, as duly signed and sealed in the presence of witnesses. After the completion of this legal form in favor of the grandson, the old man for the first time feels safefrom the greedy expectations of the gentilis.123. impia: because his joy was over the childlessness (save for adaughter) ora relative. -derisi: as the centilis has rejoiced over the disappointed hopes of the old man,so his own disappointment now be comes the object ofmockery; for asimilar example see Hor. Sat. II . 5 . 55. gentilis: the next - of-kin was not even one of the nearest relatives, the order of legal heirs estab-125 ff. Doves were patterns of conjugal affection and fidelity; cf. Prop. III. 15. 27, 28 extemplo iunc tae tibi sint in amore columbae,masculus et totum femina coniu gium; Plin. N. H. X. 104 columbae coniugi fidem non uiolant commu nemque seruant domum; Porph.Hor. Epod . 16. 32 dicitur columba nulli alii concumbere quamcui se semel iunxit.126. improbius, more wantonly.128. multiuola: from the com parison to the dove, apparently with the meaning of multa oscula uolens,rather than of multos amatoresuolens like v. 140 omnivoli. Theon190 CATULLUS. ( 686. 13195Aut nihil aut paulo cui tum concedere dignaLux mea se nostrum contulit in gremium ,Quam circumcursans hinc illinc saepe Cupido Fulgebat crocina candidus in tunica.135 Quae tamenetsi uno non est contenta Catullo,Rara uerecundae furta feremus erae,Ne nimium simus stultorum more molesti:Saepe etiam Iuno, maxima caelicolum,Coniugis in culpa flagrantem concoquit iram140 Noscens omniuoli plurima furta Iouis.Atqui nec diuis homines componier aequum est100Ingratum tremuli tolle parentis onus..word occurs elsewhere only in the Vulgate ( Sir. 9. 3) .131. aut nihil, etc.: the theme now turns back to Lesbia, whom it left with v. 72.132. lux mea: cf. the same pet name in v. 160; Tib . IV. 3. 15;( Sulp . ) IV. 12. 1; Ov. Am. I. 8. 23.133. The lover ascribes to Lesbia the attributes of Venus; cf. Hor.Carm . I. 2. 33 Erycina ridens,quam locus circum uolat et Cupido.- hinc illinc: cf. 3. 9 n.134. crocina in tunica: on theless common representation of adraped Eros see Sappho Frag. 64 [ " Έρωτα] ελθόντ' εξ οράνω πορφυ ρίαν περθέμενον χλαμυν; and illustrations in Baumeister Denkmäler I. p.498. The saffron color is chosen perhaps because it was the color of Hymen's garb also; cf. 61. 8and io.135 ff. Catullus has apparently been informed ( perhaps by Manlius;68. 27 ) of the other infidelities of Lesbia, but now at first is trying to compromise with his love for herby pleading that they are but few (rara) , and do not indicate asettled defection from his love,since they are . so carefully con cealed (uerecundae erae); that even Queen Juno puts up with the multitudinous wanderings of her husband, and that after all Lesbia is not his wife, and, therefore, he ought rather to be grateful for the favors he does receive than to be overjealous of others.136. furta: the word occurs first here in the erotic sense, but is foundoften in this sense in Vergil and the elegiasts; cf. however v. 145 fur tiua munuscula; 7. 8 furtiuosamores . --erae: cf. v. 68 domi.nae; v. 156 domina.140. omniuoli: i.c. omnes puel las uolens; drag leybuevov. — plu rima furta: see the list in Hom II. XIV. 317 ff.14!. componier: cf. 61. 42 n .citarier. The very evident loss of at least two vv . between vv . 141 and 142 makes the point of v . 141 unintelligible.

-686. 156 ]CATULLUS.191Nec tamen illa mihi dextra deducta paternaFragrantem Assyrio uenit odore domum,145 Sed furtiua dedit mira munuscula nocte Ipsius ex ipso dempta uiri gremio.Quare illud satis est, si nobis is datur unisQuem lapide illa diem candidiore notat.105IIOHoc tibi quod potui confectum carmine munus150 Pro multis, Alli, redditur officiis,Ne uestrum scabra tangat robigine nomenHaec atque illa dies atque alia atque alia .Huc addent diui quam plurima, quae Themis olimAntiquis solita est munera ferre piis:155 Sitis felices et tu simul et tua uita 115 Et domus, in qua nos lusimus et domina,143. tamen, after all. —dextra deducta paterna: not literally that the father conducted the bride in the marriage procession to the bride groom's house, but figuratively only,in that marriages were arranged with the consent of the head of the family; cf. 62. 60.144. Assyrio odore: cf. 6. 8 n. 148. lapide candidiore: cf. 64.222 n.; 107. 6; Hor. Carm . I. 36.10 Cressa ne careat pulchra dies nota, which Porphyrio explains by saying that the Cretans were accus tomed to drop a white pebble into their quivers as a memorial of aday of happiness, and a black pebble to mark a day of sorrow .Bentley on the same passage gives further citations.149–160. The panegyric concludes with a direct address to Allius, which some critics have taken as a dis tinct poem, or as a strongly marked division of c . 68 as a threefold,though single, poem .151. ucstrum: as the name belonged , not to Allius alone, but to his family; cf. 64. 160 uestras sedes.152. haec atque illa dies: ap parently a unique expression for * to -day and to -morrow ' ( i.e. the course of time) . Cf. with the en tire verse v. 82. - alia atque alia:cf. Plin . Ep. I. 3. 4 reliqua rerum tuarum post te alium atque alium dominum sortientur .153. huc: i.e. to this small trib ute of mine. -Themis: the god dess of justice, often identified with Astraea, on whom see 66. 65 n.uirginis.155. sitis felices: so also with reference to a love affair in 100. 8sis felix . — uita: see 45. 13 n. ,and cf. 104. I; 109. I. 156. lusimus: cf. 17. 17 ludere.domina: i.e. Lesbia; together with nos the word is the subject of lusimus; not together with tu ,etc. , of sitis, since the wish forLesbia's prosperity is expressed in V. 159 f.192 CATULLUS [ 686. 157Et qui principio nobis † terram dedit aufert,A quo sunt primo omnia nata bona,Et longe ante omnes mihi quae me carior ipso est,160 Lux mea, qua uiua uiuere dulce mihi est. 1.2069.Noli admirari quare tibi femina nulla,Rufe, uelit tenerum supposuisse femur,Non si illam rarae labefactes munere uestisAut perluciduli deliciis lapidis.5s Laedit te quaedam mala fabula, qua tibi fertur Valle sub alarum trux habitare caper.Hunc metuunt omnes. Neque mirum: nam malaualde estBestia, nec quicum bella puella cubet.157. The verse apparently refers to some person whose assistance antedated that of Allius, perhapsin that he introduced Catullus toLesbia or to Allius.158. primo: on the hiatus fol lowing see Intr. 86 d . -omniabona: the love of Lesbia was all in all to Catullus; cf. 77. 4.159. longe ante omnes: sc. sit felix . -me carior ipso: cf. Culex 211 tua duni mihi carior ipsa uita fuit uita; Ov. Ex. Pont. II. 8. 27 per patriae nomen, quae te tibi carior ipso est; and for similar comparisons in Catullus, 3. 5 n.160, lux mea: i.e. Lesbia; cf. V. 132 n. - qua uiua, etc.: cf.Hor. Epod . 1. 5 nos quibus te si superstite iucunda, si contra ,grauis.69. A bit of personal satire di rected probably against M. Caelius Rufus; see Intr. 59. Caelius isgenerally known as an exquisite and a lady-killer - a reputationprobably better deserved than that indicated in this satire.3. non si: following a preceding negation ( nulla ), as in 48. 5; 70 .2; 88. 8. -- rarae uestis: i.e. thedelicate and translucent Coan robes; cf. Ov. Am. I. 5. 13 deripuitunicam: nec multum rara noce bat; Hor. Sat. 1. 2. 1ΟΙ Coistibi paene uidere est ut nudam .labefactes, corrupt; cf. Cic. Clu .194 fidem pretio labefactare conata sit.4. perluciduli: drag ley MeVOD as diminutive; but cf. Sen. Epist.90. 45 non aurum nec argentum nec perlucidos lapides. - deliciis:cf. 2. I n.; Hor. Carm. IV. 8. 10 animus deliciarum egens.6. caper: a common figure for this particular odor; cf. 37. 5; 71 .I; Hor. Ep. I. 5. 29 nimis arta premunt olidae conuiuia caprae.7. neque mirum: cf. 23. 7 n .8. quicum: feminine, as in 66 .77, but rare in this gender.--71.2] CATULLUS. 193Quare aut crudelem nasorum interfice pestem ,IO Aut admirari desine cur fugiunt.70 .Nulli se dicit mulier mea nubere malleQuam mihi, non si se Iuppiter ipse petat.Dicit: sed mulier cupido quod dicit amanti In uento et rapida scribere oportet aqua. se . ta71.Si cui iure bono sacer alarum obstitit hircus,Aut si quem merito tarda podagra secat,

4.83.9. interfice: carrying on the Dei XIX. 23 magis poteris in aqua figure in bestia . impressis litteris scribere .. quam 10. fugiunt: on the indicative pollutae reuoces impiae uxoris sen instead of subjunctive in indirect sum; also 30. 10 n ., and the epi questions in archaic and colloquial taph of Keats, Here lies one whose Latin see Draeger Hist. Synt. II. name was writ in water.$ 463. I e. 71. A puzzling bit of coarseness 70. A jesting epigram addressed addressed, perhaps in a satirical to Lesbia, and written while the tone ( cf. v. 4 n. a te ), to an un amour with her was ' as yet undis- named and unknown man ( cf. in turbed. The precise date cannot this respect cc . 786 and 104). Per be more accurately determined. haps, however, the aemulus (v. 3)It is unnecessary to suppose that is Caelius Rufus ( cf. c. 69 ).Metellus was actually dead and 1. iure bono, justly; apparently Lesbia considering new marriage with the meaning of the familiar as a practical problem . iure optimo, though not found else 1. mulier mea: cf. Hor. Epod. where. The conjunction of iure12. 23 magis quem diligeret mulier with merito, as here (v. 2) , was sua quam te ( of lovers); and mea common; cf. Plaut. Most. 713 te puella of Lesbia in 2. I and often . ipse iure optumomerito incuses 2. non si: see 69. 3 n. --Iup- licet; Cic. Cat. III. 6. 14 merito piter ipse petat: cf. 72. 2; Plaut. ac iure laudantur; Juv. 2. 34 iure Cas. 302 negaui enim ipsi me ac merito uitia ultimafictos contem [ Casinam uxorem ] concessurum nunt Scauros. sacer, cursed;loui; Ov. Met. VII. 801 nec louis cf. 14. 12. —alarum hircus: cf. illa meo thalamos praeferret amori. 69. 6 n. -obstitit: i.e. hindered 3 f. Cf. Soph. Frag. 741 n. him from being an attractive lover,όρκους εγώ γυναικός εις ύδωρ γράφω; while the gout hindered him from Plat. Phaedr. 276 oủk ápa orovdô being a happy one.αυτά εν ύδατι γράψει, and frequent 2. tarda podagra, the limping examples in the Greek; Aug. Ciu. gout, the adjective being used in-194 CATULLUS. [71.3Aemulus iste tuus, qui uestrum exercet amorem ,Mirifice est a te nactus utrumque malum.5 Nam quotiens futuit totiens ulciscitur ambos:Illam adfligit odore, ipse perit podagra.72.Dicebas quondam solum te nosse Catullum ,Lesbia, nec prae me uelle tenere Iouem.Dilexi tum te non tantum ut uulgus amicam,Sed pater ut gnatos diligit et generos.impensē 5 Nunc te cognoui: quare etsi impensius uror,' at great cost?corthe factitive sense; cf. Hor. Sat. I. 9. 32 tardo podagra. -secat, tor ments; cf. Mart. IX . 92. 9 tortor em metuis? podagra cheragraque seca .tur Gaius.3. qui uestrum exercet amo rem: if it be true that there are nocases so early as this period of uester for tuus, the meaning must be some what as follows: " your rival has usurped your place entirely, and now himself enjoys all that love shared mutually by you and your mistress ( uestrum ) before she was rupted . But the passage is at best unsatisfactory. With exercet amorem cf. 61. 235 exercete iuuen tam; 68. 66 exerceremus amores.4. a te nactus: i.e. in succeeding to your place in the affections of your mistress he has also succeeded to your diseases, and thereby brings upon himself and her the punish ment due to false friend and faith less mistress. In the character ofthe consolation administered thereseems to be a back -handed slap for the person addressed , in implying that he was himself thus afflicted with diseases arising from habits of dissipation.6. podágra: but v. 2 podagra;with the variation in quantity of thesyllable containing a short vowel before a mute and a liquid cf. Lucr.IV. 1222 quae pătribus patres tra duntab stirpeprofecta; Verg. Aen.II. 663 gnatum ante ora pătris,patrem quiobtruncat ad aras; Hor.Corm . I. 32. 11 , 12 et Lycum nigris oculis nigroque | crine decorum;Ov. Met. XIII. 607 et primo similis uolucri, mox uera uolucris.72. An address to Lesbia writ ten after the poet had become con vinced of her unworthiness, andshowing more, perhaps, than any other one poem the pure sentiment of hispassion for her (in v. 3 and 4) . With the theme cf. cc . 75 and 85 .I f. A reminiscence of 70. i f. —nosse: sensu uenerio.2. tenere: sc.complexu; cf. 64.28.3. dilexi: doubtless chosen here to indicate pure sentiment as dis tinguished from physical passion ,though diligere sometimes has thesame mea as amare, as in 6. 5;81. 2.4. generos: i.e. generum et nu rum , as gnatos is equivalent to filium filiamque, and 63. 59 geni.toribus to patre et matre.5. impensius uror: in spite of his better knowledge of her char.-73.6 ] CATULLUS. 195Multo mi tamen es uilior et leuior.Qui potis est? inquis. Quod amantem iniuria talis Cogit amare magis, sed bene uelle minus.73 .Desine de quoquam quicquam bene uelle mereriAut aliquem fieri posse putare pium.Omnia sunt ingrata, nihil fecisse benigne:Immo etiam taedet, taedet obestque magis:5 Vt mihi, quem nemo grauius nec acerbius urget Quam modo qui me unum atque unicum amicumhabuit.acter, his passion continues to grow ,and overmasters his judgment. But the fact that he recognizes this shows at least a possibility of recov ery . Cf. c. 85; Ter. Eun . 70 ff.nunc ego et illam scelestam esse etme miserum sentio et taedet; et amore ardeo.7. potis est: sc. fieri, as in 42.16; 76. 16, 24. potis stands here before a vowel for pote, as in 76. 24.8. bene uelle, to respect; cf.75. 3.73. A disheartened complaintconcerning the ingratitude and faithlessness of some friend, perhaps of Caelius Rufus, whose rivalry with Catullus in the affections of Lesbia is referred to in c. 77. Cf. also Intr. 21 .1. quicquam modifies bene me.reri, while uelle depends upondesine.2. aliquem: instead of quem quam , as if repeated from the formof direct discourse aliquis fieripius possit. —fieri = esse; cf. 8o. 2 fiant.–pium, grateful; cf. Ov. Trist.V. 4. 43 pro quibus adfirmatfore se memoremquepiumque; Cic. Fam .I. 9. I cum illud ipsum grauissi mum et sanctissimum nomen pieta tis leuius mihi meritis erga me tuisesse uideatur.3. omnia sunt ingrata: cf. Plaut. Asin. 136 f. ingrata atque irrita esse omnia intellego quaededi et quod bene feci . With in grata in this sensecf. 64. 103 n.nihil (sc. est ), ' tis of no avail to have done deeds of kindness; cf. Ter. And. 314 id aliquid nil est;Cic. Fam . VII. 33. I nos enim plane nihil sumus.5. ut mihi: sc. obest.6. unum atque unicum: cf. Gell. XVIII. 4. 2 se unum et uni.cum lectorem esse; Apul. Met. IV.31 idque unum et pro omnibus uni.The succession of elisons in this verse is noteworthy; cf. Intr. 86a:cum .196 CATULLUS. ( 74.174 .Gellius audierat patruum obiurgare solere,Si quis delicias diceret aut faceret.Hoc ne ipsi accideret, patrui perdepsuit ipsamVxorem et patruum reddidit Harpocratem .5 Quod uoluit fecit: nam , quamuis irrumet ipsum Nunc patruum , uerbum non faciet patruus.75 .Huc est mens deducta tua, mea Lesbia, culpa,Atque ita se officio perdidit ipsa suo ,74. The first in arrangement, digito significat ut taceam . The though apparently not in time of phrase is parodied in Anth. Lat.composition, of seven virulent in- 159. 6 Riese, 346. 6 Baehrens.vectives directed against a rival ( cf. 75. Another address to Lesbia,c . 91 ) named Gellius . The other six resembling in tone, and agreeing in poems are cc . 80, 88, 89, 90 , 91 , 116. time with cc. 72 and 85. There is See Intr. 72. no good reason for believing, with 1. patruum: proverbially among Scaliger and some later critics, that the Romans the stern and rigorous these verses are the conclusion of relative; cf. Cic. Cael. 11. 25 fuit C. 87, from which they were hac causa pertristis quidam dently severed in the life of the patruus, censor, magister , Hor. archetype. The poem is complete Carm . III. 12. 3 metuentes patruae and satisfactory in itself, while auerbera linguae; Sat. II. 3.87 siue union with c . 87 would necessitate ego praue seu recte hoc uolui, ne sis the substitution of nunc for nuc patruus mihi. (with Scaliger and one interpolated 2. delicias: cf. 45. 24; 68. 26; MS. ) and of diducta for deducta ' with 2. I n. deliciae. Lachmann ), contrary to the MSS.3. perdepsuit: draf Xeybuevov. I. mea Lesbia: the use even 4. patruum reddidit Harpocra- here of the earlier affectionate ad .tem: i.e. made him the very pic- dress is in accord with the declara ture of silence; for the Egyptian tion that love for her still dominates deity Horus, the rising sun, is called him; cf. 87. 2. in the Osiris myths Harpocrates 2. se perdidit: i.e. by devotion (i.e. the child Har) , and is often to her ( suo officio ) through good represented with the left forefinger and ill his reason has so far suffered laid upon the lips, as if to enjoin that he is no longer in a normal silence; cf. the cut in Rawlinson's mental condition , and cannot be Anc. Egypt, vol. I., chap. 10; also consistent, and cease to love when Varr. L. L. V. 57 etsi Harpocrates he has ceased to respect.-76. 10 ) CATULLUS. 197Vt iam nec bene uelle queat tibi, si optuma fias,Nec desistere amare, omnia si facias.tonsteinhemorable76 .Si qua recordanti benefacta priora uoluptasEst homini, cum se cogitat esse pium ,Nec sanctam uiolasse fidem , nec foedere in ulloDiuum ad fallendos numine abusum homines,5 Multa parata manent in longa aetate, Catulle,Ex hoc ingrato gaudia amore tibi.Nam quaecumque homines bene cuiquam aut dicere AudituenpossuntAut facere, haec a te dictaque factaque sunt:Omnia quae ingratae perierunt credita menti.Quare cur tu te iam amplius excrucies?neshowsin anweredor headIOof old age .3 f. Cf. 72. 7, 8. — si optuma manere with the dative cf. 8. 15 n.fias: all confidence in her has been tibi manet. In his despair Catullus irrevocably lost, so that no change speaks as ifthe chapter of his active in her character could make him life were closed, and nothing were believe her true. left him but the reminiscent period 4. omnia: for quidlubet; cf. Hor. Carm . I. 3. 25 audax omnia 6. ingrato: in the passive sense;perpeti.i.e. his love and faithfulness had 76. A prayer to be cured of love won no return; cf. 64. 103 n. in.for the unworthy Lesbia. On its grata munuscula; but in the active chronological position in the cycle sense in v. 9.of Lesbia poems see Intr. 41. 7. cuiquam: one of the less fre 1. priora: as man with increas quent cases where quisquam occurs ing age (v. 5 in longa aetate ) is when no negative is either used or more inclined to review the course implied; but perhaps here the preof his past life. ceding quaecumque suggesting an 2. pium: explained by v. 3 f. idea of contingency ( = si qua) is sanctam uiolasse sufficient to prompt the use of cui.fidem: of fidelity in all relations quam.with one's fellow -men . nec foe 9. ingratae menti: cf. 65.dere ... homines: of practical 16 f .; the adjective is here active,reverence for the gods, toward and not passive as in v. 6. whom, as witnesses to an oath, 10. tu: the conjecture of Schoell obligation exists. in adding this word is more satis.5. parata manent tibi: i.e. are factory than the awkward transposi from now on yours to enjoy; on tion to iam te cur. The omission3 f. nec198 CATULLUS. ( 76.11of 8.18 obstinata mente20IR . Toujosdoslayishnessbelang in hopelessness - the ansure to whichto do some thing,cowritein forum deforessionGistingQuin tu animo offirmas atque istinc teque reducis Et dis inuitis desinis esse miser?Difficile est longum subito deponere amorem;Difficile est, uerum hoc qua libet efficias.15 Vna salus haec est, hoc est tibi peruincendum;Hoc facias, siue id non pote siue pote.O di, si uestrum est misereri, aut si quibus unquamExtremam iam ipsa in morte tulistis opem,Me miserum adspicite et, si uitam puriter egi,Eripite hanc pestem perniciemque mihi!Hei mihi subrepens imos ut torpor in artus cometnost 51,96 Expulit ex omni pectore laetitias.Non iam illud quaero, contra ut me diligat illa, trebiterof tu by the copyist was of course nection with Lesbia had extendeddue to te standing next. over four or five years.11. animo offirmas: a phrase 14. qua libet, no matter how;apparently not occurring elsewhere, cf. 40. 6.though approximated by, e.g., Plaut. 16. pote: sc . est fieri; cf. 17.Merc. 82 animum offirmo meum; 24 n.; 42. 16 . Ter. Eun. 217 censen posse me 17. si: not as intimating a pos offirmare perpeti; Ov. Met. IX. sible doubt, but, as in the following 745 quin animumfirmas teque ipsa clause si unquam , suggesting nunc recolligis; Plin. Ep. VII. 27. 8 offir potissimum; cf. 96. 1; 102. 1. mare animum. — -que: correlative 18. extremam , etc.: cf. Verg. with v. 12 et; the recovered soul. Aen. II. 447; XI. 846 extrema iam courage is to be shown by aban- in morte.doning once for all his unworthy 19. puriter: explained by v. 3 f. passion, and, as a consequence, by On the form see 39. 14 n. regaining his peace ofmind. With 20. pestem pernicicmque: i.e. -que appended to the second word the deadly disease of v. 25 (cf. 75.of its clause cf. 57. 2. -te reducis: 2) . The union of the two allit.expressions of the same meaning erated words is common; cf. Cic.are 8. 9 tu quoque noli; 30. 9 re- Cat. I. 13. 33 cum tua peste actrahis te . pernicie. 12. dis inuitis: i.e. it is his own 21. hei: with MS. seu for hei cf. choice and not the will of the gods 77. 4 si for hei. — subrepens ut that keeps him in his present state torpor, like a creeping palsy. -* of wretchedness; cf. the appeal in imos artus: cf. 64.93 imis medul.vv . 17 ff. - desinis esse miser: lis; 35. 15 interiorem medullam . cf. 8. I desinas ineptire; 8. 10 nec 23. contra diligat, love in re.miser uiue.turn; cf. Plaut. Mil. 101 is amabat 13. longum amorem: the con- meretricem , et illa illum contrano! ut is exclamaton if it is like what is the saubjectlouthsoma not relate to tardet eboteof? trisus , te trious sia -78.4 199 ) CATULLUS.Aut, quod non potis est, esse pudica uelit:25 Ipse ualere opto et taetrum hunc deponere morbum .O di, reddite mi hoc pro pietate mea.77.Rufe mihi frustra ac nequiquam credite amice(Frustra? immo magno cum pretio atque malo ),Sicine subrepsti mi atque intestina perurensHei misero eripuisti omnia nostra bona?s Eripuisti, eheu nostrae crudele uenenum Vitae, eheu nostrae pestis amicitiae.78.Gallus habet fratres, quorum est lepidissima coniunx Alterius, lepidus filius alterius.Gallus homo est bellus: nam dulces iungit amores,Cum puero ut bello bella puella cubet.24. potis: before a vowel for in the preceding verse like that in pote , as in 72. 7. 91. 1 , 2; 116. 5 , 6. 77. Like c. 73, addressed probably 6. nostrae: i.e. the mutual friend . to M. Caelius Rufus. Cf. Intr. 59. ship of Catullus and Rufus. With 1. frustra: often of a finally the change from the singular meanunproductive investment; nequi- ing in the preceding verse cf. 68.quam, of one hopeless from the 94 , 95 .very beginning.- credite , believed; 78. A finely -pointed epigram di cf. Verg. Aen . II. 247 [ Cassandra ] rected against a man otherwisenon unquam credita Teucris. unknown.2. With the rhetorical figure 1. lepidissima: like v. 2 lepi ( epanorthosis) in frustra ... frus- dus, of physical rather than of men tra? immo, etc., cf. Cic. Cat. I. 1 . tal characteristics; cf. 1. I lepidum2 hic tamen uiuit. uiuit? immo, libellum; Ter. Heaut. 1060 tibi dabo etc. —magno cum pretio: cf. 40. illam lepidam quam tu facile ames.8 cum longa poena. 3. bellus: here of the charming 4. hei misero: cf. 68. 92, 93. politeness of a man of society train omnia nostra bona: i.e. Les- ing and discrimination; cf. 22. 9 n .bia's love; cf. 68. 158 omnia bona; 4. bello bella: synonymous with nostra is for mea, with a change lepidissima . lepidus above, as from the singular personal pronoun the similar conjunction shows.200 CATULLUS. [ 78.51s Gallus homo est stultus nec se uidet esse maritum ,Qui patruus patrui monstret adulterium .786.Sed nunc id doleo quod purae pura puellaeSauia comminxit spurca saliua tua.5 Verum id non impune feres: nam te omnia saecla Noscent et qui sis fama loquetur anus.puella: of a youthful matron; cf. the frequent application of the same word to Lesbia .5. Gallus...stultus: an abrupt correction of the commendation in v . 3; instead of having a fine sense of the fitness of things, Gallus has no sense at all.6. qui, etc.: i.e. in helping his nephew to dishonor another unclehe prompts him to practice upon his teacher. The clause modifiesse and not maritum .786. It is evident that theseverses lack an introduction, but quite as clear that ( as Statius decided)they cannot be the ending of c . 78,which is admirably complete in itself. Scaliger would add theni to c . 77; but ( 1 ) the tone of that re proachful hexastich is entirely dif ferent from the coarse bitterness of these verses; ( 2) Catullus would hardly think of Lesbia as an in nocent girl, as in w. 1, 2; ( 3)vv . 5, 6 seem to indicate that the person addressed is not named in the poem ( cf. cc. 71 and 104 ),while in c . 77 and the group to which it beiongs Rufus is expressly named No: does either c. 80 , asBergk thought, or c . 91 , aswas the opinion of Corradius de Allio, need any completion at all, still less such acompletion as these verses would afford. It seems best to regardthem as a fragment of an indepen.dent poem, from the beginning of which certain verses are lost. These,which need not be more than two,apparently contained a conditionalsentence embodying some sentiment like “ if you were a man of cleanly life, I would not object to your amour ' ( cf. 21. 9, 10 si faceressatur, tacerem: nunc ipsum id doleo, quod , etc. ) .3. puellae: apparently not Les bia (see note above).4. sauia: here, as sometimes oscula , of the lips; cf. Plaut. Mil.94 maiorem partem uideas ualgis sauiis; Gell. XIX. II . 4 dum semihiulco sauio puellum sauior. comminxit, etc .: cf.99. 10 .5. id non impune feres: of stealing and carrying off something without challenge; cf. 99. 3; 1416.6. fama loquetur anus: cf. 68 .46 n. charta loquatur

-80 . 2 ]CATULLUS.20179.Lesbius est pulcher: quid ni? quem Lesbia malitQuam te cum tota gente, Catulle, tua.Sed tamen hic pulcher uendat cum gente Catullum ,Si tria notorum sauia reppererit.80 .Quid dicam , Gelli, quare rosea ista labellaHiberna fiant candidiora niue,79. Against his rival Lesbius; worth, like our " he can buy and written after the final rupture with sell me. ' The phrase comes from Lesbia . the sale of the goods of an insolvent 1. Lesbius: surely P. Clodius debtor. — Catullum: for bona Ca.Pulcher, the brother of Clodia tulli; cf. Juv. 3. 33 praebere caput • Quadrantaria, ' if Lesbia is this domina uenale sub hasta .Clodia ( cf. Intr. 28) . The allusion 4. si tria, etc.: i.e. if peradven in vv . I, 2 must, therefore, be to ture he can find even so few asthat incestuous connection of which three acquaintances who will acceptCicero speaks (eg. Pis. 28; Sest. the common friendly greeting from 16; Har. Resp. 42, 59 ) .- pul- his lips. The allusion is doubtless to cher: Cicero plays on this well- the defilement of his lips by un known cognomen of P. Clodius natural lust; cf. Cicero ll. cc. — tria:in Att. I. 16. 10 surgit pulchellus of an indefinitely small number; cf. puer; and similarly in II. 1.4 and Plaut. Trin . 963 te tribus uerbis II. 22. 1. —quid ni, etc.: i.e. to be uolo, and often . notorum , acsure, since Lesbia's preference is quaintances; cf. Caes. B. C. I. 74.5proof sufficient of it. The play is on hi suos notos hospitesque quaerebant;pulcher as a true descriptive adjec- Hor. Sat. I. 1. 85 uicini oderunt,tive, and as also the cognomen of noti, pueri atque puellae. Others,Lesbia's brother; the intimation be- reading with G , natorum , under ing that the very fact that he is her stand the reference to be to the ius brother gives him added attraction trium liberorum of so much imin her eyes as a paramour; cf. the portance later ( the implication be ascription of a similar taste for enor- ing that Clodius wasimpotent ). But mities to Gellius in 91. 5, 6. there is no indication that at this 2. quam te: since he is pulcher time the lack of three children was( i.e. a beauty ), and you are not. a political disadvantage, and Clodius cum tota gente tua: since he is had a son and a daughter ( Drumann Pulcher ( i.e. an eminent Claudian ), Gesch. Roms II. p. 385 f .), both and you are a nobody. young at the time of his death.3. tamen hic pulcher: i.e. in 80. See introductory note to c. 74. spite of his being beautiful and of 1. rosea: Gellius is apparently high birth. uendat: apparently youthful; cf. 45.! 2 n. purpureo ore.a colloquial expression of superior 2. fiant: for sint; cf. 73. 2 fieri.-202 CATULLUS. ( 80.34Mane domo cum exis et cum te octaua quieteE molli longo suscitat hora die?s Nescio quid certe est: an uere fama susurratGrandia te medii tenta uorare uiri?Sic certe est: clamant Victoris rupta miselliIlia, et emulso labra notata sero .81 .Nemone in tanto potuit populo esse, Iuuenti,Bellus homo quem tu diligere inciperesPraeterquam iste tuus moribunda ab sede PisauriHospes inaurata pallidior statua?score.- candidiora niue: cf. Hom. Il. picion and warning on the same Χ. 437 [ίπποι ) λευκότεροι χιόνος;Bruner finds this idea con.Verg. Aen. XII. 84 [ equi] qui can- firmed by a possible play upon thedore niues anteirent; Ov. Pont. II . name of Aurelius in v . 4 inaurata .5. 37 [ pectora ] lacte et non calcata 2. bellus homo: such a lover candidiora niue. Juventius also found in Furius;3. quiete: i.e. the midday siesta; cf. 24. 7 32. 3; 61. 118 . 3. Pisauri: Pisaurum (now4. longo die, well along in the Pesaro ) was an Umbrian town on day; contrasted with v . 3 mane. the Adriatic plantedas aRoman 7. sic certe est: cf. 62. 8 n. — colony B.C. 184 ( cf. Liv . XXXIX.clamant: cf. 6. 7 n. - Victoris: 44 ). Plutarch ( Ant. 60 ) reports that otherwise unknown. -rupta ilia: the town was swallowed up by an cf. 11. 20. earthquake just before the battle of 81. A poem of the Juventian cy- Actium . The previous settlement cle ( cf. introductory note to c. 15 ), there of a number of military colo and, like c. 24, a remonstrance ad- nists by Antony ( Plut. 1.c.) may dressed to Juventius for his intimacy, have been an attempt to check the this time with a certain Pisaurian decay (moribunda sede) noted who was his host. This last circum- by Catullus.stance would seem to point to Aure- 4. inaurata statua: gilded stat.lius (c. 15 ) , and the supposition is ues were common in Rome at afurther strengthened by the facts later date, the second supplementthat Aurelius and Furius were inti- to the Notitia (written in the first mately associated in the mind of half of the fourth century A.D.)Catullus; that he broke friendship mentioning eighty of gods alone. with both; that the cause of the This number is understood to bebreak with at least Furius was his exclusive of statues in temples and intimacy with Juventius; that Aure- other shrines. With the comparison lius was at least an object of sus- cf. 64. 100 n.83. 4 ]CATULLUS.203s Qui tibi nunc cordi est, quem tu praeponere nobisAudes et nescis quod facinus facias.82. "Quinti, si tibi uis oculos debere CatullumAut aliud si quid carius est oculis,Eripere ei noli multo quod carius illiEst oculis seu quid carius est oculis.83.Lesbia mi praesente uiro mala plurima dicit:Haec illi fatuo maxima laetitia est.Mule, nihil sentis. Si nostri oblita taceret,Sana esset: nunc quod gannit et obloquitur,5. cordi est: cf. 44: 3 n . probably to be placed among the 6. nescis, etc.: perhaps the idea earliest of the poems concerning is that Nemesis will avenge the Lesbia (see Intr. 16) . With the slighted love of Catullus ( cf. 50. theme cf. c.92; Prop. IV. 8 passim;20n. ) , or simply that Catullus by Ov. Rem . Am . 647 f.great and continued kind services 1. mi praesente uiro: it doeshas a strong claim upon the grati- not follow , however, that Catullus tude and affection of Juventius . But was himself present; but the epi the offense of slighting love was gram may have been sent to Lesbia often exaggerated by the poets. on hearing of the incident from With facinus facias cf. 110. 4 n. others, and may date from the82. An appeal to Quintius not to period when he was first paying rob the poet of Lesbia. ThisQuin. court to her. - mala dicit: cf. tius is probably the lover of Aufi- Plaut. Men . 717 omnia mala inge lena in c . 100 , and now , like his rebat, quemquem aspexerat; Tib .friend Caelius Rufus, has joined the I. 2. 11 mala siqua tibi dixit.ranks of Lesbia's lovers, and thus 2. fatuo: cf. 98. 2 n. fatuis.aroused the indignation of Catullus. 3. mule: not common as a syno 2. si quid est, etc.: cf. 13. 10 n. nym for a fellow of persistent dull -carius oculis: cf. 3. 5 n. ness; but cf. Juv. 16. 23 mulino 3. ei: here monosyllabic. corde Vagelli.4. seu: for uel si, as in 13. 10. 4. sana: i.e. free from the pas83. On the evidence of Lesbia's sion of love; cf. Verg. Aen. IV. 8love for him. Written at least be. [ Dido ] adloquitur male sana soro fore 59 B.C. (when Q. MetellusCeler, rem; Tib. IV. 6. 18 uritur nec sana the husband of Clodia, died ) and fuisse uelit. gannit: strictly of204 CATULLUS. [83. 55 Non solum meminit, sed, quae multo acrior est res,Irata est: hoc est, uritur et loquitur.5411957


Cies,4446SAA84.Chommoda dicebat, si quando commoda uellet Dicere, et insidias Arrius hinsidias,Et tum mirifice sperabat se esse locutum Cum quantum poterat dixerat hinsidias.5 Credo, sic mater , sic liber auunculus eius,Sic maternus auus dixerat atque auia.???2,15.3 ferwelige

  1. 2.14.2

the snarling of a dog; cf. Non. 450. dition with the imperfect indicativeIl gannire cum sit proprie canum; in the apodosis is a construction Ter. Ad. 556 quid ille gannit? quid rarely found in writers of the repub uolt? Juv. 6.64 Appula gannit. lican period, though it is not infre.5. acrior, more to the point. quent in Livy andlater writers.6. uritur: of the passion of love; 3. sperabat, used to flatter him .cf. Hor. Carm . I. 13. 88 quam lentis self.penitus macerer ignibus; uror, 4. quantum poterat: i.e. with etc.; 2. 8 n. ardor. —et, and there- so great an effort after distinctness fore; introducing a result of the and precision that he fairly shouted preceding fact; cf. Plaut. Asin. 447 the words out at the top of his et quiesco. 5 f. The point of these two par 84. A jest at the tendency to enthetical verses ( cf. the verse in piration in pronunciation of a troduced by credo in 2. 8 ) seems to certain Arrius, perhaps the Quintus be that this super- aspiration was Arrius mentioned by Cicero ( Brut. considered to be a characteristic of 242) as an orator of low birth low-born and uneducated people and poor parts, who by time- serving (Gell. XIII. 6. 3); and as the rela had won some success. He was tions cited are all on the mother's especially a follower of M. Crassus, side, it looks as though the ancesbut his career as an orator was try of Arrius in the female line had wrecked by the time-limit imposed already been the subject of jest upon pleas by the Pompeian law of among his acquaintances (cf. Cice - The tendency of the age ro's remark concerning him in toward excessive aspiration is no- Brut. 243 infimo loco natus). The ticed by Cicero in his Orat. 160, point of liber as an adjective and and was discussed by Caesar in his not a proper name is then clear,( lost ) De Analogia; see also Quint. if infimo loco be understood of the I. 5. 20, who cites this poem of condition of slavery: his maternal Catullus. The skit was perhaps uncle (perhaps only one of his written in 55 B.C. ( cf. v. 7 n .), uncles on that side) was a libertus,1. uellet: the subjunctive imper- and the social standing of the en.fect in the protasis of a general con- tire family is thus indicated.52 B.C. --86. 2 ]CATULLUS.205Hoc misso in Syriam requierant omnibus aures:Audibant eadem haec leniter et leuiter,Nec sibi postilla metuebant talia uerba,Cum subito adfertur nuntius horribilisIonios fluctus, postquam illuc Arrius isset,Iam non Ionios esse, sed Hionios.1085.Odi et amo. Quare id faciam fortasse requiris.Nescio, sed fieri sentio et excrucior.86 .Quintia formosa est multis, mihi candida, longa,Recta est. Haec ego sic singula confiteor,7. misso: sc . on some public 1. odi et amo: cf. Ov. Am. II. service; perhaps with his friend 4. 5 odi nec possum cupiens non esse Crassus, who assumed the governor quod odi. ship of Syria in 55 B.C. 2. nescio, etc.: cf. Mart. I. 32 8. audibant: with the form cf. Non amo te, Sabidi, nec possum diale 64. 319 n. custodibant. leniter cere quare: hoc tantum possum di et leuiter: i.e. though the people cere, non amo te; and its imitationleft behind misused aspirates, they by Tom Brown, I do not love thee,did not at any rate bellow out Dr. Fell, etc. so horribly their mispronuncia- 86. On the inferiority of Quintia tions. to Lesbia. Cf. also c. 43. Quintia is 9. postilla: a word of older evidently not the sister of the Quin Latin for the later postea, perhaps, tius of cc. 82 and 100; for this poem however, still used colloquially in dates from the time of the faith of the time of Catullus. Catullus in Lesbia, at which time 11. Ionios fluctus: that part of Quintius was his friend ( cf. c. 100 ).the Mediterranean Sea lying west With the sentiment cf. Petron . ap .and northwest of Greece, andhence Poet. Lat. Min . IV. 89 Baehrens the first sea encountered by Arrius non est forma satis, etc. on his journey. The report of its 1. candida, longa, recta: these fate was, then, but a foretaste of being characteristics of typical fe.what was to come to the Romans male beauty, as of that of the god.who had hoped for relief on the desses; cf. Ov. Am. II. 4. 33 tu ,departure of Arrius. quia tam longa es, ueteres heroidas 85. An epigram on his own feel. aequas; Hor. Sat. I. 2. 123 f. can .ing for Lesbia; written at about the dida rectaque sit, münda hactenus,same time with cc . 92 and 75. ut neque longa nec magis alba uelit,206 CATULLUS. [ 86. 3Totum illud ' formosa ' nego: nam nulla uenustas,Nulla in tam magno est corpore mica salis.s Lesbia formosa est, quae cum pulcherrima tota est,Tum omnibus una omnis subripuit Veneres.87.Nulla potest mulier tantum se dicere amatamVere, quantum a me Lesbia amata mea es:Nulla fides ullo fuit unquam in foedere tantaQuanta in amore tuo ex parte reperta mea est.88 .Quid facit is, Gelli, qui cum matre atque sorore Prurit et abiectis peruigilat tunicis?Quid facit is patruum qui non sinit esse maritum?Ecquid scis quantum suscipiat sceleris?5 Suscipit, o Gelli, quantum non ultima TethysNec genitor nympharum abluit Oceanus:--ex parte mea: not contrasted with Lesbia in her faithless ness , – the phrase in amore tuo precludes that, but as contrasted with the mere wanton passion of Lesbia's new lovers.88. On the crimes of Gellius; cf. c. 74.quam dat natura , uideri; Tenny son Princess, A daughter of the gods,divinely tall, and most divinely fair.3. uenustas: cf. 3. I n. Veneres.4. mica salis: cf. Mart. VII. 25 nullaque mica salis nec amari fel.lis inillis (uersibus] gutta sit.6. Veneres: cf. Plaut. Stich. 278 amoenitates omnium Venerum et uenustatum adfero; Quint. X. 1. 79 Isocrates omnes dicendi Veneres secotatus est.87. A fragment, written on los ing faith in Lesbia, and resembling in tone 75. 3-4. Scaliger sought vainly to complete it by affixing c. 75 (9.4 . ).i f. Cf. 8. 5; 37. 12 amata tan tum quantum amabitur nulla .4. tuo: cf. 64. 253 n. tuo amore.66. 70.I. matre: perhaps his step mother only; cf. Intr . 72.5. ultima: i.e. to her farthest bounds. —Tethys: cf. 64. 29 n.;6. nec abluit: cf. Lucr. VI. 1077non , mare si totum uelit eluere on nibus undis; Sen. Phaedr. 723 ff.quis eluet me Tanais? aut quae bar haris Maeotis undis Pontico incum.bens mari? non ipse toto magnusoceano pater tantum expiarit sce-90.6] CATULLUS. 207Nam nihil est quicquam sceleris quo prodeat ultra,Non si demisso se ipse uoret capite.89.Gellius est tenuis: quid ni? cui tam bona materTamque ualens uiuat tamque uenusta soror Tamque bonus patruus tamque omnia plena puellis Cognatis, quare is desinat esse macer?5 Qui ut nihil attingat, nisi quod fas tangere non est,Quantumuis quare sit macer inuenies.9o .Nascatur magus ex Gelli matrisque nefandoConiugio et discat Persicum haruspicium:Nam magus ex matre et gnato gignatur oportet,Si uera est Persarum impia religio,5 Gratus ut accepto ueneretur carmine diuosOmentum in flamma pingue liquefaciens.- leris. - Oceanus: with this conjunction of Oceanus with Tethys cf. Hom. II . XIV. 201 'Ωκεανόν τε, θεών γένεσιν, και μητέρα Τηθύν.7. nihil quicquam: a not infre quent expression in the comedians;cf. Plaut. Bacch . 1036 nihil ego tibi hodie consili quicquam dabo; Ter.Andr. 90 comperiebam nil ad Pam .philum quicquam attinere.8. non si: see 48. 5 n.89. On the same theme as c. 88.1. bona, obliging; cf. 110.bonae amicae.3. bonus patruus: the expres sion finds an explanation in c. 74.-omnia plena: cf. Cic. Att. II. 24.4 ita sunt omnia omnium miseria.rum plenissima; Verg. Geor. II .4 tuis hic omnia plena muneribus;Tib . I. 8. 54 lacrimis omnia plena madent.90. On the same theme as thepreceding.4. Persarum: the practice of incestuous marriages among thePersian Magi is mentioned by Strabo XV . p. 735 τούτοις δε και μητράσι συνέρχεσθαι πάτριον κενό MOTA .; cf. also Eurip. Androm .173 ff. and scholia; Tert. Apol. p.10 Persas cum suis matribus mis.ceri Ctesias refert.5. gratus accepto carmine: cf. 67. 26 n. — carmine: the litaniesof these priests are also mentioned in Strabo XV. p. 733.6. omentum, etc.: cf. Pers. 2. 47 in flammas iunicum omenta liques.cant. —liquéfaciens: cf. Intr. 86%.1208 CATULLUS. [ 91. -591.Non ideo, Gelli, sperabam te mihi fidum In misero hoc nostro, hoc perdito amore foreQuod te cognossem bene constantemue putaremAut posse a turpi mentem inhibere probro,Sed neque quod matrem nec germanam esse uidebamHanc tibi cuius me magnus edebat amor;Et quamuis tecum multo coniungerer usu,Non satis id causae credideram esse tibi.Tu satis id duxti: tantum tibi gaudium in omniIO Culpa est in quacumque est aliquid sceleris.92.Lesbia mi dicit semper male nec tacet unquamDe me: Lesbia me dispeream nisi amat.Quo signo? quia sunt totidem mea: deprecor illamAdsidue, uerum dispeream nisi amo.91. On the same theme as the to violate the most sacred ties of preceding , but making clear the kindred is not at hand, the ties of original grievance of Catullus against friendship will do.Gellius, that he was one of Lesbia's 92. On the same theme as c . 83,numerous lovers. and written about the same time.2. misero: cf. 68. 30 n . -nos- 1. dicit nec tacet: cf. 6. 3.tro: for meo; with the change in 2. dispeream nisi: cf. Hor.the same sentence from mihi to Sat. I. 9. 47 dispeream ni sumnostro cf. 77. 3, 4; 116. 5, 6. Nosses omnes; Verg. Cat. 9. 2 dis 3. cognossem bene: cf. 61 . pereamnisi meperdidit iste putus;187 n. cognitae bene: the subjunc. Mart. XI. 90. 8 dispeream ni scis tive indicates a possible reason , but (where the expression is labeled as marks it as contrary to fact; the an antique) . indicative, in v . 5, states the real 3. totidem mea: Ellis takesthese words to mean ' I have scored 5 f. A bitter turn of irony, the same number of points ' ( i.e. plained by cc. 88–90.- edebat: my case is exactly the same) , refer cf. 35. 15 edunt. ring to the game of duodecim scripta 7 ff. quamuis, etc.: i.e. any described by Ovid in Art. Am. III.misdoing (culpa) which has a spice 363 ff.: but though the general of wickedness ( sceleris) in it has meaning of the clause is clear, the a charm for Gellius, and if a chance precise interpretation is doubtfulreason .-95 . 2 ] CATULLUS.20993Nil nimium studeo, Caesar, tibi uelle placere,Nec scire utrum sis albus an ater homo.of 2994 .Mentula moechatur. Moechatur mentula certe.Hoc est quod dicunt, ipsa olera olla legit.4.5795 .Zmyrna mei Cinnae nonam post denique messem Quam coepta est nonamque edita post hiemem,seeab ill of L. detistor– deprecor, exsecrate; see the dis- albus nascerer? Apul. Apol. 16 cussion of this use of the word by etiam libenter te nuper usque albus Catullus in Gell. VII. (VI. ) 16. an ater esses ignoraui.93. Apparentlya rude answer to 94. A play on the name of asome approaches by, or on behalf certain dissolute person called here,of, Julius Caesar. The date of its and in cc. 105, 114, and 115, Men.composition, even with reference to tula . On hisidentification with the 66. 29 and 57, is doubtful; see Intr . Mamurra mentioned in cc. 29, 41 ,38. Cf. the remark of Quintilian 43, and 57, cf. 29. 13 n. and Intr. 73.XI. I. 38 negat se magni facere The point of the epigram is, ' You say aliquis poetarum 'utrum Caesar that Mentula is an adulterer. Why,ater an albus homo sit,' insania; of course. How could he be other.uerte, ut idem Caesar de illo dixerit, wise with such a name as his. ' Tisadrogantia est. as natural as for a pot to gather in 1. nimium: cf. 43. 4 n. potherbs. 'deo uelle: with the pleonasm cf. 2. hoc est quod dicunt: oi aNep. Att. 4. 2 noli aduersum eos proverbial expression; cf. 100. 3 .me uelle ducere; Cic. Dom. 146 95. On the enduring fame of the nolite eum uelle esse priuatum (and Zmyrna of C. Helvius Cinna, who Markland's note); Petron. 98 si was mentioned in 10. 29 f .; see also Gitona tuum amas, incipe uelle Intr. 63.seruare; Sen. Apoc. 14 incipit 1. nonam, etc.: so also Quint.patronus uelle respondere. X. 4. 4 Cinnae Smyrnam nouem 2. nec scire, etc.: i.e. I have no annis accepimus scriptam; Serv. on interest in you whatever. - albus Verg. Eci. 9. 35 quem libellum an ater: the expression is pro- [ Smyrnam ] decem annis elimauit;verbial; cf. Cic. Phil. II. 41 cf. Hor. A. P. 388 nonum prematur uide quam te amarit is qui albus in annum, membranis intus positis.aterne fuerit ignoras; Phaedr. III. 2. edita: sc. est, suggested from «5. 10 unde illa sciuit niger an the preceding est.- stu1210 CATULLUS. (95.3Milia cum interea quingenta Hortensius uno5 Zmyrna cauas Satrachi penitus mittetur ad undas,Zmyrnam cana diu saecula peruoluent.At Volusi annales Paduam morientur ad ipsamEt laxas scombris saepe dabunt tunicas.Parua mei mihi sint cordi monumenta sodalis:Іо At populus tumido gaudeat Antimacho.-3. cum interea: cf. 64. 305. – knowledge concerning the latter,milia quingenta: cf. 9. 2 n. - between whom and Hortensius Hortensius: perhaps Q. Horten- there may have been some definite sius Ortalus, the poet and man of connection. —Paduam: with the letters, to whom c. 65 is addressed; river Satrachus is here contrasted cf. Intr. 65. But the genuineness of the branch of the Po called by the reading has often been doubted. Polybius (II. 16) Iladba. Near- uno, etc.: sc. anno, or perhaps, this stream lay the birthplace of the as Haupt suggests, die ( cf. Plut. Cic. Annals (as ipsam shows), and 40 ). The simplest guess at the doubtless of Volusius himself.gist of the lost verse is that it con- 8. laxas: as both fish and wrap trasted the careless literary fecun- ping-paper were cheap, the parcel dity of Hortensius with Cinna's was not wrapped as neatly as it careful elaboration of merely a short might have been . scombris da .poem . But others, troubled by bunt tunicas: cf. the reminis the speedy introduction of Volu- cence in Mart. IV. 86. 8 nec scom sius, see in v. 4 a reference to him bris tunicas dabis [ libelle ] molestas as the facile author of the myriads (also III. 2. 3; III. 50. 9); and of verses, and to Hortensius only on a similar fate for bad verses ,as his patron (cf. Crit. App. ) . Hor. Ep. II. 1. 269, et al.— saepe:5. cauas, deep; cf. 17. 4. caua for the Annals covered many pages,in palude. — Satrachi: a river of and would serve the fish -mongers Cyprus, a favorite haunt of Aphro- a long time.dite and Adonis, the son of Myrrha, 9. parua: of the length of the or Zmyrna. The idea is that the Zmyrna. —sodalis: cf. 10. 29.poem of Cinna will be read in 10. populus: i.e. the ol rollol,the depths of the distant island. who have no critical sense. —- Antiwhere its scene was laid. — peni- macho: an epic poet of Colophon,tus: i.e. far into the interior. who flourished about 400 B.C. He6. cana saecula , the hoary ages; was proverbial among the ancients so Martial of the distant past in for wordiness; for a famous story VIII. 80. 2 . - peruoluent: with about him see Cic . Brut. 191 .diæresis; cf. Intr. 86 6 . Quintilian ( X. 1. 53) remarks that 7. Volusi annales: cf. c. 36. he is generally accorded the seco Why Catullus turns suddenly from ond place among epic writers, but Hortensius to Volusius it is im- criticises his looseness and care possible to say , in the lack of lessness of style, which would be-97.5) CATULLUS 21of 7696 .raidsbunitsin thatwelcomSi quicquam mutis gratum acceptumue sepulcris Accidere a nostro, Calue, dolore potest,Quo desiderio ueteres renouamus amores Atque olim missas flemus amicitias,s Certe non tanto mors immatura dolori estQuintiliae, quantum gaudet amore tuo.aseer hoog shen relationshihfor 50 (also 53) dolore , desiderio1107.3groteran , carains97Non ita me di ament) quicquam referre putauiVtrumne os an culum olfacerem Aemilio.Nilo mundius hoc, nihiloque immundius illud,Verum etiam culus mundior et melior:s Nam sine dentibus est. Hoc dentis sesquipedalis,-40dgedsina at thetrans?unpardonable sins in the eyes of an Alexandrian like Catullus. But the comparison of Volusius to him here is plainly in respect of his voluminousness.96. To Calvus on the death of his wife, Quintilia; cf. Intr. 60 .From Propertius (III. 34.89 f.) we learn that Calvus himself wrote athrenody on his loss.1. si quicquam , etc.: thephrase is probably not intended as an expression of skepticism which mightdestroy the effect of the con solation, but to emphasize the apod.osis following in v . 5 f.; cf. 76. 17 n.102. I. For more definite echoesof the prevailing agnosticism among the Romans regarding immortality cf. Sulpicius ap. Cic. Fam . IV. 5. 6;Tac. Agr. 46. — mutis sepulcris:cf. 101. 4 mutam cinerem . - gra tum acceptumue: the conjunc tion of these adjectives is common;cf. also go. 5 gratus ut accepto.2. nostro: of men in general, —though Catullus had himself felt the need of similar consolation.3 f. desiderio, etc.: in apposi tion with dolore, carrying on the idea with specification; cf. 2.8 and note.4. missas: not here, as fre. No quently, of a thing voluntarily sur.rendered, but of one given up in obedience to a greater power; cf.66. 29. —amicitias: of the senti.ment rather than the passion of love; cf. 109. 6.97. An exceedingly coarse epi.gram on a certain Aemilius, ofwhom nothing further is known.1. ita me di ament: a colloquial form of asseveration; cf. Ter. Andr.947 ita me di ament, credo; and similar phrases with iuuare in 61.196; 66. 18. On the hiatus inarsis see Intr. 86 d .illud: with this ref.erence of hic to the former and illeto the latter of two items cf. 100. 3.5. hoc: referring to os, as in v. 3.3. hoc;:212 CATULLUS. [ 97.6Gingiuas uero ploxeni habet ueteris,Praeterea rictum qualem diffissus in aestuMeientis mulae cunnus habere solet.Hic futuit multas et se facit esse uenustum ,Et non pistrino traditur atque asino?Quem si qua attingit, non illam posse putemus Aegroti culum lingere carnificis?IO98.In te, si in quemquam, dici pote, putide Victi,Id quod uerbosis dicitur et fatuis:Ista cum lingua, si usus ueniat tibi, possis Culos et crepidas lingere carpatinas.5 Si nos omnino uis omnes perdere, Victi,Hiscas: omnino quod cupis efficies.6. ploxeni: explained by Festus number of leading senators a chargeto mean a wagon -box (capsum in of conspiracy to assassinate Pompey.cisio capsaue) , and said by Quin- He was himself accused of forging tilian to be circumpadane (Gallic?) his evidence, and was cast intoin origin; I. 5. 8 ° Catullus ploxe- prison, and died there. But though num ' circa Padum inuenit. The Vettius is a much more commoncomparison here may be of the name than either of the others,wrinkled and fissured look of dis- some mere loud -mouthed nonen eased gums to some peculiarity in tity may be meant instead of the shape of the ploxenum , or to its notorious Lucius Vettius.wrinkled and split rawhide covering. 2. fatuis: especially used of 10. pistrino, etc.: i.e. relegated silly speakers, and distinguished to the occupation of the rudest from insulsus by Donatus (ad Ter.slaves, that of driving the ass that Eun. 1079 fatui sunt qui uerbis turns the mill. et dictis fatui sunt; insulsi uero 98. Against an unknown Victius, corde et animo); cf. Serv. ad Verg .or Vittius ( Haupt and a single in- Aen . VII. 47 fatuos dicimus incon .terpolated MS.) , or Vettius (Statius siderate loquentes.and many others ) . The man re- 4. carpatinas: a rude shoe madeferred to may be L. Vettius, the from a single piece of hide and Titus Oates of his time, who in apparently worn only by the lowest B.C. 62 charged Julius Caesar with classes.complicity in the conspiracy of 5 f. si nos, etc.: i.e. such is our Catiline ( Suet. Iul. 17) , and three just fear of being addressed byyour years later trumped up against a foul tongue that you have only to-99.13 ] CATULLUS. 21399 .Subripui tibi, dum ludis, mellite Iuuenti,Sauiolum dulci dulcius ambrosia.Verum id non impune tuli: namque amplius horam Suffixum in summa me memini esse cruce,5 Dum tibi me purgo nec possum fletibus ullisTantillum uestrae demere saeuitiae.Nam simul id factum est, multis diluta labellaCuttis abstersisti omnibus articulis,Ne quicquam nostro contractum ex ore maneret,Tanquam commictae spurca saliua lupae.Praeterea infesto miserum me tradere AmoriNon cessasti omnique excruciare modo,Vt mi ex ambrosia mutatum iam foret illud10Uesopen your mouth to see us immediately drop dead. -omnino, out and- out; modifying not omnes,but perdere; cf. v. 6 omnino effi cies (but Cic. Inuent. 86 omnino omnis argumentatio ).99. On the cruelty of Juventius in shunning the poet's kisses. On Juventius cf. c. 15 and Intr. 37. This poem antedates c. 15 and the rest of the cycle immediately connected therewith .2. dulci dulcius: cf. 22. 14 n.infaceto infacetior.3. non impune tuli: cf. 78b . 5non impune feres.4. suffixum in cruce, kept upon the rack . The reference is perhaps to the punishment by impalement,rarer and more dreaded than theordinary forms of crucifixion; cf. Sen. Cons. ad Marc. 20. 3 video istic cruces non unius quidem gene ris, sed aliter ab aliis fabricatas alii per obscoena stipitem egerunt;Ep. 101. 12 suffigas licet et acutam sessuro crucem subdas. —summa:of the intensity of the torture; cf. Colum. I. 7. 2 summum ius antiquisummam putabant crucem .6. tantillum , an atom .trae saeuitiae: i.e. the cruelty that is peculiar to you and your like.7. simul: sc. atque; cf. 22. 15 n.- id: with reference to the theft of the kiss.8. guttis: sc. of water; cf. Lucr.VI. 942 saxa superne guttis manan .tibus stillent. articulis , fingers,as occasionally in the elegiasts and later.9. contractum: a technical wordconnected with contagious and in fectious diseases.10. Cf. 786. 4. — lupae: a nick .name for a prostitute; cf. Liv. I. 4. 7 sunt qui Larentiam uulgato cor pore lupam inter pastores uocatam putent.II . infesto tradere Amori: i.e. to hand me over as a captive to amerciless jailer, the idea being that the boy's petulant anger made him more attractive than ever, and.CATULLUS. ( 99. 144Sauiolum tristi tristius elleboro.15 Quam quoniam poenam misero proponis amori,Nunquam iam posthac basia subripiam .100 .Caelius Aufilenum et Quintius AufilenamFlos Veronensum depereunt iuuenum,Hic fratrem , ille sororem. Hoc est quod dicitur illudFraternum uere dulce sodalicium.s Cui faueam potius? Caeli, tibi: nam tua nobisPer facta exhibita est unica amicitiaCum uesana meas torreret flamma medullas.Sis felix, Caeli, sis in amore potens.-quickened, instead of quenching, Verona, for v. 2 Veronensum indi the poet's passion. cates merely origin and not resi 14. tristi, bitter; cf. Anth . Pal. dence.V. 29. 2 πικρότερον γίγνεται έλλε- 2. flos iuuenum: cf. 24. 1. βόρου. On the collocation tristi depereunt: see 35. 12 n .tristius cf. 22. 14 n. 3. hic: referring to the first-men 15 f. The poem concludes with tioned person , Caelius, while ille re a mock simplicity that allows the fers to Quintius; cf. the similar use sportive character of the preceding of hoc and illud in 97. 3. —hoc complaints to be seen. —misero: est quod dicitur: cf. 94. 91. 2 n. 5. cui faucam potius: i.l. in 16. basia: cf. 5. 7 n . whose success shall I feel the most 100. On the love of two friends lively interest? With the question for a certain brother and sister re- and answer cf. 1. I ff. cui is for spectively. On Caelius see Intr. 59; utri, as occasionally in writers of Quintius is probably the Quintius of this and the following periods.6. 82,but apparently not the brother 6. per facta exhibita: the of the Quintia of c . 86 (see intro- friendship may have been proved ductory note to c. 86) . Aufilenus by withdrawing from rivalry with is otherwise unknown, though to Catullus in his affair with Lesbia;Aufilena are addressed cc . 110 and but if Caelius be Caelius Rufus, weIII, in which she is accused of must suppose the withdrawal was faithlessness as a mistress and of but feigned , as Catullus afterwardincest with an uncle. The lack discovered; see Intr. 1.c. of any apparent feeling against Aufi- 7. uesana flamma: of the love lena in c. 100 leads to the supposi- of the poet for Lesbia; cf. 7. 10 tion that it was written before cc . uesano Catullo. torreret medul.110 and 111; but it is not necessary las: cf. 35. 15 suppose that its scene is laid at 8. potens, successful; cf. Prop-Mennius (if roch )An. 58 CC .-J01. 10 ) CATULLUS. 215IOI. final school fromhighesMultas per gentes et multa per aequora uectus Ses de Aduenio has miseras, frater, ad inferias,Vt te postremo donarem munere mortis Et mutam nequiquam adloquerer cinerem,5 Quandoquidem fortuna mihi tete abstulit ipsum,Heu miser indigne frater adempte mihi.Nunc tamen interea haec, prisco quae more parentumTradita sunt tristi munere ad inferias,Accipe fraterno multum manantia fletuAtque in perpetuum , frater, aue atque uale. 10-III. 26. 21 quod tam mihi pulchra 6. Cf. 68. 20 and 92.puella seruiat et tota dicar in urbe 7. interea: with an imperative,potens; and the fuller form in Ov. indicating the relinquishment of the Met. VIII. 409 uoti potente. previous line of thought, at least 101. An invocation accompany- for a season; cf. 14. 21; 36. 18;ing offerings made at the tomb of the Ciris 44 ff. haec tamen interea poet's brother in the Troad (cf. 65. accipe dona meo multum uigilata 5 ff.; 68. 19 ff. 89 ff.). See Intr. 22. labore. — haec: i.e. the offerings1. multas, etc.: the exaggera- he came to bring; cf. v. 2 n.tion of the expression marks the 8. tradita , offered; cf. with the intensity of the poet's grief over the collocation 65. 19 missum furtiuo distance that separated him from munero; Tac. Ann. I. 62. 2 caehis brother's deathbed and tomb. spitem Caesar posuit gratissimo 2. miseras: cf. 68. 30 n. - infe- munere in defunctos. — ad infe .rias: defined by Servius on Verg. rias, as funeral offerings.Aen. X. 519 inferiae sunt sacra 9. accipe, etc.: cf. Mart. VI. 85.mortuorum , quodinferis soluuntur. 11 f. accipe cum fletu maesti breue Perhaps Catullus is now offering the carmen amici, atque haec absentis cena nouemdialis, omitted perforce tura fuisse puta .up to this time, since none of the 10. aue atque uale: the offer .family were present at the burial. ings are concluded with the final In this case the offerings would be farewell that should have been especially dishes of eggs, lentils, and spoken at the burial. The fullest salt, and the phrase in v. 9 multum form of this conclamatio was salue,manantia fletu would be quite in uals, aue, but other forms are men point, as it would not be if libations tioned; cf. Verg. Aen. XI. 97 salue only were offered. aeternum mihi, maxime Palla,4. mutam cinerem: cf. 96. I aeternumque uale; Servius on Verg.mutis sepulcris. —adloquerer: cf. Aen. II. 644; and the selection ofV. 10 n. forms occurring in inscriptions in 5. quandoquidem , etc.: cf. 64. the index to Wilmann's Exempla 218 f. - tete: cf. 30. 7 tute. Inscr. Lat. II. p. 692.216 CATULLUS. [ 102. I102 .Si quicquam tacito commissum est fido ab amicoCuius sit penitus nota fides animi,Meque esse inuenies illorum iure sacratum ,Corneli, et factum me esse puta Harpocratem .103.Aut sodes mihi redde decem sestertia, Silo,Deinde esto quamuis saeuus et indomitus:Aut, si te nummi delectant, desine quaesoLeno esse atque idem saeuus et indomitus.104Credis me potuisse meae maledicere uitae,Ambobus mihi quae carior est oculis?Non potui, nec, si possem, tam perdite amarem:Sed tu cum Tappone omnia monstra facis.102. A pledge of secrecy to Cor- is prompted by the manner of Silo's nelius, otherwise unknown: for he reception ofsome complaint on the apparently was not Cornelius Nepos part of Catullus.( cf. 1. 3) , if we may judge anything 1. sodes, pray; colloquial, and from the tone of equality rather almost always with imperatives than of inferiority that prevails here; ( from si audes for si cudies) .nor is it likely that he was the decem sestertia: cf. 41. 2 n.Brixian Cornelius (cf. 67. 35 ) , for 2. esto: cf. Juv. 5. 112 hoc fac whom Catullus had no regard. et esto , esto diues tibi, pauper amicis.1. tacito: dative. 4. idem: cf. 22. 3 n.2. cuius: referring to tacito. 104. On the impossibility of fides animi: on the pleonastic his maligning Lesbia . Apparently genitive cf. 2. 10 n. animi curas. written when he was beginning 3. meque: for me quoque or et to hear of Lesbia's depravity;illorum: i.e. tacitorum , ap- cf. 68. 135 ff., 159 ff. See Intr. 21 .parently with a reference to initia- 1. meae uitae: cf. 109. 1; 45.tion into the mysteries. iure 13; 68. 155 .sacratum: i.e. initiatum . 2. carior oculis: cf. 3. 5 n.4. Harpocratem: cf. 74. 4 n . 3. non potui, etc.: however true 103. To an arrogant pander who this statement at the time of writ had received a large sum for his ing (cf. Intr. 24 ) , Catullus found services. Apparently the epigram it possible later to love and hateme.-107. 2 ] CATULLUS. 217105 .Mentula conatur Pipleum scandere montem:Musae furcillis praecipitem eiciunt.106 .Cum puero bello praeconem qui uidet esse ,Quid credat, nisi se uendere discupere?.true 107 comes.Si cui quid cupido optantique obtigit unquamInsperanti, hoc est gratum animo proprie.un( c. 85) , and to speak bitter enough words of Lesbia . —perdite ama rem: cf. 45. 3. 4. Tappone: otherwise known, though the name is not rare in inscriptions. B. Schmidt, how ever, suggests that as Tappo was shown by Mommsen ( Arch. Zeit.vol. XL. col. 176) to be a stock comic figure at Roman feasts, Catul lus mayhere mean to reprove jest ingly his unnamed friend for taking inearnest words of the poet about Lesbia let fall in ioco atque uino.- omnia monstra facis: i.e. you and Tappo are given to that scanda lous gossip that makes mountains out of mole-hills, and delights in fanning enmities between friends.105. On the attempt of Mentula to become a poet. Concerning him cf. cc. 94, 114, 115 , and Intr. 73, 74 .He is sneered at as eruditulus also2. furcillis eiciunt: a proverbial expression for expulsion with vio lence and ignominy; cf. Hor. Ep.I. 10. 24 naturam expelles furca,tamen usque recurret; Cic. Att.XVI. 2. 4 sed, quoniam furcilla extrudimur, Brundisium cogito;Arist. Par 637 τήνδε μεν δικρούς εώθουν την θεόν κεκράγμασιν.106. On a boy walking with an auctioneer. Some critics, comparing 21. 5 , have thought of Juventiusand Furius; others, of Clodius; but the epigram may well be suggested by an accidental encounter on thestreet.2. se: i.e. puerum, the implied subject of discupere. -discupere:of eager desire that searches for sat isfaction in every direction (dis- );cf. Plaut. Trin . 932 quin discupio dicere; Cic. Fam . VIII. 15. 2 te uidere discupio.107. Ona visit of reconciliation from Lesbia . Apparently written after the period of temporary es trangement marked by C. 8. C£in 57.7:1. Pipleum montem: Pimpla ( Pipla) was a region ( with a hill and fountain ) in the Macedonian district of Pieria, and was sacred to the Muses. scandere: cf. Enn.Ann. 223 Vahl. neque Musarum scopulos quisquam superarat.Intr. 19.1. cupido: on the hiatus secIntr. 86 d .2. proprie, genuinely; cf. Quint218 CATULLUS. [ 107.30Quare hoc est gratum nobis quoque, carius auro ,,Quod te restituis, Lesbia, mi cupido:5 Restituis cupido atque insperanti, ipsa refers teNobis. O lucem candidiore nota! cf. 8.3 ,Quis me uno uiuit felicior, aut magis hac res Optandas uita dicere quis poterit?68,148108 .Si, Comini, populi arbitrio tua cana senectusSpurcata impuris moribus intereat,Non equidem dubito quin primum inimica bonorumLingua exsecta auido sit data uulturio,Effossos oculos uoret atro gutture coruus,Intestina canes, cetera membra lupi.5X. 1. 114 mira sermonis, cuius 3. bonorum: perhaps in the proprie studiosus fuit, elegantia. sense of optimatium . ( as often in 3. carius auro: for similar ex- Cicero) , if this Cominius was one pressions of estimated value cf. 3. of the prosecutors.5 n.4. lingua exsecta: cf. Cic. Clu 6. lucem candidiore nota: cf. i ent. 187 Stratonem in crucem esse 68. 148 n. actum exsecta scitote lingua. —sit 7. quis, etc.: cf. 9. 1o n. data: perfect, followed by the pres 108. On a certain unpopular ent uoret, since the loss of the Cominius, perhaps one of two tongue, as a punishment for his brothers from Spoletium , P. and C. perjuries, would be inflicted upon or L. Cominius, who are mentioned him before his execution and the by Cicero ( Cluent. 100 ) as prose- throwing of his body to the crows cutors. In the year 66 B.C. and their associates. uulturio:popular tumult terrified them into cf. 68. 124 up their prosecution of C. 5. effossos oculos, etc.: cf. Cornelius, though one of them, in Vulg. Prouerb. 30. 17 oculum .spite of general unpopularity, re- effodiant eum corui de torrentibus,sumed it the following year, on et comedant eum filii aquilae, Hor.which occasion Cornelius was de- Ep. I. 16.48 non pasces in cruce fended by Cicero.coruos. With vv . 5 and 6 Statius1. cana senectus: cf. 61. 162 compares Ov. Ib. 167 ff.cana anilitas. 6. canes: cf. Hor. Epod. 17. II 2. spurcata impuris moribus: addictum feris alitibus atque cani.the hoary head that should be a bus. -lupi: cf. Hor. Epod . 5. 99 ,crown of glory is to him but a mark 100 post insepulta membra different of confirmed infamy. lupiet Esquilinae alites.a -W] 10. 3 ]CATULLUS. 219109 .Iucundum, mea uita, mihi proponis amorem Hunc nostrum inter nos perpetuumque fore.Di magni, facite ut uere promittere possitAtque id sincere dicat et ex animo,s Vt liceat nobis tota perducere uitaAeternum hoc sanctae foedus amicitiae.ΙΙο.Aufilena, bonae semper laudantur amicae:Accipiunt pretium quod facere instituunt.Tu, quod promisti mihi, quod mentita, inimica es;? 109. On Lesbia's wish for un- ducas, improbe, noctes seem to sup.broken harmony between herself port this reading, and the omitted and Catullus. Apparently following limit is easily supplied from tota c. 107 by a brief interval that has uita.allowed the first joy of reconcilia- 6. sanctae amicitiae: of the tion to subside and give place to a pure sentiment rather than the pas less passionate feeling: for the tone sion of love; cf. 96. 4.of v. 3 and 4 seems to indicate that 110. On the faithlessness of the the voyage has been not without courtesan, Aufilena, mentioned insome storms. C. 100 as the mistress of Quintius.1. mea uita: cf. 104. 1; 45. 13; 1. bonae, obliging; cf. 89. 1.68. 155.— proponis, proclaim , but So Tibullus ( II. 4. 45) praises the with a suggestion of pledge rather courtesan bona quae nec auara fuit,than of mere prophecy; cf. Caes. and Horace's Cinara was bonaB. G. V. 58. 5 magna proponit iis ( Carm . IV. 1. 3) .qui occiderint praemia; Cic. Tusc. 2. accipiunt, etc .: i.e. the price V. 20 praemium proposuit qui in- they set is willingly paid. -quod:uenisset nouam uoluptatem . see Crit. App . — facere, to set; cf. 3. di magni: here a true invo- Plaut. Pers. 582 • Indica; fac pre cation , and not, as in 14. 12 and 53. tium .' " Tua merx est; tua in 5, a mere expletive . Ellis compares dicatio est .'Cic. Att. XVI. 1. 6 di faxint ut fa- 3 ff. quod . quod: the first ciat ea quae promittit, quod is probably a conjunction and enim gaudium , —sed ego, etc. the second a relative. In promising 5. perducere: Lachmann, fol. what she has not performed Auf lowing the early Italian editors, lena has played the part of an in would readproducere, on the ground imica instead of an amica. (With that perducere occurs only when a quod as direct object of mentita cf. limit is definitely set. Butthe MSS. Prop. III. 17. I mentiri noctem .)of Prop. I. 3. 39 o utinam tales per- Thus vv . 3 and 4 correspond verb-commune220 CATULLUS. [ 110.4Quod nec das et fers saepe, facis facinus.5 Aut facere ingenuae est, aut non promisse pudicae,Aufilena, fuit: sed data corripereFraudando † efficit plus quam meretricis auarae ,Quae sese toto corpore prostituit.III.Aufilena, uiro contentam uiuere soloNuptarum laus e laudibus eximiis:Sed cuiuis quamuis potius succumbere par estQuam matrem fratres ex patruo parere.II2.Multus homo est, Naso, neque tecum multus homoest quiDescendit: Naso, multus es et .14 n. misti.

for verb, promisti das, 111. On the incest of the same she promises but does not perform , Aufilena with her uncle.mentita . . . fers, she breaks her 1. Riese compares Afran . 117 R. appointment but pockets the price. proba et pudica quodsum -promisti: cf. v. 5 promisse; 14. paratum est, uno ut simus contentae uiro. -uiro, husband, as frequently.4. saepe: for she had often re 2. nuptarum: Aufilena was evi.ceived money from him, and hence dently married.ought to treat him better now. - 4. The swift succession of ma facis facinus: cf. 81. 6; Proper- trem , fratres, patruo indicates the tius also ( 1.c. ) thought such a breach jumble of relationship involved.of faith an awful crime. Thepoint lies in the fact that Aufi 5. ingenuae, honest. lena's children by her uncle would 6. fuit: strictly related in time to be her own cousins. —fratres: sc .v. 5 est: the time to profess virtue patrueles; cf. Cic. Att. I. 5. i Lucii was before she made the promise; fratris nostri morte. - parere: see now honesty requires her to keep it. Crit. App:- data corripere fraudando, etc.: 112. On an unknown Naso, who to secure the reward by fraud is to is apparently a candidate for office.exceed the wicked greed of the The text is unusually corrupt, and most abandoned of prostitutes. But the interpretation extremely uncer none of the emendations yet offered tain .for the corrupt efficit are at all 1. multus, wordy; cf. Afran .satisfactory.202 R. multa ac molesta; Plaut.-113.4 )CATULLUS. 221113.Consule Pompeio primum duo, Cinna, solebantMaeciliam: facto consule nunc iterumManserunt duo, sed creuerunt milia in unum Singula. Fecundum semen adulterio.Men. 316 hominem multum et odio- Mithradates, on the charge of adul.sum; Cic. N. D. II. 46. 119 nolo tery, especially with Julius stellarum ratione multus uobis The mention of Pompey's consul.uideri. —neque multus: the ap- ships gives some color to this view ,parent contradiction (cf. 64. 83) in- but as Maecilia is a well-known volves an untranslatable play upon Roman name, and this epigram was the word multus, which is, perhaps, written in 55 B.C. ( cf. v. 2) , seven as has been suggested, a colloquial years after the divorce of Mucia form for molitus, from molere ( sensu and several years after her marriage obscoeno); cf. colere cultus, adolere to M. Aemilius Scaurus, it is need adultus, etc. tecum qui descen- less to emend the MSS. in order to dit, your competitor; sc. in cam- bring in a special reason for the ref pum, perhaps omitted colloquially; erence to Pompey.but cf. Hor. Carm . III. 1. 10 hic 1. consule Pompeio: in the generosior descendat in campum year 70 B.C., with M.Licinius Cras petitor; Ep. I. 20. 5 fuge quo de- sus. —Cinna: doubtless the poet scendere gestis. C. Helvius Cinna mentioned in 10.2. multus et pathicus: con- 29 and 95. I; cf. Intr. 63.trasted with multus neque multus, 2. Maeciliam: dependent upon the emphasis lying especially upon an infinitive euphemistically omitted the conjunctions, while the ambigu- with solebant; cf. such construc ous second multus of v. I is un- tions as Plaut. Cist. 37 uiris cum suis veiled by the substitution for it of praedicant nos solere; Mart. III.the brutally plain pathicus; i.e. your 76. 4 cum possis Hecuben , non potes competitor is multus ( ' wordy ') and Andromachen . — consule iterum:yet not multus ( sens. obsc.); but in the year 55 B.C., with the same you, Naso, are multus (wordy ' ) colleague as before.and multus, for you are pathicus; 3. manserunt, etc.: i.e. there in other words, your competitor is are still two, but it is two thousand.foul-mouthed but not foul- lived, If the reading be correct, the nu while you, Naso, are foul-mouthed meral unum, which is not infreand foul- lived . quently joined with distributive pro 113. On the profligacy of a nouns, is here used instead of theMaecilia. Pleitner emends in v. 2 distributive utrumque, because of to Mucillam , as a diminutive of the contrast with the numeral milia;Mucia, understanding the reference ' to each one has accrued a thouto be to the daughter of Q. Mucius sand .' But the expression of such Scaevola, married to Pompey soon an idea by crescerewith an accusa after the death of Aemilia, his sec- tive with in is unprecedented, the ond wife, and divorced by him upon meaning apparently demanding in .his return from the conquest of crescere with the dative.222 CATULLUS. ( 114. I114.Firmanus saltu non falso Mentula diuesFertur, qui tot res in se habet egregias,Aucupium omne genus, piscis, prata, arua, ferasque,Nequiquam: fructus sumptibus exsuperat.5 Quare concedo sit diues, dum omnia desint;Saltum laudemus, dum domo ipse egeat.115.Mentula habet iuxta triginta iugera prati,Quadraginta arui: cetera sunt maria.Cur non diuitiis Croesum superare potis sitnowa114. On Mentula as a ' land- 3. omne genus: accusative of poor ' property owner. On the specification .identity of Mentula with Mamurra 4. exsuperat: sc. probably sal.see Intr. 73. The next poem speaks tus as subject; the estate is good of the same estate as this. for nothing, and its necessary ex 1. Firmanus: Firmum, penses more than eat up the income Fermo, was a town in Picenum, from it.about forty miles south of Ancona. 5. concedo, etc .: i.e. I grant,- saltu: the word denoted first then, that he is rich, if a man can be uncultivated land ( cf. Fest. p. 302 rich who hasn't a cent to his name.saltus est ubi siluae et pastiones sunt, 6. laudemus, etc .: i.e. let us quarum causa casae quoque) , and praise the estate, if praise can mean then a measure of 800 iugera as a anything when the owner hasn't asingle grant of such land by the roof over his head. - domo: with land - commissions ( Varr. R. R. I. hiatus; see Intr. 86 d . —ipse, the 10. 2) , and then the grant in gen- owner; cf. 64. 43 n.eral, an'estate, ' even though com- 115. On Mentula, reputed great prising, as here, some arable land in riches, but great only in profligacy.( cf. Fest. l.c. si qua particula in eo 1 , 2. These verses give the plain saltu pastorum aut custodum causa facts about the size of Mentula'saratur, ea res non peremit nomen estate, while in vv. 3-6 are ironi saltui). cally rehearsed the exaggerated 2. tot res egregias: spoken rumors about it.ironically, like non falso in v. I , for 1. iuxta, all in one lot ( ironi 6. 115 shows that the fine things cally ); with iuxta of the proximity specified in 114. 3 are but sup- of several objects to one another posed attractions of the estate, cf. Plin. N. H. XXXVI. 117.whichis really a small and worth- 2. maria: i.e. swamps; cf. v. 5.less affair. 3. Crocsum: cf. 24. 4 n. Midas-126.6 ] CATULLUS. 223Vno qui in saltu tot bona possideat,s Prata, arua, ingentis siluas saltusque paludesque Vsque ad Hyperboreos et mare ad Oceanum?Omnia magna haec sunt, tamen ipse est maximus ultro,Non homo, sed uero mentula magna minax.116.Saepe tibi studioso animo uenante requirensCarmina uti possem mittere BattiadaeQui te lenirem nobis, neu conarere Tela infesta mihi mittere in usque caput,5 Hunc uideo mihi nunc frustra sumptum esse laborem,Gelli, nec nostras hic ualuisse preces.6. 66.5. paludes: apparently common Callimachus; for the modification report had bestowed extensive and of animo by two words of similar well stocked fish -ponds upon Men- meaning would be extremely awk.tula , but it is only marsh-land that ward, and is not supported by such he owns ( cf. v. 2 maria ). -.que: phrases as Verg. Geor. IV. 370 saxo.hypermetric: see Intr. 76. sus sonansHypanis, where the ad 6. Hyperboreos: the fabulous jectives differ in meaning . Perhaps, dwellers in the extreme north by after all, the conjecture of Guarinus the streams of ocean . -mare ad ( studiose) was right.Oceanum: cf. Caes. B. G. III. 7. 2. carmina: i.e. translations, like 2 proximus mare Oceanum; Tac. Battiadae: i.e. CallimaAnn. I. 9 mari Oceano aut amnibus chus; cf. 65. 16 n.longinquis saeptum imperium . 3. qui, whereby; the use of qui 7. ultro: emphasizing ipse; cf. for quibus isnot uncommonin other Plaut. Men . 831 hei mihi, insanire writers ( cf. Munro's Lucr . V. 233) .me aiunt, ultro quom ipsi insani- – nobis: for mihi; especially unt; Varr. R. R. III. 17.6 nisi etiam noteworthy because immediately ipse eos pasceret ultro. following a verb in the first person 8. mentula: a similar play to singular. On the metre of the that in c . 94. The triple alliteration verse see Intr. noteworthy: 4. usque: this addition to in 116. On his rejected advances seemsto imply that the aim was ef toward a reconciliation with Gellius, fectual, and pain was inflicted; cf. concerning whom see Intr. 72. usque: 1. studioso: the adjective prob- 6. hic , in this matter . nostras:ably modifies tibi, indicating that for meas; with the change in the Gellius was a man of literary tastes, same sentence from mihi to aos and perhaps an especial admirer of tras cf. 77. 3 , 4; 91. 1, 2 .

4. 24 ad224 CATULLUS. ( 116.7 ]Contra nos tela ista tua euitamus amictu:At fixus nostris tu dabis supplicium .7. contra, instead of this; i.e. in- est cuius telum opposita ueste elusum stead of my formerpolicy of depre- est; Petron . 80 intorto circa brac . cating your anger, I am now armed chium pallio composui ad proelian .for defense (v.7) and offense (v. 8) . dum gradum .-amictu: i.e. the toga is wrapped 8. dabis: the elision of final sabout the left arm to serve as a occurs only here in Catullus, thoughshield; cf. Pacuvius 186 R. chlamyde often found in Cicero's juvenile contorta astu clipeat bracchium; verses and in Lucretius, as well as in Sen. De Const. 7. 4 non minus latro the earlier writers (see Cic. Or. 161).CRITICAL APPENDIX.The sources chiefly used in constituting the text of this edition ( cf. Intr.53, 54 ) are as follows:Codex Oxoniensis ( O) , preserved in the Bodleian Library at Oxford,numbered 30 in the official catalogue of Latin MSS. formerly in the possession of the abbot Canonici of Venice. It is without date, but wasapparently written in the latter part of the 14th century, and is therefore of about equal age with codex G. The book , which is in a beautiful state of preservation, contains only the poems of Catullus. It consists of 37 leavesof parchment, each 27 centimeters long and 19.5 centimeters wide. The rectangular space on each page reserved for writing is carefully indicated byruling, and averages 20 centimeters long and 10.5 centimeters wide. Eachpage of the first four fascicles (of 8 leaves each ) is ruled to contain 31 lines of writing, from 5.5 to 6.5 millimeters apart. Beginning with fol. 33r.,each page is ruled to contain 32 lines. The initial letter of each verseis a capital, and is somewhat separated from the rest of the text, being placed to the left of the vertical boundary line. Illuminated initials arefound at the beginning of cc . I (very elaborate ), 2 ( with considerabletracery) , 65, 68, 69, 72, 77, 80, and 89. In some other instances space was left in the text at the beginning of a poem for a large illuminated letter,and the proper letter indicated in the margin by the scribe, but never filledin. In other instances yet, the initial letter of a poem was omitted from the text and indicated in the margin as a guide to the illuminator, but nospace was left for it in the text. Poems are occasionally separated by aninterval of one verse, but often are written continuously (cf. also c. 60fin. n. ) . In many instances the beginning of a poem ( whether divided from the preceding poem by an interval, or not) is indicated by a paragraphmark consisting of two slight, inclined, parallel strokes of the scribe's pen just before the initial letter; but this mark, too, is often lacking. In a single instance (before c . 31 ) it is accompanied by a paragraph mark of more formal shape, illuminated in greenish blue. A few scholia are found on225226 CRITICAL APPENDIX .the first and second pages, and again on fol. 21 r., on the opening versesof c. 64.In a pocket inside the back cover of the book are five sheets of notepaper of four pages each containing variant readings, and headed Varielectiones cod- ms- catulli memb- in sec- XIV. apud Ab- Canonici cumedit. Aldina 1502 collati. Just below and to the right on the same pageis written, apparently by the same hand, but at a later date, coeperam in gratiam Laurentii Santenii, sed non absolui, neque ei misi quicquam .The first of these readings is arido modo .. ( 1.2) , and the last (appar ently ) sanna esset nunc quod gannit .. (83. 4) .A facsimile of fol. 26 u. (64. 336–366 ) by the collotype process is given in the edition of Catullus by Robinson Ellis ( Oxford, 18782); facsimiles of fol. 13r. (50. 3–51. 12) and fol. 20 u. (63. 57–87) were published by Mr. Ellis in his XII. Facsimiles from Latin MSS. in the Bodleian Library ( 1885); a reduced facsimile of fol. 21 r. follows the preface to this volume,and since it has passed through the press a facsimile of the same page by the heliographic process has come to hand as plate XV.A in the Paléo graphie des Classiques Latins of M. Chatelain ( Paris, 1892) .Codex Sangermanensis ( G) , now No. 14,137 of the Latin MSS. in the National Library in Paris, formerly No. 1,165 in the library of the abbeyof St. -Germain -des- Prés. Its subscription shows it to have been written in the year 1375; and even if the words et cetera there occurring are takenas an indication that its scribe was but copying from a longer subscription ofthe year 1375, the style of the writing shows that this copy could not havebeen made much later than that date. The book contains the works ofCatullus only, and is described by Schwabe as consisting of 36 leaves ofparchment, each 24.3 centimeters long and 16.9 centimeters wide, with 33lines of writing on a page. The last page, however, contains 34 lines.The text presents many erasures and corrections, the very large majority ofwhich, at any rate, were made either by the original copyist, or by anothernot far removed from him in time. The copyist of G seems to have beensomewhat more sophisticated than the copyist of O , and (as the subscription also intimates) to have been more worried about the condition of thetext he was reproducing. The result is that the more ignorant blunders committed or perpetuated in O are often the better guide to the readingsof the common original of the two MSS. A heliographic facsimile of twoadjoining pages of G, fol. 35 u. and 36 r. ( 110. 7-116. 8) , forms plate the Paléographie des Classiques Latins of M. Chatelain, and the entire MS. has recently been reproduced in excellent facsimile by a photolithographic process (Paris, Leroux, 1890 ).CRITICAL APPENDIX . 227Codex Thuaneus ( 7 '), which is of great importance for the text of c. 62,is now No. 8,071 of the Latin MSS. in the National Library in Paris. Itis a book of 61 leaves, each measuring 29 by 20.5 centimeters, and iswritten in a Carolingian band of the ninth century. It contains the writ.ings of Juvenal, and of Eugenius of Toledo, together with extracts fromMartial, the 62nd poem of Catullus, and a Latin Anthology. A helio graphic facsimile of fol. 51 , containing some epigrams of Martial and 62. 1-22 of Catullus, forms plate XIV. of the Paléographie des Classiques Latins of M. Chatelain, and a less accurate reproduction of the same verses of Catullus was published by Mr. Ellis in his second edition .Orthographical peculiarities, as such, are noted in this Appendix onlywhen they occur in proper names, or are otherwise of especial interest.Italics are used in the variant readings to designate all letters that arewritten in the MSS. in abbreviation or ligature. Where variant readingsare given in the MSS. themselves, not written as a part of the text, buteither between the verses or in the margin, they are enclosed in parentheses.o denotes codex Oxoniensis.G denotes codex Sangermanensis.T denotes codex Thuaneus.V ( codex Veronensis) denotes the common reading of O and G. Wherethe reading of but one of these MSS. is given, the reading of the other isthat adopted in the text.The letter w is often used to designate such readings as occur in at leastseveral of the interpolated MSS. or of the earliest ( Italian ) editions ofCatullus. Where the source of a reading adopted in the text is not other .wise noted, it is understood to be due to w. In ascribing emendations toindividual sources the names of scholars of the present century are usuallygiven in the vernacular; those of scholars of preceding centuries, with afew more familiar exceptions, in the Latin form .Catulli Veronensis liber Incipit. G (as if first line of text, but in redink, to which ad Cornelium is appended in a different style of letter , resem .bling that in the titles to following poems and in most ofthe glosses ) Catullus Veronensis poeta O (in upper margin of first page, and apparently in amore recent hand) [Q. Catuli Veronensis liber incipit ad Cornelium IDQ. Valeri Catulli ueronens. ad Corn. Nepotem liber carm . I C Other MSS.give neither praenomen nor nomen) .1. 1 cui Vw the ancients who quote the verse and Riese ( There is not the slightest reason to doubt that in both G and O the elaborately illuminatedinitial is C and not Q) qui Pastrengicus Ellis quoi w and almost all recent228 CRITICAL APPENDIX .editors ( It should be noted that nowhere does quoi actually occur in V , the form of the dative singular being in all cases either qui, as in 2. 3, or cui,as in 23. 1. On the other hand cui is sometimes found for qui, as in 11. 22 ).-2 arido the ancients who quote the verse arida w Pastrengicus ( Cf. Serv.on Verg. Aen. XII. 587 ' in pumice ' autem iste masculino genere posuit,et hunc sequimur: nam et Plautus ita dixit, licet Catullus dixerit feminino ).-5 tamen O tamen G || est V. -7 iupiter O Iupiter G and so usuallyElsewhere, though the spelling iuppiter occurs in 0 in 66. 30, 48, but is nowhere found in G. -8 tibi habe V || libelli al' mei G libelli est w. –9 o omitted in V , added by w || quod ] quidem w quidem , patrone, perte Hand quidem est, patroni ut ergo Bergk. —10 periere 0 .2. Interval of one verse in V , filled in G with title Fletus passerislesbie. —3 qui V || at petenti V (al patenti or parenti G) . —4 ea 0. -6 karum V.- 7 et] ut or in w est Hand es Jacobs ( Spengel conjectures alacuna after v.7) . — 8 cum O cum G || acquiescet O adquiescet ( corrected from acquiescet) G. — 9 ludere V ( corrected from luderem 0, al' luderemG) . -11 No interval between this and preceding verse in V. Pleitner ,Klotz, and Baehrens subjoin vv. 11-13 to c. 14' , and consider the whole to bea complete poem, which Pleitner and Klotz place before, and Bachrensafter, c. 2 . Others add vv . 11-13 to c . 38, and still others ( striking outest ) insert them in c. 3 after v. 15. 13 negatam V (alligatam G)ligatam w ( Cf. Prisc. Inst. I. 22 similiter Catullus Veronensis ' quod zonam soluit diu ligatam ').3. No interval in V. - 2 quam tum 0. – 7 ipsam O ipsam G ipsa wIssa Bergk . - 9 silens ( al' siliens) 0. –10 piplabat V pipilabat w pipiabatVoss. —11 tenebrosum V.– 12 illud V ( al’ illuc 0) .- 14 orcique V(al quae G) || bella ( .i . pulcra ) V. - 16 bonum factum · male bonus illepasser O bonum factum · male bonus ille passer G o factum malo o (proh Guarinus io Lachmann and others) miselle passer w uae f. m. uae m. p.Ellis Postgate.4. Interval of one verse in V, filled in G with title De phaselo (correctedfrom phasello ). -1 hasellus o (with space left for illuminated initial,anda minute рp in outer margin to guide illuminator ) phaselus G ( correctedfrom phasellus) . — 2 aiunt o aiunt G || celerimum 0 celerimum (cor rected to celerrimum ) G. -3 illius O illius G || tardis V.- 4 neque esse oneque esse G || sine V. — 5 sine V. -6 haec O || mina ei V. - 7 insulauegeladas O insulas ue cicladas G. -8 tractam o tractam G. -9 siniam0.- 10 ubuste O || phaselus G (corrected from phasellus ). — 11 silua omitted in 0 , but added later in margin with caret || citeono O citeorio G. - 13 citheri V.- 14 cognotissima O cognotissima G. 15 phaseluso--CRITICAL APPENDIX. 229--.S{ corrected from phasellus) G.– 17 tuas G. - 20 uocare cura V uocaret ( uagaret Lachmann ) aura w . -23 amaret V a marei Lachmann .24 nouissime V. - 25 haec O hoc G || recomdita 0. -27 castrum V(al' castorum G ).5. Interval ofoneverse in V , filled in Gwith title ad lesbiam. -1 iuamusO (with space left for illuminated initial, and a minute v in outer margin to guide illuminator) . — 3 estinemus O extimemus G. - 4 ocidere 0. 8 deinde mille · altera deinde ( deinde mi ( corrected from mille) alterada ( corrected from deinde) . —11 conturbauimus V || nesciamus V.13 tantus V || sciet Buecheler cf. Priap. 52. 12 cum tantum sciet essementularum .6. No interval in 0 , but two parallel strokes for paragraph mark opposite first verse in margin . Interval of one verse in G , filled withtitle ad Flauium, with first part of proper name written over erasure. —1 catulo 0. - 2 ne V ni w nei Lachmann. 5 hic 0. —8 asirio V IIflagrans V Ellis ( perhaps rightly; cf. note and excursus in edition ofEllis) . –9 haec O hec ( al' hic) G || illo V ( al’ille G) .- 12 nam inistapraeualet O nam ni ista preualet G nam nil stupra ualet Haupt iam nilstupra uales Schwabe. — 13 et futura panda V ec fututa Lachmann . -14 nec V nei Marcilius. —15 babes o || bonique 0. -17 uersum Ouersu ( corrected from uersum ) G.7. Interval of one verse in V , filled in G with title ad lesbiam . -1 quod V. - 3 libisse o lybisse G. - 4 lasarpici fecis iaces tyrenis o lasarpiciferis (al fretis) iacet ty*renis al cyrenis G. -5 oradum o ora dum G. -6 beati V ( al beari G) . — 7 sydera V. -9 basiei V (al' basia G ) .10 catulo 0. - 11 euriosi V.8. Interval of one verse in V , filled in G with title ad se ipsum .1 iser 0 (with space left for illuminated initial, and minute m in margin to guide illuminator ) || catule O. -4 quod quo (corrected from quod ) GIl dicebat Dousa iunior. - 5 nobis] tantum Schoell ( cf. 37. 12) . —6 cumO tum G ( corrected from cum) . —8 candid*i G. - 9 inpote O impote GIl noli omitted in Vimpotens noli Auantius impotens ne sis Scaliger impete insano Heyse.- 15 ne teque tibi O ne te quae tibi G uae te BalthazarVenator tene w rere Scaliger nosce Heyse quae te, uae tibi, Froehlich .16 teadhibit 0. —18 cui] cum 0.9. Interval of one verse in V , filled in G with title Ad Verannium .1 ueranni V Verani Ramler || e omitted in 0 o Baehrens. 2 antistas DIl millibus G. - 4 uno animo sanamque O uno animo suamque (al' sanam )G anumque Faernus. -9 suabior V.---230 CRITICAL APPENDIX.-----10. No interval in V. -1 uarius V || mens O meus G ( correctedfrom mens, and with meus written above it ). -3 tunc O tum G. —4 ille pidum G ( corrected from nlepidum ). — 7 iarbithinia O iam bithinia G |se] posse V. -8 et quoniam (al quonam G) Vecquonam Statius || hereV. -9 nihil neque nec in ipsis O nihil ( corrected from nichil, the usual spelling ) neque in * ipsis (al' neque ipsis · nec) G. 13 non (al' nec) G.- 16 leticam o letic*am G || homis O hominis G. -21 nec hic O nec hic G. - 22 fractumque V.- 24 docuit V || sinediorem O cinediorem G. 25 inquid 0. - 26 comodam O istos commoda: enim Burmann istos:commodum enim Hand istos: nam uolo commode Statius || serapini 0sarapim ( al'e above first a) G. –27 deserti mane me inquid o deserti (al deferri) mane me inquit G minime Pontanus meminei Munro mi animeBergk. 30 cuma V ll grauis V Gauius Ribbeck erat grauis Heyse.31 ad me] a me 1. - 32 paratis Statius. - 33 sed tulsa O sed tu insulaG || male corrected in Gfrom some word ending differently Il niuis O.11. No interval in V , but two parallel strokes for paragraph mark inouter margin opposite first verse in 0, and paragraph mark in G withtitle in inner margin Ad furium et Aurelium . —2 penetrauit o penetrauitG. 3 coa 0 . 5 hircanos O || arabaes que G. - 6 siue sagax V.8 epra 0. -9 sui 0. – 1l renum horribilesque 0 Rhenum horribilesque G || ulti omitted in 0 ( but cf. next verse ), omitted at first in G , but added later. - 12 uitimosque O mosque ( apparently corrected fromultimosque ) G. - 13 fere V.- 14 tentare G. 15 nunciare 0. -17 mechis V. –22 cui V.- 24 continued with v. 23 in 0 , and also at first inG, where, however , it was later erased , and written on the next line, thefirst words of the title ofc. 12 being erased to make room for it.12. Interval of one verse in V , filled in G with 11. 24 ( see note above ) ,leaving of the title that earlier stood there only the last word Asinium.1 matrucine V (above which word in G stands in minute letters al' [ notad] followed by matr .... , ofwhich the last few letters are mere scratchesand illegible. As it appears in the photolithographic facsimile the wordmatrucine of the text may have been written over an erasure ). — 2 loco Oioco (al' loco ) G. 4 falsum al salsum 0 salsum (al falsum ) G.7 frater 0 (cf. 68. 91) . —8 uoluit 0. —9 dissertus 0 differtus Passeratius. 12 monet 0 || extimatione O extimatione G. — 13 uerum nemoest sinum o uerum est nemo sinum G.- 14 sedtaba exhibere 0 sethabaexhibere G. - 15 miserunt ( corrected from misserunt) G || numeri onumeri (al' muneri) G. - 16 ameni V.13. Interval of one verse in V , filled in G with title Ad Caluum Poetam . - 1 enabis o ( with no space left for initial, but with minute c in----CRITICAL APPENDIX . 231--margin to guide illuminator). -2 dii V. – 6 imquam O unquam G. 9 meos 0. - 10 qui V (al quid G) .14. Interval of one verse in V , filled in G with title Ad Caluum Poe.tam . -1 e 0 (with no space left for initial, but with minute n in marginto guide illuminator) ne G. -3 uaciniano G. – 5 mal' (i.e. male; cf. 5.7 d'ind , 17. 4 palud' , etc.) O malis G. - 6 dii V || dant o dant G.9 si illa V. 10 i 0 (i.e. mi, as in 31.5, 51.1, 76. 26, and 99.13. Butelsewhere in O mi is written in full, or me stands for it, while mi is almostalwaysfor the dissyllabic dative form , which is occasionally written in full as michi, though never as mihi) michi G. — 12 dii V.- 14 misisti V.15 oppinio 0 opimo ( al' optimo) G. –16 h ( i.e. haec) O hec ( i.c. haec)G || false fit adhibit O salse ( al' false ) sit abibit ( corrected from adbibit)G. - 17 luserit (al' x above the s) G. — 18 curam o cur tam G || scriniaO scrineam (corrected from scrinia) G. –19 suffenam V. -20 hac V II tibi hiis supplitus 0. —23 seculi V.14% . No interval in V. Avantius inserted these three verses after16. 13; Froehlich prefixed them to c. 16; cf. also note on 2. 11-13 , and commentary on 14. - 3 amouere 0 .15. Interval ofone verse in V , filled in G with title Ad Aurelium . -1 omendo O ( with no space left for initial, but with mircute c in margin toguide illuminator ). — 2 pudentem o pudentem peto G (but with signs to indicate that the order is wrong ) pudenter Maehlius cf. v . 13. —5 pudicumBaehrens. 6 ueremur G ( but with i later inserted after m) .- 8 re(corrected from te) G || occupari O. 10 bonisque V. - 11 qualibet utal' iubet moneto O qualubet ( corrected from qualibet) ut iubet moueto G. -13 huc G || prudenter (al' pudenter) G. – 16 nostrorum 0. – 17 hatamen 0 ah ( corrected from ha) tamen (al tum) G. -18 atractis 0. 19 percurrent (corrected from percurent) G.16. No interval in V. - 1 dedicabo V. - 3 mi V (corrected to me G ).4 quod ( corrected to quot) G || moliculli ( corrected to molliculi) G. -6 recesse 0 . -7 tamen O tamen (altum) G tunc MSS. of Plin . Ep.IV . 14. 5. — 8 sint V. - 10 hiis 0. — 12 hosque O uosque G uos quei Rossbach uos quom L. Müller || basiõrum G.- 14 dedicabo V.17. No interval, but paragraph mark, in V.- 1 oculo inaque ooculo in aque G || ledere O ledere G loedere Scaliger. -3 ac sulcis tantisinreduiuis O ac sulcis tantis in rediuiuis G assulis stantis Statius axulisHand axuleis Schwabe acsuleis Ellis. —4 canaque 0. - 6 sali subsili Osali subsili G Salisubsilis Statius Salisubsali Bergk || suscipiant O suscipiantG. – 7 maximi omitted at first,but added in margin in G. - 8 quedam 0.--232 CRITICAL APPENDIX .-.6---10 pudiceque paludes V punicaeque Heyse. 12 insulsi simus 0.13 himuli 0. -14 cui iocum O cui iocum G. - 15 ut Vest Lachmann- 18 se ] me V || aluus 0. -19 superata V cf. Festus s. u. suppernati,Catu [ llus ad Coloniam .In) fossa Ligari ia (cet suppernata se ]curi.21 merus Passeratius || nihil uidet nihil O nichil uidet nichil G.22 quid ( altered from qui) G. - 23 nunc uolo uolo O nunc cum uolo G hunc meum Froehlich. —24 potest olidum O potest olidum G | exi.tare 0 exitare G. —25 delinquere G.21. Interval of one verse in V , filled in G with title Ad Aurelium . -1 Westphal prefixes a conjectural verse O qui pessimus es mali sodalis |exuricionum O exuricionum Gessuritionum Bergk. - 3 aut posthac aliisHand. 4 dedicare V. — 5 nam omitted , but inserted later, in G || simulexiocaris V. - 6 haeres Voss || experibis o experibus (albis) G.7 struentem Ribbeck. —8 irruminatione O irruminatione G. –9 ipsi V.10 esuriere 0 (but with second e cancelled by dot below it) exurire G essurireBergk. —11 ah omitted in V , added by Scaliger meus mi Meleager mimeus Rossbach uae meus Faernus a temet Froehlich a te mei Munro a temi Schmidt ieiunus Huschke mellitus Hand tenellus Baehrens. —12 desi.nat V.- 13 nec facias finem sed irruminatus sum 0 (but with signs toindicate that the order of facias finem should be reversed ) nec finem faciassed irruminatus sum Gnei Baehrens.22. No interval, but paragraph mark in margin in V , and in Gmarginal title Ad Varum. -3 idemque (al' itemque) G. –4 ad decemBachrens. 5 sit ut v Il palmisepto V. – 6 noue V nouei Lachmannnouae Birt. -7 membrane V membrana Avantius. — 8 detecta VderectaStatius. 10 capri mulgus O capri • mulgus G. - ll aberrat Ellis.13 ac retristius O hac re tristius G scitius L. Mueller tersius or tertiusMunro hoc retritius Scaliger.- 14 infaceto rure V. — 15 attigit ul' nequenec 0.16 ac] ha V. - 17 tamquam V.- 18 nec 0.- 20 siuis 0.21 maritice O.23. No interval, but paragraph mark in margin in V , and in Gmarginal title Ad Furium . —1 furei V || seruo V ( al seruus G) seruos Statius. - 2 cimex al' neque O cimex animal ( perhaps cancelled later )neque G. -7 ne o nec corrected to ni G. - 9 minas 0. — 10 facta ofaçta G furta Haupt cf. 68. 140 . 12 aut qui V.- 13 aridum magis oaridum magis G. - 14 essuritione Bergk. —15 si G. - 16 sudor abest• saluia O ( in G the second abest is written over an erasure ). -17 muc tus ue O muccusue G || piçtuita G. - 19 cuius O culus altered from cuius(al cuius) G || sal illo V ( but the words were afterward connected in G ).-- 23 posses V posseis Bachrens. 24 tua V. - 26 sextercia G. -.--.CRITICAL APPENDIX . 233..-- ..-27 satis beatus O satis beatus G Heyse satis beatu's Bergk sat is beatus Passeratius sat es beatus Calpurnius.24. No interval in V. -1 est O est G || uiuenciorum O iuuenciorumG. - 2 quod V. - 4 mi dededisses O mi dedisses G Midae dedisses Voss.-5 qui V ( al' cui G) || nec seruus O neque ( al' nec) seruus G. – 7 quiG. 9 hec tu qua lubet G.25. No interval, but paragraph mark in margin in V , with marginaltitle Ad Tallum in G. 1 talle V.- 2 medulla G || imulla O || moricula Omoricilla G oricilla Scaliger. - 3 aurracoroso or arracoroso O arancoroso(al' araneoso ) G. -4 tale o talle G. - 5 mulieraries (afterward corrected to read mulier aries ) ostendet ossitantes O mulier alios ( alteredfrom alies) (al aues ul' aries ) ostendet ( corrected to ostendit) os*citantes(with c written over erasure) G munerarios Lachmann mulierarios Hauptluna mulierarios Heyse balnearios Riese. Many others have applied morevigorous methods ofemendation , and yet others think the verse spurious. –7 sathabum cathagraphosque thinos O saethabum cathagraphosque thinosG. -8 inepteque 0. - 9 remite 0. — 10 manusque] natisque Scaliger.- 11 insula V. - 12 inimica V. - 13 deprensa o deprehensa G.26. No interval, but paragraph mark in margin in V , and in Gmarginal title Ad Furium. — 1 uestra O ed. 1473 Heinsius BaehrensSchmidt nostra G Lachmann and many others uostra Muretus Lipsius Klotz Schwabe Postgate. 2 omitted in 0 || fauonii G. -3 apheliotae V.5 horribilem (with dot under h) G.27. No interval, but paragraph mark in margin in V , and in Gmarginal title Ad pincernam suum . - 1 falerui 0. - 2 ingeremi O ingeremi G. — 3 posthumie G. —4 ebriose Vcf. Gell. VI. 20. 6 Catullus quo que elegantissimus poetarum in hisce uersibus ·Minister ... ebriosioris 'cum dicere ebrio ' posset, et, quod erat usitatius, ' acinum ’ in neutrogenere appellare, amans tamen hiatus illius Homerici suauitatem , ' ebriam 'dixit propter insequentis ' a ' litterae concentum . Qui “ ebriosa ' autem Catullum dixisse putant, aut ebrioso ', nam id quoque temere scriptuminuenitur, in libros scilicet de corruptis exemplaribus factos inciderunt.5 ad uos quod iubet O quod iubet G || limphe V. - 7 thionianus V.28. No interval, but paragraph mark in margin in V , and in Gmarginal title Ad Verannium (apparently corrected from Veraniuni) etFabullum, —2 artis Schwabe. — 3 uerā 0 . - 4 satis ue 0. – 6 et quidnam o et quid nam G || patet O patet G. -8 in lucello Heinsius. -9 o mē mi o omnem mi G. - 10 trahe V || tentus Voss || yrruinasti 0.11 parum (al' pari) G || fuisti V. – 12 urpa ( uerba G.- 14 nobis cuobis ( al' nobis ) G | dii V. - 15 romule O romulei G.---666--234 CRITICAL APPENDIX .-mann. - 16 par.--29. No interval, but paragraph mark in margin in V , and in Gmarginal title In Romulum cathamitum . -3 nam murram O nam murram G || comota 0. —4 cum te V ante Statius Lachmann and others unctiFaernus unctum Scaliger umquam Schwabe cf. Licinius Caluus ap. Suet.Iul. 49 || brittania 0. — 5 hoc Heinsius. - 7 perambulauit O perambulauit G. -8 aut ydoneus V aut Adoneus Statius haut idoneus Sillig autAedonis W. Everett. —13 nostra O nostra G || diffutura Vdefututa Lach-14 comerset O comeset G. 15 alit Valid Avantius.tum 0. -17 primum O primum G prima Auantius. — 19 libera O hybera G ( corrected from hibera, and apparently with the h written over an erasure) || sit G || amni V || thagus V.- 20 hunc gallie timet et brittanie ( britannie G) V nunc Galliae timetur (tenentur Ribbeck minatur Peiper )et Britanniae Froelich Schwabe Westphal hunc Galliae timetis et BritanniaeFaernus nunc Galliae timent, timent Britanniae Puccius et uncta Galliaultima et Britannia Bergk . Many other emendations have also been proposed by various critics. — 21-24 Mommsen would place these verses( Schwabe only vv. 23–24) after v. 10. - 21 hinc V.- 23 orbis Haupt || o piissime Lachmann o piissimei Haupt o potissimei L. Mueller orbis oprobissimei or putissimei Schwabe urbis o pudet meae Ellis.30. No interval, but paragraph mark in V , and in G marginal title Ad Alphenum . - 1 alphene V || salse V. - 3 non me dubitas V.4,5 Lachmann placed these verses after v. 12; Ellis conjectures a lacunaafter v.3. -4 nec] nunc Baehrens num Schwabe || falla cum 0.— 5 quod L. Mueller || negligis V. -6 o heu V || dico V dice Ellis cf. Charis.349 K. || cui ne 0. — 7 tu te G || me omitted in V iniquius Schwabe. -8 tuta omitted in O omnia tuta G. —9 inde G. - 10 uento V | finis 0.-ll ut dii V.31. No interval, but paragraph mark in margin in V , and in Gmarginal title Ad Sirmium Insulam . — 1 sirinio O sirmio ( corrected from sirinio) G. 3 neptunus O neptūnus G.– 4 libente V. - 5.0 (cf.14. 10 n. ) michi G || crederis (al credens) G || thimiam O thimiam G ||bithinios O bithinos (corrected from bithinios) G. – 8 meus 0. — 10 acquiesimus O acquieximus G. —13 gaude uos quoque lidie O gaudete uos quoque lydie G Lydii Scaliger Libuae Lachmann limpidae Auantius lu cidae Guarinus liquidae Postgate uiuidae Munro uos quoque, incitaeHeyse. -14 ridere O.32. No interval, but paragraph mark in margin in V, and in Gmarginal title Ad Ipsicillam . — 1 meas O mea (with erasure of one letter following) G || ipsi illa O ipsi thila G Ipsitilla or Ipsicilla w Hypsithilla Scaliger Ipsimilla Baehrens. - 5 luminis 0.- 6 lube foras habire O..-CRITICAL APPENDIX . 235-33. No interval, and no paragraph mark in V , but in 0 a long hori sontal line is drawn from the left hand marginjust above thefirst verse of the poem ( which begins a new page) and extending as far as the second word. — 4 uoratiore V ( al' uolantiore G ). —5 horas V. - 8 põt ( = potest ) ase V.34. No interval in V , and no paragraph mark in 0 , but in G para graph mark in left margin , and in right Carmen Diane. - 1 dyane G..3 omitted in V. - 5 latonnia 0. –8 deposuit V. — 11 saltumque recun ditorum 0. - 12 omniumque sonancium O omnium sonantium G. -15 (al et noto es) G. -17 menstrua O menstrua G. - 18 mentiens 0 ||animum 0 . - 21 quaecumque (same abbreviation as in 11. 13) O scisquecumque tibi placet G ( with the last two letters of placet apparentlywritten over an erasure, and alsis quocumque tibi placet in margin ). —23 Ancique Merula and others.35. No interval, but paragraph mark in V (the poem begins a new page in O) , and in G marginal title Ad Cecilium iubet libello loqui.2 occilio o | papire V. —4 ueniam O menia ( corrected from meniam)G. - 5 quasdam ( corrected from quosdam) uolo G. - 10 inities O.12 impotentem amorem O impotentem amore ( corrected from amorem)G. – 13 eligit indotatam o elegit indotatam G. - 14 dindimi V.16 saphica O saphyca G. – 17 docior 0. —18 cecilia V ll inchoata G.36. No interval in V , and no paragraph mark in 0; but in G para graph mark and marginal title Ad lusi cacatam. 1 anuale (annuale G )suo lusi V. - 5 dedissemque O dedissemque G || yambos G. - 6 se lec tissima Peiper se electissima Maehly. — 9 haec ( apparently so rather than hoc ) Ow || me Bursian . - 10 ioco se lepido Bursian || uouere se diuisV. - 11 o omitted in 0 || poncto O punto G. –12 adalium 0 adalium( al' ydalium ) G || utriosque (al’ uriosque) G Surosque apertos Voss Vriosque portus Heinsius. — 13 gnidumque O gnidumque G. - 14 colisqueO colis que G || amathuntam o || alcos V. - 15 durachium O durachiumG || hadrie V , - 18 intereo 0. — 19 turis V.- 20 anuale (annuale G)suo lusi V.--37. No interval, but paragraph mark in V , and in G marginal titleAd contubernales. — 1 uoxque 0. - 2 pileatis ( corrected from pilleatis)G Haupt || non ( non G) afratribus V. - 3 mentualas 0. — 5 confutereV || hyrcos V hinnos Bonnet. 10 scipionibus or scorpionibus w ropionibus Peiper ( cf. Sacerd . Art. Gram . I. 461 K.). – 1l me V miHeinsius mei Schwabe namque Avantius. 13 Ğ ( = qua, as in 39.15 ) 0. – 14 comsedit O. 16 semitani o semitarii ( with -rii over236 CRITICAL APPENDIX .erasure) G || mechi G. -17 Paragraph mark in V , and in G marginaltitle Ad Egnatium || une ( al' uno) G. - 18 Celtiberosae Priscianus V.77; VII. 22. —- 20 edens O.---38. No interval in V , but paragraph mark in 0 , though not in G. -1 est ( est G ) si carnifici V. 2 male sime hercule et laboriose V ei etLachmann et est Sillig. — 3 ei Birt. — 7 iuuet Heinsius. —8 symonideisG. Some critics conjecture a lacuna after v. 8. Froehlich transposeshither 2. 11-13.39. No interval and no paragraph mark in V.- 1 candides 0. —2 sei O seu G. — 3 subscellum O subsellum G || excitat orator V .. 4 adimpii regum filii O ad pii ( al' impii) regum filii G. – 5 ingetur orbi cum 0. -9 te omitted in V monendus es w te est Spengel est te Machly.- 11 fartus Venator pastus Voss pinguis Gloss. Vat. (in Mai VII. 574 ).The MS. reading has been impugned because (1) no other instance of parcus as descriptive ofthe Umbrians can be cited, and (2) a Vatican glossary quotes this passage with pinguis instead of parcus ( cf. Pers. 3. 74 pinguibus Vmbris ): but (1) the Vatican glossary makes other blinders in this andother quotations, and (2) its reading may have been affected by that of Per sius, while ( 3 ) the Umbrians appear from Martial XII. 81 to have been proverbial for poverty or frugality. || et truscus O etruscus (corrected fromettruscus) G. - 12 lamiuinus O lamiuinus G. - 13 aut (aut G) meos V.16 risti 0. - 17 es omitted in V , added by Conradius de Allio.18 quique nuxit O mixit Ellis || inane 0. — 20 noster 0 || expolitor Oexpolitior (corrected from expolitor) G || deus 0. –21 lotus O lotus G.40. No interval, but paragraph mark in V , and in G marginal title Ad Rauidum . -3 dens o deus ( corrected from dens) G || auocatus Oaduocatus ( corrected from auocatus) G. — 5 perueniamus V || inhora 0. 6 nis 0. — 7 ens 0. 8 pena O poema (al' poena) G.41. No interval and no paragraph mark in V. - 1 a me an • a ·puella 0 a me an apuella G Ameana Statius Ametina Haupt ArretinaPeiper Anniana Schwabe anne sana Conr. de Allio amens illa Pleitner ||diffututa Guarinus. 2 popossit 0. – 4 forniani O formiani ( correctedfrom forniani) G. - 5 puelle V. – 6 conuocare o conuocare G.– 7 rogate w Schwabe. — 8 solet · et V || ymaginosum Oymaginosum G haec imaginosum w esse imaginosa Schwabe solide est imaginosa Haupt solet: enimaginosam Doering rogare q. s. solet aes imaginosum Froehlich .42. No interval and no paragraph mark in V. - 1 endecha sillabiV. - 3 locum (al' Iocum G) V || meca O mecha G. - 7 illam G. -8 mirmice Vmimice Turnebus. 9 catulli V. - ll meca O mecha G.-CRITICAL APPENDIX . 237---- 12 moeca O mecha G. - 13 o lupanar Statius. —14 potest w andmany editors. 16 al * iud G. - 17 ferre ocanis Oferreloſcanis GWestphal placed vv. 16 and 17 after v . 23, writing quo si non; Pleitner ,after v. 21, writing pote ut for potest, which emendation was adopted by Munro, but without transposition . — 19 meca o mecha G. – 20 meca O mecha G.– 21 sed nichil O sed nichil G || nihil] nil ( corrected fromnichil ) G. -22 uobis w Lachmann. -23 putatis Schwabe uoletis Machly.43. No interval and no paragraph mark in V. - 1 nimio w Scaliger.- 7 comparantur 0.- 8 sedum O seclum ( corrected from sedum ) G ||et] atque ( correctedfrom et) G.44. No interval and no paragraph mark in V. - 2 cum quibus ( with cum afterward crossed out) G. - 4 pignoris V ll contedunt 0.7 aliamque o aliamque G || expulsus sim o expulsus sim G expuli tussimAvantius expui tussim Scaliger.— 8 mens uertur O mens uertur G meusuenter Faernus. 10 festianus 0. - 11 oratione minantium 0 orationem minantium G orationem in Antium Statius || petitorum ( corrected from petitorem) G. - 12 pestilente 0. – 13 hoc 0.- 17 ulte Faernusultu' Muretus ultus erratum Baehrens. — 19 sestire cepso V|| qui o quiG. — 20 sectio V || ferant Schwabe. -21 tunc (but with t over erasure) G tum Haupt || legit O legit G legi Lachmann fecit Baehrens legit librum w.45. No interval and no paragraph mark in V. -1 ac men V || sep timios O septimos G. — 2 inquid 0 || ac me V. 3 perditi V. - 40 mens 0. —5 potest O potest G.- 6 inlibia V || Indiaue L. Mueller. -8 sinistra, ut ante, (9) dextram or sinistram ut ante ( 9) dextram w sinisterante, ( 9) dextram Voss. —9 approbatione o approbatione G. - 10 ad hac ( hanc G) me V. -12 saniata V.-- 13 inquid 0 || septinulle V. 17 sinistrauit ant. (ante G) V.- 18 dextram O dextram G || approbaci onem O approbationem G. 21 septumius O septumius G || agmen Oagmen (apparently corrected from acmen) G. - 22 siriasque britaniasqueO syriasque G. —23 ac me V.- 24 libidinisque V.46. No interval and no paragraph mark in V. - 1 uere gelidos V. -3 cephiri ( cephyri G || silesit 0 || aureis V.- 4 liquantur 0 || frigii V || catule 0. — 5 ruber estuore V. - 6 asye G. – 7 praetepidans 0.8 laeto Schwabe. -9 cetus O coetus G. -10 quo simul V. - ll diuerseuarie uie V diuerse uariae Scaliger diuersae uarie Guarinus diuersaeuariae Victorius Lachmann.47. Ne interval and no paragraph mark in V. - 2 mundae Bueche.ler pummi Baehrens. - 4 proposuit O proposuit G.----238 CRITICAL APPENDIX .---48. No interval and no paragraph mark in V. - 1 inuenti O inuenti G. -4 numquam inde corsater O numquam inde corsater G mi unquam Statius uidear satur Guarinus. 6 sint o sit ( corrected from sint) G.49. Interval ofone verse in V , filled in G with title Ad Ciceronem, ofwhich the second word is written over an erasure . In O there is a paragraph mark. — 2.m. tulli O marce Tulli G. — 5 pessumus 0. – 6 pes simus V.50. Interval of one verse in V , filled in G with title Ad lucinium . InO there is a paragraph mark. -2 inuicem Sabellicus in tueis Schwabe.5 haec 0 || illos 0. — 7 abiit V. - 8 lacini faceti tuique V. - 10 somnosO somnos G. – 12 uersaretur 0 uersaretur G. - 13 simulique || omnem (al' essem ) G. – 14 ad V. - 16, 17 Cf. note after 54. 1.18 caueris V || praecepsque 0.- 19 ocello V.- 20 penas V ll nemessis 0 nemessis G || resposcat 0. - 21 uemens Statius Haupt ( cf. Lachmann on Lucr. II. 1024 ) .51. Interval of one verse in V , filled in G with title Ad lesbiam . In O there is a paragraph mark. —1 mihi ( cf. 14. 10 n. ) impar o mi* imparG. -3 te omitted here, but prefixed to v. 4 in V; but in G it was laterinserted in its proper place here, and te spectat at the beginning of v. 4altered to read spe ctat. 5 miseroque O miseroquod ( corrected from-que) G. - 7 aspexi V. -8 omitted in V quod loquar amens Partheniusin fauce loquellae Ezra van Ieuer uocis in ore Ritter gutture uocis West phal in pectore uocis Pleitner. - 10 famina V. - ll tintiant O ||geminae Schrader Lachmann gemina et Spengel gelida Bachrens gemina obteguntur Schwabe. — 12 limina G. —13 catuli o catulli G. -- 14 exultas V.52. Interval of one verse in V , filled in G with title In Nouium . In O there is a paragraph mark. — mori V. — 2 incurulu 0 || nouius Onouius G Nonius ancients who quote the verse ( cf. especially Plin . N. H.XXXVII. 81) . —3 Vacinius G. -4 mori V.53. No interval and no paragraph mark in V. - 1 nisi 0 || e] et Vec Baehrens. 2 uaciniana G. - 3 meos V || crimina (al carmina) G ||caluos V || explicaset 0. —4 amirans 0 Between vv . 4 and 5 there is nointerval, but a paragraph mark in V , and in G marginal title de Octoniscapite. 5 dii V || salapantium desertum 0 salapantium desertum G salaputtium Sen. Contr . VII. 4. 7.54. No interval and no paragraph mark in V. But cf. 53. 4 n .I otonis capud apido est pussillum 0 otonis caput o * pido est pusillum GCRITICAL APPENDIX. 239.--- 19 pro --After v. I are repeated in V 50. 16, 17 (but in O with haec for hoc), just one page removed in Gfrom their true position . 2 heri ( corrected fromeri) G || rustice V || cruta 0. — 5 sufficio seniore cocto V ( but with al' .p . above cocto in G) Fuficio Haupt. Between vv. 5 and 6 there is no in terval, but a paragraph mark in V , and in G marginal title In camerium .55. No interval and no paragraph mark in V. But cf. 54. 5 n.1 molestus es O molestus es G. –3 in campo Sillig || inminore o in minore G te quaes. in minore campo w. - 4 id (al' in G) circo V. -7 prehendi G. –8 seſena V. - 9 ah uel te or Auli, te w Aulum , te Heyse auens te or has uellens Schwabe auellent (sic ipse flagitabam ) ( 10)puellae? Ellis. — 11 quendam G || inquid 0 || nudum sinum reducens Avantius (recludens Riese) nudum reducta pectus Ellis nudum reduc amicum Baehrens (puellum Schwabe ). — 12 em ( corrected from hem G )V || haec O hec ( corrected from hic?) G heic Schwabe. 13 herculei V.-14 te infastu V ten Muretus. —16 audaciter hoc O audacter · hoc G( 15 ) ede hoc ( 16) audacter Voss || crede ( al crude) G || lucet V lucei Scaliger. –17 nunc] non Baehrens. 18 tenens O tenens G. hicies () proiicies G. — 20 loquelļa G. - 22 uestri O uestri (al' no overletters ue) G nostri sis w ( fis Heyse) uestri sim ego Avantius dum ueri sis Rossberg56. Interval ofone verse in V , filled in G with title Ad Catonem. In Othere is a paragraph mark. 3 nide 0 . 5 populum O populum G.6 crisantem w crusantem Bachrens || dyone G Dianae Westphal. –7 rigida (corrected from ridida) G.57. No interval and no paragraph mark in V. -3 paris V. – 5 im praese ( = imprese) O || nece luentur V.- 6 tenelli Haupt. — 7 lecticuloO Baehrens lectulo G lectululo Avantius lectulo et Froehlich . -9 niuales0 || socii et Vsociei Scaliger.58. No interval and no paragraph mark in V.- 1 uestra O uestra G.2 catulus V. - 4 quadruuiis G || angi portis 0. —5 magna amireminiO magna admiremini G magnanimos w.58% . No interval and no paragraph mark in V. Many critics con sider this a part of c. 55, adding it to the end of that poem , or inserting it after v. 5, or v. 12, or v. 13. —2, 3 Muretus and others reverse the order ofthese verses. —3 primipes ue O primipes (al' pinnipes) ue G. -4 thesiuinee O niueis citisque bigis Muretus niuea citaque biga Hand.mipedas o plūmipedas G. — 7 uictos O iunctos ( corrected from uictos)Guinctos w cunctos Schrader . 9 praesens 0. - 10 esse o liomichi G mi w || amiceque ritando O.- --5 plu-240 CRITICAL APPENDIX ...-59. No interval, but paragraph mark in V , and in G marginal title In Rufum . - 1 rufum O rufum G Rufulum Pleitner Rufum egens West phal Rufum edax Rossberg || fallat G. 5 abse miraso 0 .60. No interval and no paragraph mark in V .-- 1 libissinis O libi.sinis G Libystinis Scaliger. -2 silla V. - 3 mentem 0. — 4 suplicus Osuppliciis (corrected from supplicus ) G. – 5 contentam ( corrected later to read contenptam ) O conteptam (corrected from contentam ) G || animis V.There is an interval of five verses in 0, extending to the bottom ofthe page.61. Interval of one verse in V (at top of page in O ) , filled in G withtitle Epythalamius Iunie et Mallii. No interval between stanzas in V. -1 obellicon iei o o eliconei G. - 4 ohýmenee ( omitting hymen) 0.5 hymen · ohymenee hymen 0 o hymenee hymen G. – 7 amaraci ( cor.rected from amarici) O amarici G. -11 hylari V. -12 continens O continens G. – 13 tinnuula o tinnula ( corrected from tinnuula ) G.16 iunia O Iunia (corrected from uinia ) G || mallio V.- 17 id alium Oidalium ( corrected from ad alium ) G. — 18 adfrigium O ad frigium G.21 uult 0. – 22 mirtus V || asya G. –23 amadriades V. -24 ludricum O ludricum G. -25 nutriunt in honore or odore w nutriuntur honoreMachly. -27 tespie V. – 28 aouios 0. – 29 nimpha O nympha ( corrected from nimpha) G. — 33 reuincens V. - 38 innodum o in nodumG.– 40 o himenee (hymenee G ) hymenee himen (hymen G) V. -42 citaries 0.— 46 amatis V magis ac magis Guarinus magis ah magisScaliger magis acmulis Hermann magis ancxiis Haupt mage mutueisPleitner magis est ama- ( 47) tis petendus Bergk. —After v. 49 follows in Vcompararies ( compararier G ) ausit (cf. vv. 65, 70, 75) . — 50 o himen (hymen G ) hymenee hymen (hymen G) V. —51 te sui si remulus O tesui siremulus (al' remus) G. —54 nitens Schenkl tumens Dousa iun. tete Hymen Voss || nouos V. 55 maritos V. - 56 fer oiuueni O feroiuueni G. —58-60 dedis agremio sue matris | o hymenee himen hymeneeO dedis agremio sue matris 1 o hymenee hymen o ( inserted above withcaret) hymenee G.- 61 nichil O nil ( corrected from nichil) G.66 quit ( corrected from quid ) G. -68 uities 0 ( thefirst i is underscored,but apparently by a recent hand ) uicier Guincier ADLP LachmannBaehrens iungier Scaliger nitier Avantius Schwabe Schmidt Ellis Postgatecingier Schrader Haupt. — 70 compararies 0. —73 at potest Peiper. -75 comparier 0 compararier (corrected from comparirier) G.— 77 adesSchrader . —Several critics conjecture a lacuna after v. 78; others, afterv. 83. In older editions the order is here much disturbed by interpolation ofother verses . -79-82 omitted in V without interval. - 84 This verse wasjudged spurious by Rossbach, and by Lachmann and others was placed after-----CRITICAL APPENDIX . 241G mergeum egesi3Libiscinas--3 kyzen -

7 20023

MULTS,-tired-178pe-Orvmalasv . 110. —86 Au- omitted here in V , but prefixed to v . 87, whence it wastransferred by Turnebus. —87 aurunculeia O arunculeia G.-92 ortullo ( corrected to ortulo G) V. – 93 iactintinus O iacintinus G. 94 abiit V. - 95 omitted in V.- 98 uideri ut O uiden ut G. -102 ad ultera G.- 103 procatur • pia Vprona Heyse. — 106 quin ] sed 0 Bachrens que G quin or qui w quei Scaliger Most editors read quin. || uult 0.109 abiit V. - 112-114 omitted in V without interval. 119 abiit V. -121 o omitted in V. - 122 flammineum uido O flamineum uideo G.123–125 io himen himenee io . | ite concinete in modum o io hymenhymenee io | io hymen hymenee io | ite concinite in modum G.126 taceatis V.- 127 fosceninna locacio O lotatio (al' locutio ) Giocatio Heinsius. - 129 uidens Schwabe. — 132 diu) domini O ( as iffromdñi) . –133 iubet Schrader . - 184 nam 0. –136 iulice 0 uillice G ..139 misera miser 0. –141 diceres V || malle (corrected from male G )V. - 142 unguenta te V. - 144 io hymen (hymen G) hymenee io V.145 omitted in V , as are also in o vv . 150, 155 , 160, 165, and 170,while in G v . 155 was omitted , but inserted later in margin . — 146 simus0 || tibique (corrected to tibi quae G ) V. - 149 io himen (hymen G)hymenee io V.- 150 omitted in O io hymen hymenee io G.– 151 tuis G.- 153 ni V. - 154 io hymen ( hymen G) hymenee io V. - 155 omittedin V , but in G io hymen hymenee io inserted in margin. —158 seruit Oseruit G sine fine seruit w sine fine erit Avantius Lachmann RossbachHaupt L. Mueller sine seruiat Pisanus Sillig Heyse Pleitner SchwabeBaehrens Ellis Schmidt Postgate quo tibicina fert uiam Ellis and Ferruci .– 159 io himen (hymen G) hymenee io V.- 160 omitted in O io hymen hymenee io G. - 162 anilis etas O annilis etas G. —164 io himen (hymen G) hymenee io V. - 165 omitted in O io hymen hymenee io G. - 166 tranffer 0. – 168 nassilemque sibi O rasilemque ( corrected fromrassilemque) sibi G. - 169 io hymen (hymen G ) hymenee io V.170 omitted in 0 io hymen hymenee io G. —171 aspice V || intus Statius unctus Barthius imus Fruterius. - 172 inthoro O in thoro G. -174, 175 io hymen ( hymen G) hymenee io | io himen ( hymen G ) himenee (hymenee G) io V. - 176 hac V. - 177 uritur (al' urimur) G.. 179, 180 like 174, 175. — 181 mite 0. — 182 praetextare O || puelleV.- 183 cubibe O || adeant G. - 184, 185 io hymen hymenee io | iohimen (hymen G ) hymenee io V. – 186 o omitted in V , added by Bachrens uos w iam Pleitner || unis V uiris Statius bonis Passeratius uos unis senibus bonae Avantius. — 187 berue V breue w Scaliger Lachmann.188 puellam O puellam G. –189, 190 like 174, 175. — 192 est tibi Oest tibi G. -194 uelut 0 uultu (with final u added later) (al ' uult) G.–196–200 standing in V after v. 205; placed here by Scaliger, perhapsInthen071mags 20013:49-.–50si remals.$ Danceinostuenitbimentveirtes zóny-DICHT- iis undertOLPLate

  1. Els

16-178 whersnlopultaThistortawaspaskelse242 CRITICAL APPENDIX .--wrongly. -196 admaritum tamen iuuenem O ad maritum tamen iuuenemG corrected by Scaliger. — 197 nichil ominus O nichoilominus G.198 pulcre res nec V pulcer es Robortello. — 199 abiit V. -- 200 rememorare G. - 201 remota es O remorata es G. - 203 inuenerit Oinuenerit G. - 204 cupis capis G ( but Schwabe thinks the original reading in G was cupis cupis) . - 205 abscondas V. 206 pulueris (pulueris G)ericei VAfrici Heinsius Africei Lachmann aridi Broukhusius Schrader .- 209 nostri O nostri G || uolunt O uolunt G. - 210 ludere V ludeiScaliger. -211 et ludite et V.- 214 nididem 0 . - 215 ingenerati 0.216 torcutus 0. -217 et 0. -220 sed michi ( cf. 14. 10 n. ) ante O sedmichi ante G semihiante Scaliger semhiante L. Mueller. - 222 maulio OIl facie Burmann || insciens O insciens G inscieis Lachmann. —223 nos cite 0 || obuieis Pleitner omnibus noscitetur ab insciis Dawes Haupt ( cf. Haupt Opusc. I. p. 18 ff .).— 224 suam ( suam G. –225 iudicet O.226 matre ( matre G) added in V to this verse from the following.227 matre omitted in V || egenus 0. -228 ab omitted in 0. -229 thelamacho Otheleamacho G. - 230 penelopeo O penolopeo G.231 hostia V. - 232 adbonlei O ad bolnei ( al' bonei) G. - 233 bone uite V || et transposed by L. Mueller after adsiduo. 234 assidue V. -235 exercere 0.---62. Interval of one verse in V , filled in 0 with the words explicit epithalamium, to which a paragraph mark is prefixed, and in G with thetitle Exametrum carmen nuptiale . In Othere is also a paragraph markbefore v. 1. —For the text of this poem the Thuanean Anthology ( cf. introductory note to Crit. App .) is of great value, and its readings, wherever they differ from the text of this edition , are given with the signature T , but without the indication of ligatures and of mere orthographical peculiarities.In it occurs the title Epithalamium Catulli ( cf. Quint. IX. 3. 16) . -1 turba uirorum in margin G. – 3 pinguis OT pingues G || linquere O( the same stroke answering for the abbreviation in both syllables, as occa . sionally elsewhere) linquere G. –4 imeneus O. 6 Paragraph mark, andin margin Puelle G consurgi eretera T. - 7 hoc eos ostendit O hoc eosostendit G oeta eos T || imber O imber G imbres Tignes Victorius ( Elliscompares similar confusion between ignis and imber in Val. Flac. V. 415;Lucr. I. 784, 785; Tib . I. 1. 48 ) Oetaeas obtendit n. umbras StatiusOetaeos (nominative) se ostendit n . umbreis Bergk.-— 8 certe si o certe * G siccer tes • i . T certe est Statius. - 9 quo uisere (uisere G) parentVquod uisere par est T uincere Avantius. 10 hymeno (corrected fromhymene) hymeneae hymeneae ades • 0 • hymenee 7. - 11 Paragraph mark , and in margin Puelle G || nobilis 7' || equalis O equalis G aequalis..CRITICAL APPENDIX. 243Den ingereminus G.


inuenertinal resta( plete-us Schradeere l' laenerati 0.. ) ante 03E22 marlio1. - 223es Haugesiudicet 0.foliowning.0. - 229dedlopeo 6:

-233 beg

assidue 7T. - 12 aspice 0 aspicite G || quaerunt at first written after innupte in 0, but later the letters runt cancelled by dots below them innupte que Ginnupte I || meditare quaerunt o meditare querunt G. – 13 habent]hūc ( = hunc) O hñt ( = habent) G || memora psile 7. — 14 omitted in V ,given in 7 || neimirum Baehrens || laborent Voss. —15 non 7 || diuisimus(al' diuidamus) G dimisimus w. –17 nunc T non V || committite 0 com mittite G conuertite 7. - 18 incipiạent 7.- 20 Paragraph mark, andin margin Puelle G || ignis 0. — 21 amatris 0. — 22 auelle T || natae ...matrem Gronovius. 25 Kymeno hymeneae Kymenades • 0 • Kymeneae7. - 26 Paragraph mark, and in margin Iuuenes G || quis T. - 27 fines7. –28 quo V || uir 7. - 29 uinxere o | prius · quam 0. — 30 aomitted in T. - 31 Kymeno Kymeneae Kymenades o Kymeneae T.32 Paragraph mark, and in margin Puelle G || equales ( with dot under sand m above it) G aequalis T.- After v. 32 no interval in V. - 34 saepe]mane Froehlich . — 35 comprendis (corrected from comprehendis) G deprendis Baehrens || cospem 7 Eous Schrader . 36 adlucet 7. — 37 quodtamen O quod ( al quid ) tamen G quittum T || carpiunt T || quam Vquema T. -38 Kymeno Kymeneae Kymenales Kymeno Kymeneae T.39 Paragraph mark, and in margin Puelle G || flos qui in Spengel Alos siin Baehrens. — 40 conclusus O contusus ( apparently corrected from conclusus) G conuolsus T. — 41 quaemulcens aure firma T || ymber G.– After v. 41 Spengel and others conjecture a lacuna of one verse.44 omitted in 0 and T. - 45 tum cara sui · sed (sed G) V tum cara T.48 Kymeneo Kymeneae Kymenades Kymeneae 7. -49 Paragraphmark, and in margin Iuuenes G || et T. — 50 extollit quam muniteamducatuuam 7 || uitem 0. -51 per flectens 7. - 52 flacellum 1. - 53 coluere O coluere ( corrected from colluere) G multi acoluere 7 || iuuenci(iuuenci G) with c corrected from t V iuuenci T bubulci Riese. —54 apsi T || marita T maritae Heinsius. 55 accoluere V acoluere T multeicoluere Haupt || iuuenci (iuuenci G) with c corrected from t v bubulci Riese. —56 tum inculta 7. —58 cura VT || uiro] suis Baehrens Afterv. 58 Muretus added Hymen o Hymenaee, Hymen ades o Hymenaee. Andmany critics conjecture a lacuna in the strophe vv. 59-66. — 59 at wllltua T || nec VT' nei Baehrens. 60 equo V equom 7. — 62 omitted in1. -63 pars after patri omitted in O, added by Avantius tercia pars patri data pars data tercia matri G tertia patris pars · est · data tertia matri Ipatri] patris est Muretus patrist Haupt; Schoell expunges the verse. -64 solit tu est noli tuignare T tuast Schwabe. —66 Kymeno KymeneaeKymenades • 0 • Kymeneae T ades ohymene G.- 43,words expa.-in Gmitenraztaphneagy (if.ion 1137, whennature7,6--i'peculiaris.K. 3. 10), GillingerOds,asa-29. mare,aunditOhanictoria(0Flau. 1.15 .umbrascertesisere 6 percent(corrected

11 Paraguay

ualis Gaega244 CRITICAL APPENDIX .-..--63. No interval, but paragraph mark in 0; in G interval of one verse filled with title De Berecinthia et Athi. —1 uetus 0 || actis celere Vcelerei Baehrens. -2 frigium V. - 3 Rheae L. Mueller.- 4 ubi O ubiG || amnis O amnis G. -5 iletas Villa Scaliger and many others ile Lach .mann ilei Bergk icta Statius || pondere (pondere G ) silices Vpondera silice Avantius pondere silicis Passeratius and many others deuolsit ile acuto sibi rodere silicis Haupt. — 7 et iam O et iam G || maculas V. – 8 timpanum o tympanum G typanum Scaliger. —9 timpanum o tympanum ( corrected from timpanum ) G typanum Scaliger || tuom Lachmann ac typum Munro || cibeles tu V Here and elsewhere in c. 63 where the name of the goddess occurs with a long penult, many have followed Lachmann in adopting the spelling Cybebe, according to the norm of Bentley, on which see Commentary || matri 0 . 10 -que] quod V ll tauri et V taurei Lachmann. - 11 hoc o ( the mark above the h is uncertain , but seems to be aperiod rather than an apostrophe ) hec G || fremebunda Muretus.12 cibelles o cibeles G. – 13 dindimene o dindimenee (corrected from dindimene) G || pectora V uaga pectora dominae Ahlwardt ad dominaeuaga pecora Ramler . - 14 loca celeri V , corrected by Guarinus.15 secutae Bergk. — 16 rabidum Bergk || pelage Victorius. - 17 eui tastis 0. – 18 hilarate erocitatis o hylarate crocitatis G erae citatis Avantius aere citatis w io citatis Baehrens || an animum O an animum G.19 cedat (al cedit) G || te 0. -20 frigiam V Il cibelles (cibeles G )phrigia V || Rheae L. Mueller. -21 cimbalum 0 || timpana 0. -22 ty bicen ( corrected from tibicen) G || phrix V. -23 menade sui iaciunt( iaciunt G) ei derigere ( derigere G) V. - 27 atris V || mulies notha U( but with marks to indicate that the order should be inverted ) nota mulier G. -28 thiasis Othyasiis (corrected from thysiis ) G. –29 timpanum OIl cimbala 0. -30 ydam G. –31 animagens O anima gens G (but appar.ently corrected from aiages ) animam agens Lachmann animo egens Avan tius animi egens Statius animae egens Baehrens. -32 timpano 0 || actisV. -33 iugi] luci V. - 34 rabidae Bentley || secuntur O sequntur G || propere pedem O propere pedem G properipedem Venator . —35 pedo mum (with pe cancelled by dots) G || cibelles O cibeles G || lasulle 0 .37 hiis O || labante (corrected from labente) G. - 38 abiit G || mollis V. -39 horis aureis V.- 40 sol adura V. -42 sonus O somnus ( correctedfrom sonus) Gll excitum O excitum G excitam Lachmann. 43 eum ]cum V quem Bentley | pasitheo V. - 45 ipse V || atris 0.- 46 sinequeis O sineque his G queis w. -47 estuanter ( estuanter G) usum Vaestuante rusum Victorius || retulit V. -49 allocuta est ita · uoce miseritus magestates O allocuta ( corrected from alocuta) est ita · uoce miseritus(al miseriter) maiestas G corrected by Avantius (miseritus Schwabe ). ----..CRITICAL APPENDIX . 245-------50 genitrix 0. -51 misera Froehlich || herifuge (corrected from uerfuge)G. -52 yde retuli G || memora 0. — 53 ut caput V || stabilia O stabilla( corrected from stabilia) G. -54 omnia] amica Muretus omissa Heyse opaca L. Mueller ad omnia irem Avantius. —55 patriam o ( not corrected to read patria, as Schwabe thinks). —56 popula atte V || dirigere O diri gere G. - On the page in O beginning with v . 57 four erasures have been made, apparently of blots of considerable size, and the writing continued over them . —58 ferar (corrected from ferat) G. — 60 gūmasiis o gymna siis ( corrected perhaps from gimnasiis, or, as Schwabe thinks, from gynnas tis) G guminasiis Ellis Baehrens Schwabe L. Mueller Riese Postgate.61 ha 0. — 62 figura est V || quid abierim O quid abierim G quod habu erim Scaliger nunc quod obierim Hand. - 63 muliens O puber Scaligeriuuenis Rossberg || adolescens O adolescens G. -64 gimnasti V || sui G Ioleii O oley G.- 66 circulis O circulis G. - 67 liquendum o liquendumG || solo V. -68 nec V nunc Santenius ll de*um G deae Riese Rheae L. Mueller || ministret et ( for ministra et, the second et being a dittograph )cibellos O cibeles G || ferarum O ferarum G. 70 idenene (ydenene G)amicta V. – 71 frigie 0 phrigie G | colūnibus O colūnibus G. 72 apex 0. — 74 hinc O hinc G hic or huic w || citus omitted in V , added by Bentley || adiit Vpalam sonitus abiit w sonitus abiit celer Lachmann soni.tus celer abiit Heyse sonus editus adiit Froehlich. —75 geminas] matris Ahlwardt || deorum] matris Lachmann || adauris 0. — 76 ubi V || cibelle O ceible G. — 77 lenumque o | pectoris V || hostem stimulans ( but cor rected from some indeterminable earlier reading ) G. The erasure in Onoted by Schwabe is one that runs diagonally to the right downward into the next line, and is only one ofa number of erasures on this page, appar.ently of large blots. — 78 inquid 0 || i omitted in V , added by Scaliger fac Schwabe || face w || agitet omitted in V , added in Cambridge edition of 1702 ut icat hunc furor Froehlich . - 79 face w || ut V uti Lachmann ||ictum O ictum G ictu w ui furoris ictus Baehrens. —81 a cede (al' age cede) tergo G || tua uerum uera patere (patere G) V. -82 face w |cunta G. - 84 cibelle o cibele G || regligatque 0. - 85 adortalis rapidum O adhortalis rapidum (last syllable written over erasure) G rabidum Schwabe. — 86 abit infremit Scaliger. -87 bumida O humida G || litio ris 0. —88 teneramque Lachmann || marmorea (marmorea G ) pelago V. - 89 ficit O fecit G || illa Lachmann. -90 omne] esse O || famula ( cor rected from famulla ) G. –91 cibelle 0 cibele G || dindimei O dindimeneiG Didymi dea domina Scaliger dea Dindyma domina Ahlwardt. —92 tuoV. - 93 rapidos V.-246 CRITICAL APPENDIX .-64. Interval of one verse in V , filled in G with title Argonautia . In Othere is merely a paragraph mark before v. 1. For the glosses on this page of O see the reduced facsimile following preface of this book. — 1 pel liaco V. 2 neptunni G. –3 fasidicos O fascidicos (al phasidos) GIIceticos ( al' tetidicos) Ooeticos G Aeeteos Haupt (from Alntelous) Aetaeosw Aeetios Schwabe. - 4 iuuenes ( corrected from iuuines) O || pupis Opuppis G. - 5 cholchis 0. – 6 ualda (but cancelled by dots below , and uada written in above salsa) 0. —7 uerrentes ( corrected from uerentes) abiegnis (corrected from abregnis) G. -9 uolitātē ( correctedfrom apparently uolūtatē) O ||currum (written over erasure ) G. - 10 testa G.- ll pos team ( with marginalgloss proram) O primam G || aphitrite O ( some mark over the final letter was erased before the interlineal gloss was inserted ) Oamphitritem G rudi .. primam Statius proram Amphitrite EllisBaehrens. — 12 procidit 0 proscidit ( corrected from procidit) G.13 totaque V.- 14 feri V freti Schrader || canenti w fero candentis gurgite Baehrens. - 15 equore monstrum ( al' monstrorum) O || ammirantes0.- 16 si qua omitted in 0 atque G || uidere O uidere G illa atque ( orillaque) haud alia w illac atque alia Statius illa si qua alia Lachmann illachautque alia Schwabe illa, nulla alia Schmidt illac ( quaque alia? ) Munro( illa Postgate) illa felici Riese atque illa uidere beata Baehrens atque illicalma L. Mueller.- 17 oculi w . - 19 cum 0. —20 cum O cum G || himeneos 0. -21 cum 0 cum G || sanxit w. - 22 seculorum O seculorum G.-23 mater O mater ( al' matre) G marte Baehrens ( Cf. scholiast. Veron .on Verg. Aen. V.80 Catullus ' saluete deum genus o bona matrum progeniessaluete iter: ') .- 23. omitted in V. The fragment from the scholiastis completed with saluete precanti Haupt saluete bonarum Peerlkamp mihi terrenarum Maehly placidique fauete L. Mueller. Others retain the MS. reading o bona mater! without supplement, understanding mater to refer either to the earth or to the Argo; cf. Apoll. Rh. IV.1370. 24 uos]post Bergk. —25 tedis O thetis G. –26 thesalie O thessalie ( correctedfrom te salie ) G. –28 nectine ( al' neptine G V Neptunine w NereineHaupt. -29 thetis V. - 30 occeanusque V. – 31 queis L. Mueller || optato V || finite o optato finitae Ellis. — 32 adlenire V. - 33 Thesalia O Tessalia ( corrected from Tesalia ) G || opplétur 0 || cetu O coetu ( cor.rected from cetu) G. -35 siros o syros G Scyros w Cieros Meineke || linqunt ptiotica o linquunt ( corrected from linqunt) pthyotica G. 36 grauinonisque O graiunonisque G Crannonisque Victorius || ac nicenis alacrissea (alacrisea G) V. - 37 farsaliam O farsaliam G Pharsalum Pontanus. 38-42 variously transposed by various critics. - 40 perno 0 .- 42 rubigo V. — 43 adsedes O ad sedes G. — 47 pluuinar 0. -48 aedibus Guarinus. —49 conchili O conchili G. –50 hec V ( but in-CRITICAL APPENDIX . 247-------G with mark below to make e into oe) . —52 Auentinoso ( with last four letters cancelled by dots, and sono following immediately) G e fluctisono Maehly || dia Ò dya G. -53 tesea 0.- 54 indomites O || adriana V. - 55 seseque sui tui se credit Vcorrected by Voss. —56 tum G || sompno0. —60 acta Heinsius (cf. v. 168 ). —61 saxa O saxea ( corrected fromsaxa) G || heue Veu( h) oe w eheu Bergk. —62 con (by confusion of sign )O et (with space following, and perhaps over erasure) G. -64 contentao || nudatum Schwabe niueum per Maehly. — 65 strophyo G || luctantesMuretus. —66 delapse corpore O delapso corpore G. — 68 sineque tamen( tum G) mitre neque tamen (tum G) V sed neque w set neque Lachmann .- 69 te omitted in 0. — 71 ha 0. —72 ericina V || impectore 0. -73 feroxque et V ferox quo ( ex) tempore w ferox qua ( quom Ritschl)robore Froehlich ferox qua pectore Peiper. -75 inuisi Heinsius || cortiniaV || tempta O tempta G. — 77 cui androgeane penas O cum andro geanee penas G.- 79 minothauro 0. –80 augusta w || incenia O inoenia ( with dot under o) G.— 82 prohicere o proiicere 6. -83 nec funere Statius sine funere Lange. — 86 conpexit 0.- 89 europe V ||pergignunt O pergignunt G praecingunt Baehrens || mirtos O mirtus G. -93 unis O imis ( corrected from unis) G. --- 94 corda furore Ramler. –96 quod neque regis cholcos quaeque O quique regis colchos queque yda lium G. 100 quam tum Faernus quantum w || fuluore Ritschl.102 oppeteret G. - 104 succepit Statius succendit tura Froehlich . -105 uult 0. — 106 cornigeram V || fundanti O sudanti ( corrected from fundanti) G nutanti uortice w. 107 indomitum turben Spengel ( cf. Serv.on Verg. Aen. VII. 378 Catullus hoc turben ' dicit ut hoc carmen, fulmen. ' But others emend Servius by reading Tibullus for Catullus, citing Tib. I. 5. 3 on authority of Charisius) indomitus turben Bergk.108 emit 0 | radicibus extirpata w. — 109 omnia ( al' obuia ) G lateque et cominus w late quaecumuis Voss late qua est impetus Lachmann lateque ruineis Schwabe Birt Riese lateque et funditus Schwabe lateque furit uis Madvig lateque tumultibus Bergk frangit Riese. — 110 saeuum] taurum- 111 naius O uacuis Baehrens. - 113 ereabunda 0. - 114 laberinthis O laberintheis G. - 116 cum V aw || degressus Baehrens.119 leta Vin gnata fleret deperdita, laeta w (tabet Baehrens) laetabaturLachmann luctabatur Rossbach lamentata est Conington lamentatur Buecheler. - 120 hiis 0 || portaret O portaret G praeoptarit Statius.121 aut necta ratis O aut ut uecta ( corrected from necta) ratis GratiPasseratius. —122 uenerit omitted in V , added by Lachmann fugeritFroehlich || deuincta o deuincta G aut ut eam dulci or tristi or placito(molli Baehrens) deuinctam w.. - 123 immemori ( al' nemori) G.125 epectore G. -126 actum praeruptes O || tristes V || confendere-w. -248 CRITICAL APPENDIX .-0.- 127 in omitted in V || praetenderet O pretenderet G pertenderetBaehrens. — 128 salus 0. – 130 estremis 0 || dixisse mestam (withmarks to indicate that the order should be inverted ) G. 132 patris oliauertam o auectam ( corrected from auertam ) G || ab ( corrected from ad)G || oris w. –133 in omitted in 0. –134 discendens G || negleto O.135 ha 0. – 136 nulla ueres O nullaue res G || crudeles ... mentes 0crudelis ... mentis ( corrected from crudeles ... mentes) G. — 138 mirescere O mitescere G mostri uellet mitescere Scaliger. — 139 blanda onobis G non haec Statius. — 140 nec haec O nec hec G Critics sincethe Italians have varied between hoc and haec, and between miserae,miseram , and misera . - 141 himeneos 0. — 142 desserpunt o disserpunt G. -143 tum , tum G nunc Guarinus iam iam w . 144 uirisPasseratius || sermones ( corrected from sermonee) O || fidelis 0.145 adipisci ( with the letters di cancelled by dots, and pro adipisci insertedabove) O pregestit ( corrected from pergestit?) apisci ( corrected from adipisci) G. — 148 metuere O metuere G perhaps rightly meminere Czwalina. -149 lecti 0. — 152 alitibusque (corrected from altibusque) G.– 153 post ( by mistake of sign ) ea 0 || intacta o in tacta G. — 156 sirtix 0 || scilla 0 silla G || caribdis V. - 157 taliaque redis 0. —159 peremtis 0. – 160 inrās ( = in nostras ) 0. — 162 limphis 0. – 163 following v . 160 in 0 || cubile (corrected from cubille) 0.- 164 siquid osed quid (corrected from si quid) G || nec quicquam conquerar aures O necquicquam conquerar auris (corrected from aures ) G. –165 extenuata G|| maloque 0 || aucte ( alto) G. — 168 acta Heinsius (as in v. 60) .170 fers et iam 0. –174 increta o incretam G. - 175 haec O.176 consilium requisisset O consilium nostris requisisset (with r writtenabove first s) G. – 177 nunc Spengel iam Peiper. - 178 idoneos ne Oydoneos ( al' Idmoneos) ne G Idaeosne Guarinus Idomeneosne De AllioIdomeneusne Lachmann ( cf. Hom . Il. XIII. 424 ) Idomeneine Buechelerll agurgite V. -179 discedens w || pontum G patriam Avantius || ubiomitted by w. 180 impatris O an patris ( corrected from in patris ) G acpatris Sillig || quem ( with unusual ligature ) O quem ( with que over erasure) G. 182 consoles me man' 0. 183 qui ne 0 qui ue G ||uentos G. - 184 nullo ( litus solum) insula Voss litus solum , nullo insulaScaliger nullo litus, nullo insula Froehlich . — 189 affesso 0. — 190 iustaoll muletam O mulctam G. 192 mulctantes O mulctantes G || penaV. – 193 eumenydes G. - 194 postportat ( by mistake of sign ) 0.195 In Othere is a period before meas, in G , an erasure . - 196 ue misera (misera G V || ex imis Vulpius. 198 uere O uere G.200 qualis sola O qualis sola G || reliquid O. - 201 funestet ( correctedfrom fimestet) G. - 204 inuito V. – 205 quo tunc O quo tunc G que.-CRITICAL APPENDIX. 249---.---nutu Fea quo modo tunc or quo tunc et w quo motu Heyse quo tonuit Riese.- 206 sydera G. -207 mente O mente G. — 208 cunta G. -210 lu.cida Wakefield . — 211 ereptum V Erechtheum Voss || uisere ( correctedfrom uiscere ) G. – 212 classicum ( classi cum G) moenico V castae cum moenia w. 213 cum crederet V ll egens O egens G. -215 gnati o lllonga V longe Hoeufftius. -216 placed by Baehrens after v. 217 || quem]quoniam o ( by mistake of sign ). -217 reddite (corrected from rediite)G || extremae Avantius. — 219 quem (al cui) G. — 221 lectanti 0 .224 infulso O || fedans O fedans G. — 227 dicet V decet Lachmannobscura dicet or decet w obscura deceat or doceat Statius || hybera G.228 ithomi O ythomi G. — 229 ac] has V || secles 0 || freti V Erech thei Voss. — 231 tum O tu G. – 232 oblis**eret (apparently, then corrected roughly to oblit **eret and al obliteret inserted above) G. — 233 simul haec O Sillig simul hec G. — 234 antennene ne O antenne ne ( butlast ne crossed out) G. — 235 sustolant O substollant ( corrected fromsubstolant) G. - 237 aetas V sors w fors Avantius freta ... sistentFroehlich || sistent (corrected from sistens) G. -239 seu O ceu ( correctedfrom seu) G. —240 aereum 0. — 242 anxia ( perhaps corrected fromansia ) G. - 243 infecti w infausti Heyse || lintea s (cancelled by dots ) ueliG. -244 e ( corrected from et) G. — 245 inmiti (corrected from inmitti) G || fco ( = facto ) 0. — 246 paternae w. --247 Marte Marcilius|| minoida V. – 249 que tamen O que (corrected from quem) tamenaspectans (corrected from prospectans) G || credentem 0. — 251 at paterO at pater G || iachus V. 252 cum ] tum 0 || thyaso (corrected fromthiiaso ) G || sathirorum 0 || nisi genis O nisigenis G. - 253 inserted byKoeler before v. 252; Bergk conjectured a lacuna of oneverse after v. 253|| te) et O te (corrected from et) G || querenus G || adriana V. - 254 quiV quae Bergk quam Schwabe quicum Baehrens || linphata 0. - 255 euchebachantes euche 0 , in G with euche corrected to euohe. 256 horum wll thirsos O tirsos G. — 257 ediuolso V. - 259 canis O || celabantBroukhusius. — 260 prophani 0. — 261 alii w aliei Lachmann || proceris timpana 0. — 262 tenais 0 || tinnitus ( corrected from tintinitus) G.- 263 multi V multis Pisanus multaque Guarinus multi ( multae Scal iger ) raucisonis ... bombis w || efflebant ( efflebant G. 267 thesala othessala ( corrected from thesalla) G. — 268 cepit O coepit ( correctedfrom cepit) G. - 269 hec O heic Baehrens || quali Voss. —270 cephi.rus 0 || procliuit (with dot under t and s above) O procliuis Baehrensprocuruas Schwabe. — 271 sublimia V sub lumina w. — 273 que omittedin G leuiter resonant w lenique sonant Froehlich . - 275 nascente abBaehrens || refulgens V.- 276 tamen O tamen (al’ tibi) G ibi Haupt ||uestibulo or uestibulis Schrader festini Baehrens || linquentis V. - 277 at----250 CRITICAL APPENDIX .-V.- 278 abitum ( corrected from habitum) G || peley O pelei G. 279 Chyron G. — 280 quodcumque o quodcumque G quoscumqueAldus quotcumque w || campis V || quot w || thesalia O thesala G || magnis O magnis ( final letters over erasure ) G. 282 aurea O || perit O parit(middle letters over erasure) G || secunda 0. - 283 corulis O curulis( corrected from corulis ) (al corollis) G || interstinctis Heinsius.284 quod O quot G. 285 penies ( al' os G) V || adest ut v .287 minosim o minosim G Naiasin Haupt Haemonisin Heinsius Mnemonisin Koeler Meliasin Madvig || Doris] claris w doctis Statius crebris Lachmann duris Madvig diuis (or diuis linquens) Schwabe solis Schulzesolitis Magnus uariis Riese caris Schmidt. — 288 non accuos O non acuos ( al' nonacrias) G uacuus Guarinus || actas Heinsius. - 289 fages 0.290 mutanti O nutanti ( corrected from mutanti) G || sororum O sororumG. – 291 flamanti G || phetontis V. — 292 contesta o contesta G.–293 uellatum O uelatum ( corrected from uellatum) G uallatum Baehrens.— 295 pena o pene ( corrected from pena) G. - 296 qua V || silici ]Scythicis Heinsius Scythica Riese in Scythia Schwabe triplici Baehrens || resittus 0 || cathena O chatena G. -298 diui V || gnatisque ( al gratisG ) V.- 299 aduenit caelo, te Lachmann || phebe V.- 300 ydri VHydri w. - 301 palea O. - 303 niueos w. – 306 teperunt O coeperunt( corrected from ce- ) G || eclere 0. — 307 his (al hic) G || questus questus G. 308 tuos V talos w || intinerat 0. - 309 roseo uinee 0roseo niuee G roseae niueo Guarinus ambrosio niueae Vulpius annosoSchulze atro sed Birt || uicte ( corrected from uitte ) G. —311 collum ocolum ( corrected from collum) G || amictam Guarinus. —312 filia 0. 315 epus 0 || dens ( last letters over erasure) G. - 319 custodiebant G.- 320 hae w || pellentes Vuellentes Fruterius pectentes Statius polientesHeinsius. —322 arguit Lachmann . — 323 Paragraph mark in G , andmarginal title Epythalamium thetidis et pelei. Many critics have attemptedto equalize the number of verses in the following strophes. —324 tutumopus ( al tu tamen opis G) carissime (carissime G) V clarissime natuDousa ( Peleu Froehlich ) carissime fato Schwabe. 326 oraculum Giluosque facta O uos quos Schwabe. — 328 aptata O optata (corrected fromaptata) G. - 329 hespereus O || considere o cum sydere G.330 omitted in 0 || flexo animo mentis G || amorem G te flexanimo mentis perfundat amore Lachmann. 331 sonos V. - 332 uenia O leuia G. -334-337 omitted in many minor MSS. —334 umquam tales o unquamtales G || conexit Lachmann conspexit Lenz. —335 federe O federe G.-336 thetidi (corrected from tetidi) 0. —341 peruertet O preuertit G. - 344 frigii O phrigii G || teucto o teucro (but cr over erasure) GUImanebunt O V teuen 0 tenen G campi or riui w cliuei Haupt mari or---CRITICAL APPENDIX . 2510---Phrygiae . . . terrae Statius. — 345 menia V.- 347 sub tegmina ( cor.rected from tegmine) G. - 350 inciuum ( corrected from inciuos) 0inciuium G in cinerem w || canos V || soleunt o ll crimen O crines G incuruo incanos uertice Statius incultum cano ... crinem Baehrens incuruocanos . . . crines Ellis. — 353-356 placed by Peiper after v . 347.353 dempsas 0 || praecernens O praecernens ( corrected from praeter riens) G praecerpens Statius prosternens w || messor O cultor G.355 tronigenum 0 troiu genum ( corrected from tronigenum?) G || pro sternens ( corrected from prosternet) G | ferrum 0. — 358 elesponto Oelesponto G. - 359 cessis 0. – 360 lumina (al' flumine) G || cecle 0 .-363 terrae w || ex celso Martini- Laguna. —364 perculse O perculseG. — 366 simul hanc V || fons 0. — 368 polixenia O polisenia Gilmadescent O madescent G mutescent Rossbach || cecle 0. -369 subecu bens (with dot under first b) G. –370 proiiciet G || sumisso O summissoG. -372 animi ( with n over erasure) G. - 373 federe O federe G. -377 esterno O externo G. —378 expunged by w . - 379–381 omitted in0.- 381 ducite fusi G. -382 peley 0. — 383 cernere O cecinere Gcecinere e Baehrens. — 385 nereus sese V heroum et Sigicellus || cetu Ocoetu (corrected from cetu) G. —386 After this verse Vinserts languidior(languidior G) tenera cui pedens sicula beta ( 67. 21; apparently justfive pages removed in the archetype). — 387 residens Bachrens renidensSchwabe. - 388 dum o dum G || uenisset 0 uenisset G || facra 0 || diebus ( corrected from duobus) 0. — 389 terram o Creta Wakefield Iltauros] currus V.- 390 sumo 0. - 391 thiadas O thyadas G || euantis( with o over e) G || esit 0. — 392, 393 Some critics expunge these verses as spurious. Others believe a lacuna to exist after v. 391, in which the coming of Apollo to his Delphic shrine was mentioned . —393 acciperet 0acciperet G ||lacti O laeti diuum ] Latonigenam Heinsius diuum ] Phoebum Schmidt. -394 mauros G. - 395 ramnusia Oranusia G AmarunsiaBachrens. — 397 scelus tellus scelere O || nephando 0. 400 natos G.- 401 patrauit Baehrens. —402 uti nuptae Maehly ut innupto Schwabeut hinc nuptae ... nouellae Baehrens || potiretur V. -- 404 penates w. –406 mente aduertere 0.- 407 cetus O coetus ( corrected from cetus) G.---65. Interval of one verse in V , filled in G with title Ad Ortalem .1 defectu O confectum G. - 2 sed uacat V - 3 dulcissimus hauum(harum G ) Vdulcis simul harum Baehrens || fretus 0. -4 icta Heinsius.- 5 loethi O lethei G lethaeo in Parthenius || factis ( cf. 66. 22) 0.7 tidia retheo O lydia ( al' troya) rhetheo G || subter ( corrected from sup ter) G. –8 obruit Statius obtegit Morsbach . - 9 omitted in V withoutinterval alloquar audiero numquam tua facta ( or uerba ) loquentema w252 CRITICAL APPENDIX .Statius, however, and many others since his day judge the verse spurious.Others think vv . 10-14 also spurious, or at least, misplaced here. Weisewould insert vv . 9-14 after 101. 6, while others believe them ( either with or without certain verses ofc. 68 ) to be a fragment of a separate poem onthe death of the poet's brother.— 11 aut V. -12 carmine V || tegam Vcanam or legam w. - 14 bauilla O bauilas ( corrected from bauila ) G ||assumpta O assumpti ( corrected from asumpti) G || facta gemes ithilei Oythilei G.– 16 Battiadae] actiаde 0 acciade G. 18 efluxisse o efflux .isse (corrected from effuxisse and that from efuxisse) G. - 20 proccurit(with first c cancelled by dot below ) 0. — 21 locataum (with second a can celled by dot below ) 0. 23 illic prono preces O.---66. No interval and no paragraph mark in V. - 1 despexit V. -2 habitus 0 habitus G. –3 obsculetur 0. - 4 ceteris O || sydera G.5 sublamina O sublimia G || religans V.- 6 guioclero V gyro or cliuo orcurru w || aetherio Meineke. —7 celesti numine (numine G ) V in lumine Voss limine Heinsius limite Doering culmine Maehly. -8 ebore niceo VII uertite cesarie 0. — 9 multis V cunctis Haupt || dearum O dearum G. -11 quare extempestate V || mactus Anna Fabri abductus Froehlich auectus Peiper functus Riese || himeneo 0. -12 uastum O uastum G || ierat assirios V. - 13 nocturne ( corrected from noctume) G. 14 exiuius 0 .16 salsis Heyse. -17 uberum 0 || lumina O lumina G. -18 diu VIgeniunt iuuerint O iuuerint G.- 20 praelia O proelia ( corrected from prelia) G. – 21 et O et ( al' at) G an w || tu uero 0. — 22 sctis ( = sanc tis; cf. v . 37) O fratris G || dissidium G. –23 cum o cum G quamBentley tum Lachmann ut Baehrens. —24 ut ibi nunc (al tunc) G IIsolicitet V. - 25 e rectis Voss e trepidis Machly || te omitted in V added by Avantius. — 26 magnanima V. - 27 quam V || adeptos O adeptus G adepta's Lachmann. 28 fortius Muretus || aut sit V. - 29 sed cum0. – 31 tantum Schrader . - 32 adesse G. 33 procunctis o procuntis G me Colotius and Perreius. -34 taurino omitted in 0. -35 sedO sed ( al' si) G sei Schwabe || redditum te tulisset O te tulisset G || aut V.- 36 asyam G || egipti 0. -37 sctis ( = sanctis; cf. v. 22) O factis GIl coelesti ( corrected from celesti) G || cetu O coetu ( corrected from cetu)G. -- 40 capud 0. — 41 feratque o || adiuraret V. -42 quis Statius.43 quae maxima O quem maxima G maximum Guarinus. — 44 phitie O phytie G Thiae Voss || super uehitur 0 ( between the two words 1 or twas written but at once cancelled ) . —45 tum 0 cum ( corrected from tum )G || propere o propere G peperere or rupere w pepulere Statius fodere Bergk || cumque o atque G. - 48 celerum 0 celitum G Chalybon Politianus Lachmann's first edition . — 49 uenas (but ue over erasure) G. ----CRITICAL APPENDIX . 253--- --50 ferris fingere O ferris fringere G ferri infringere Santenius ferri uincereMarkland ferri stringere Heyse. -- 51 facta 0. — 52 memnonis o meno.nis ethiiopis G. -54 asineos (arsinoes) G || claridos w Locridos Bentley Cypridos Berkg || alis equos V. - 55 isque (al q2 G ) V || ethereas Gaerias Riese || aduolat G abuolat Ellis. - 56 aduolat ( al' collocat) G.57 cyphiritis O zyphiritis ( corrected from cyphiritis) G || legerat ( al' lega rat) G. –58 gracia O gratia G grata Calpurnius Graia Lachmann GraiiaBaehrens || conopicis O canopicis G Canopieis Avantius. — 59 numen ibikitschl lumine ibi ... in limite ‘ H. R.’ and Peiper arduei ibi Haupt sidereiBergk hic niueei Baehrens hic etenim Froehlich hic iuueni Ismario Ellis inde Venus uario Postgate || numine celi O numine coeli ( corrected from celi) G. — 60 exadrianeis O exadrianeis G || aurea (but re over erasure)G. — 61 uos 0. – 62 eximie O exuuie (corrected from eximie) G.63 uindulum afluctu O uiridulum ( corrected from uindulum ) a fluctu Gumidulam Ellis luctu Baehrens || decumme o decumme G. - 65 uirgis0.- 66 calixto iuxta licaonia VCalisto Baehrens Lyca ida w LycaoniamRossbach . — 67 boothem ( corrected from boothen) G. – 69 quicquam0. — 70 aut V || theti V || restituem o restituem G luce ... restituor wlux . . . restituit Lachmann. - 71 parce V || ranūsia ( ranusia G.72 ullo O nullo G. —73 si me] sine V || diserpent o diserpent G || sydera G || doctis o dextris Bentley, and L. Mueller thinks dictis digitis. —74 candita G || qui uere ( uere G) V uerei Lachmann || euolue V.-77 quondam ] curis L. Mueller || ominis expers Auratus Hymenis expers Eschenburg adspersa Marcilius expersa Heinsius Others divideomnibus expers from the rest of the text by commas. - 78 una] murrae Vossunguenti Surii Passeratius. —79 quem Vquum De Allio quas or quam wqueis Statius quo Lachmann quom Haupt. — 80 post O post G prius w ||uno animus o uno animus G unanimeis Baehrens. — 81 retecta V. -82, 83 onix V. -85 amala leuis bibat dona V || inita G. — 86 abindignatis O ab indigetis G. -87 sic w || nostras O nostras G.-89 syderaG. -91 sanguinis V unguinis Bentley || ne Scaliger || uestris V siuerisScaliger siris Lachmann || tuum V. - 92 effice V. - 93 sydera G ||iterent 0 iterent G Il utina O cur retinent? utinam w (iterum Markland ut iam Baehrens) cur inter? Marcilius corruerint utinam! Lachmann( corruerent Ellis) corruerint, iterum ut Hertzberg. -94 id rochoi oidrochoi G || fulgoret Baehrens.->-67. No interval in V, but paragraph mark in G. -4 secles 0 ||senes o -5 quamquam O || maligno G nato ... maligne Froehlich(natae Baehrens) seruire Riese . — 6 est O est G || marite V. – 7 age deO age de G | uobis o uobis G. 8 uenerem G. —9 pateam Statius V--254 CRITICAL APPENDIX.---traditam 0. — 10 quaquam 0. -11 qdquam ( by omission of sign ) 0. 12 isti populo ianua quidque ( quanta Schwabe) facit w ( quid faciat Voss)isti populi naenia , Quinte, facit Scaliger istud populi fabula , Quinte, facitLachmann. est uox populi: ianua cuncta facit Baehrens estos populi

  • ianua, ' Quinte, ' facit ' Ellis istud populi uana querela facit Heyse (lo quella Schmidt) uerum , is mos populi, ianua quippe facit Postgate ( follow ing Munro in quippe) . – 17 quid V.- 18 uobis O uobis G nobis Mure

tus || ue O ne G. 20 non] namque w non qui Scaliger || attigerat w.21 omitted here in 0, but inserted after 64. 386. — 22 ad] hanc O hancG. —23 ipsius Muretus ille sui Scaliger illusi Baehrens. — 27 is omittedin V , added by Lachmann et ( ut Bergk ) quaerendum unde unde Statius ne quaerendum aliunde w # ile Rossberg. — 29 parentum 0. — 30 sui]sunt 0. -31 at qui v || hoc dicit se o se dicit ( omitting hoc) G.32 Cycnea supposita in specula Zanchius Cycneae supposita speculae Voss (Chinaeae Haupt) Cycnea suppositum specula De Allio. - 33 ,34 judged spurious by some critics. — 33 percurrit O percurrit G praecurrit Avantius || melo O mello G. - 34 tuae Scaliger. -35 posthumioV ll amat G. - 37 dixit haec o || iste V. 38 deum lumine 0. –39 ascultare O ll haec O hec G heic Schwabe. —42 sola V || concillis Oconciliis G ancillis Robortellus. — 43 pete 0. —44 sperent o sperent ( with dot below n) G and many critics have read speret. 45 addebant0. —46 ne] te V. —47 qui o qui G.68º. Interval of one verse in V, filled in G with title Ad Mallium .1 quo 0. -2 conspersum Schrader || haec O || epystolium G. — 3 naufragium V. - 6 disertum G. -8 ansia 0. -9 ducis w. - 10 petit G.- 11 commoda mali 0 commoda mali (with o written above) G Mani Lachmann. —12 seu G || sospitis Schrader.- 16 omitted here in 0 , butinserted after 686. 49. — 18 amaritionem O amariritiem (with first underlined ) G. - 20 o] ei Baehrens. 21-24 judged spurious byFroehlich . - 21 tu nia tu 0 || fratri 0 (apparently, as in v. 91; other wise in vv . 20 and 92 ). — 26 omnem 0. —27 catulle V. - 28 quiuis Lachmann || nota est w. –29 tepefacit V tepefecit or tepefactat w tepefactet Bergk tepefaxit Lachmann . —30 mali v Mani Lachmann mi,Alli Schoell. — 31 ignoscens 0. -32 cum] tum 0. - 34 hec 0.36 ima 0. –37 noli 0. — 38 ingenio V.- 39 petiti w || posta est ( est G) V facta w parta Schwabe praesto Froehlich porcta Ribbeck promptaBachrens. -40 differrem o differem G.68% . No interval in V. First distinguished from 68a by Ramler.41 quam ( quam G) fallius ire (ire G) V qua or quam Manlius w qua me Allius Scaliger. -42 inuenit o ll et Schwabe || uiuerit o auxerit Usener. ---CRITICAL APPENDIX. 255..-----43 nec V nei Bachrens || sedis V. —45 porto 0.- 46 carta O certa G.-47 omitted in V , with no interval in 0 , with interval of one verse in G and deficit in margin. — 48 judged spurious by Hand || notescamqueG. — 49 After this verse is inserted in Viocundum (-dum G) cometas florida ū ( ut G) ageret ( = 68. 16 , just one page removed in the archetype).- 50 ali G Alli Scaliger (without knowledge of 0 ) deserto in Manli wAuli Westphal. —51 nam o non G. — 52 in me quo Doering torruerit w in qua me torruerit uenere Schrader . - 54 limphaque incetheis mauliatermopolis O in oetheis (corrected from eetheis) maulia termophilis G.– 55 nummula O numula G pupula Ellis. —56 cessare ne tristique (tris.tique G) V neque tristi Muretus || ymbre G. –59 ualde O ualde G colleSantenius || uoluptus ( with p cancelled by dots) 0. — 60 densi] sensimHaupt. — 61 duce V ll uiatorum 0 || basso V salso Baehrens || leuamus (but with unusual ligature) O leuamus G. 63 haec O || ueluti nigro wk- 64 leuius O leuius G. — 65 iam face Dorvillius || implorate V implorati Heyse imploratu Lachmann . - 66 allius (l' manllius) O manlius GManius Lachmann . — 67 classum G laxum Scaliger clussum Schwabe.68 dominam O dominam G Munro Ellis Postgate. — 69 ut clam Schoell.– 73 amorem O amorem G. - 74 protesileam O prothesileam G || lau domia V Laudamia Usener (and in vv . 80 and 105) . — 75 incepta Vinceptam Turnebus incepto Froehlich . — 77 rāmusia O ranusia G.79 deficeret V. – 80 laudomia uirgo ( uiro in margin G) V LaudamiaUsener . 81 nouit V noui Avantius nouei Schwabe || collum ( with dotunder first I) G. –82 hyemps O hyēms G. - 84 abinnupto O absumptoBaehrens. — 85 scibat Lachmann scirant L. Mueller quem scirant Peiper || abisse V adesse Santenius obisse Baehrens non longe tempus abesse Schrader.— 86 similles ( with dot under first 1) G || adyliacos O ad yliacosG. -87 tum ] cum 0. —88 ceperat O ceperat G.— 89 asiie G. 91 que uetet id nostro Vquaene etiam Heinsius quae, uae, etiam w quae(uae te) Scaliger quin etiam id Huschke quae uel sic Bergk quae uitae nostrae Ribbeck qualiter id Ellis || frater 0 (apparently, as in v. 21; cf. 12. 7) frater G. -92 ei 0 || frater O frateter (with first te underlined )G. -93-96 judged spurious by Froehlich . -93 iocundumque limine 0|| adeptum V. - 97 que V || sepulcrea ( perhaps corrected to sepulcra ) G.-98 cineris V. -101 tuum G || simul omitted in V , added by w cunctaFroehlich || pupes 0. — 102 Graia L. Mueller . —103 nec O nei Bach rens || pars O paris G || mecha V. -104 octia 0 . 105 quod tibi tumO quod tibi cum G || laudomia V Laudamia Usener.- 108 abruptum ( corrected from arruptum ) G || depulerat Heinsius. — 109 fuerunt (with first u underlined ) G || peneum V || cilleneum V. - 110 sicari O siccariG siccare Schrader. - 112 audet Vaudit Palmer gaudet Weise Il amphi.---256 CRITICAL APPENDIX .----trioniadis O amphytrioniadis G. - 113 stimphalia 0. - 114 pertulitopertullit G. - 115 terreretur (or perhaps only tereretur) O treerretur(with first re underlined ) G. –116 heb'r 0. – 118 tuum ( tuum G )domitum V diuum domitum w tunc indomitam De Allio ( indomitumSantenius) tum te indomitam Riese tamen indomitam Heyse durum domitam Lachmann toruum ( Voss ) dominum (w) Baehrens dominum domitumEllis, and many conjectures by other critics. —119 tam ] causa G.122 ceratas Schrader. - 124 scuscitata cano uoltarium Oscusoitata canouoltarium G. -125 nec tamen o ll gauisa (with dot under final a) G. -128 quamquam V. - 129 tuorum V.- 130 efflauo 0 eflauo G.131 paulum Colocius || tum ] tu V. - 135 tamen etsi O tamen et si G ||cotempta o ll catullo ( corrected from catulo 0 ) V. – 139 cotidiana Oquotidiana G concoquit iram Lachmann continet iram Santenius condiditiram Pohlius contudit iram Hertzberg concitat iram Pleitner concipit iramBaehrens. — 140 facta O facta G. – 141 atque V atquei Schwabe atquia or atqui w || componere o componere G || equm O No intervalafter v . 141 in V; Marciliusfirst conjectured a lacuna here. — 142 tremulist illa Lachmann. —143 tandem Baehrens non etenim Froehlich ||deastra o de astra G dexstra Schwabe decstra Ellis claustris ... paternisSchoell. —144 flagrantem assirio o flagrantem G. – 145 nigra w mutaHeyse rara Haupt. — 147 hiis o his G | unus w. 148 dies V || candiore o notat candidiore, dies Baehrens. -149 haec o ll quo Muretus.-150 aliis V Alli Scaliger Manli w. -151 rubigine O rubigine G.155 satis Vseitis Baehrens || uite V. – 156 nos omitted in V , added byw ipsi in qua Pantagathus ( ipsa w ipse Scaliger ). – 157, 158 judgedspurious by Doering and doubtful by Sillig; inserted elsewhere by someothers. —157 nobis te trandedit Scaliger (transdedit or tradidit others )nobis dominam or teneram or caram others || aufert ] auctor w Oufens Sca .liger Anser Heyse Afer Munro auspex Lipsius a quo ( 158) Primo suntnobis w. - 158 primo mi Haupt || bono Vomnia nostra bona Schoell. –160 michi dulce est O michi dulce est G.---69. Interval of one verse in V , filled in G with title In Rufum . —2 Ruffe V. - 3 nos illa mare V non si illam rarae Avantius ( CoaeBaehrens carae Ellis). -5 que o qua (corrected from que) G. - 6 uale0. - 8 cui cum (cum G) V. - 10 cum Froehlich || frigiunt O.-70. No interval in V. - 1 male 0 .71. No interval in V.- 1 siqua uiro bono sacratorum ( sacrorumG ) Vsi qua Munro iure bono Palladius Virro Parthenius sacratorumBaehrens si quoi iure Bonae sacratorum Froehlich || hyrcus G. —2 siquam形CRITICAL APPENDIX . 257.O siquam G si qua Munro | podraga secum G secunt 0.– 3 nostrum Giste putus qui nostrum Schoell. —4 atei Heyse apte Schoell certe Peiper mirifico est fato Hermannus (astu Muretus). —6 podraga G.72. Interval of one verse in V , filled in G with title Ad lesbiam .2 nec prime O nec per me G. – 6 multo ita me nec uilior V. - 7 quam V quod w quia Statius. To c. 72 Guarinus appended c. 85, Statius,both c . 75 and c . 85.-203taSowatRE4673. No interval in V.- 1 quisquam V.- 4 immo (imo G) etiam ( eciam G) tedet obestque magisque magis (magis G) V prodest prefixedto v. 4 by Avantius, iuuerit, by Baehrens, iam iuuat by Munro || taedet omitted in V after first taedet, restored by Avantius. —5 ut] uae w || michique O michi que G. - 6 habet G.74. No interval in V.- 1 gellius ( corrected from gelius) O lelius G || flere V. - 3 haec o | perdespuit V perdepsuit Scaliger. —4 reddit 0 | harpocrathem G.75. No interval in V. Scaliger (reading, with some interpolated MSS., nunc for huc) first appended c. 75 to c . 87. Lachmann followed him , but, believing two pages had become transposed in the archetype, also transferred c. 76 to a position after the compound c . 87-75 . – I diducta Lachmann . - 3 uelleque tot tibi (tibi G ) V.76. No interval in V. - 1 sique 0. - 3 federe ( federe G) nullo V.- 5 manentum in O manenti in Gmanent cum Baehrens manent iamin Munro. 6 haec o || auicere 0. —8 sint 0. — 9 ingrata ( finala over erasure) G. – 10 tu omitted in V , restored by Schoell iam tecur or te iam cur w cur te iam iam Baehrens cur te, cur iam Schmidt.11 qui tui V || affirmas w tu animum offirmas Statius || itaque Scaliger || instincteque O instinctoque G istinc teque Heinsius tete Baehrens te ipse Ellis. — 12 des V.- 14 haec O || quam lubet V || officias 0. —15 hoc]haec O hec G. - 16 haec O hec G || sine id 0. – 17 miseri 0.18 extremo V Schmidt || ipsam ( ipsam G) morte V ipsa or ipsa in w. -21 seu V hei Lachmann heu or quae w haec Statius sei Ellis || torpor )corpore O corpore G. - 23 me ut me V ut me or me ut w. - 26 dei v1 ( cf. 14. 10 n. ) haec proprietate O michi hoc proprietate G.77. Interval of one verse in V, filled in G with title Ad Rufum . -1. Ruffe V || amico G. - 3 subrepti mei o subrecti mei G. -4 si V mior sic w ei Lachmann . —5 heripuisti G || heu O he heu G heu or heubeu w cheu Baehrens. - 6 heu O he heu G heu heu w eheu Baehrens |nostro pectus G pectus 0. – To c. 77 Scaliger appended c. 78b.ملیو---onsole5-.-258 CRITICAL APPENDIX .78. No interval in V. - 4 cubit O.78. No interval in V. This fragment wasfirst separated by Statiusfrom c. 78, appended by Scaliger to c. 77, by De Allio to c. 91, by Bergkto c. 80. - 1, 2 omitted without interval in V .. 4 sania V || connuxit Oconiunxit G conminxit Scaliger. 5 non id G || seda 0. –6 quis scis G|| famuloque tanus (canus G) V fama loquetur anus Calpurnius.79. No interval in V. - 1 lesbius ( corrected from lebius) o ll quid( quid G) inquam lesbia V. - 3 catullum ( corrected from catulum ) G. -4 notorum 0 Avantius Scaliger natorum G amatorum w aratorum Peiper nostrorum Schoell || sania O.80. Interval of one verse in V , filled in G with title Ad Gellium .2 ruberna O hyberna G.- .3 exisset cum O exisset cum G. – 6 tñta= tanta or tenta ) O tanta G. —8 ille te mulso Vilia et emulso Valerianus and Faernus ilia te emulso . . . notare Avantius ilia ab emulsoBachrens.81. No interval in V. -l uiuenti O uiuenti G. -2 quam 0.3 pisanum 0. —5 quid tibi V || nuc G. — 6 et] a or at w en Baehrens || quid v .82. No interval in V. - 2 aud 0. —4 si Avantius sei Bergk.83. No interval in V.- 4 samia G. - 6 haec o ll oritur 0 || loquitur Vcoquitur Lipsius.84. No interval in V. - 1 chommoda] commoda V.- 2 arrius(corrected from arius) G || hinsidias] insidias hee (he G) V.- 3, 4 fol lowing v. 10 in V. — 5 Liber w Cimber Heinsius Umber Riese || eius estO eius est G. –7 haec O hic G || insiria O in syria G. -8 audiebant oaudiebant G. -10 nuncius O mincius G. - 11 illuc (corrected from illic )0 || arcius 0 artius G || esset G. -12 esset O || Hionios] ionios V.85. No interval in V. - 1 nequiris 0. — 2 sed] si O.86. No interval in V. 1 quincia O || loga 0. – 6 omnes G.87. No interval in V. - 1 potest O pone G. –2 est O est G esScaliger. - 3 nullo w || in omitted in V , added by Doering || federe tanto V.- 4 quantam o || meo Froehlich illo Baehrens. — To c. 87 Scaligerappended c. 75.88. No interval in V. — 2 prorurit o proruit G. -3 facis 0.- •4 et quid V ecqui Lachmann || sis 0. — 5 thetis V. - 6 nimpharum Olympharum L. Mueller.CRITICAL APPENDIX. 25989. Interval of one verse in V , filled in G with title In Gellium .1 tellius 0. — 4 mater o mater G. - 5 attingit w. - 6 quantum ius 0ll fit v .90. No interval in V.- 1 magnus V. -3 magnus o magnus G. -5 gnatus O gnatus G gratus L. Mueller . —6 quitū O omnetum G.91. No interval in V. - 3 te non nossem Avantius. — 4 a ) aut VImente O mente G. –9 satis induxti O satis in duxti G.-92. No interval in V , but paragraph mark in G and marginal title In Cesarem . -1 esbia O (but with minute L in very extreme margin toguide illuminator; and, contrary to the usual custom in O, the letters sbia are written close to the capital E) || mala w Westphal. — 2 amo G.3, 4 omitted in G. -3 totidem] eadem Riese quia sentio idem: namFroehlich || mea] ea 0.93. No interval in V. 1 belle Usener. - 2 nec si ore utrum(utrum G ) si saluus an alter homo (alter homo G ) V.94. No interval in V. -1 mentula (corrected from mentulla ) G |mechatur mechatur metula (mentula G ) V.95. No interval in V. -1 zinirna V || crine o ll mensem 0. –2 cepta V || hyemem G. -3 in terrea G || ortensius 0. —4 omitted withoutinterval in V || miretur Volusi carmina facta die Peiper Tanusius uno |uersiculorum anno quolibet ediderit Froehlich . - 5 zinirna canas V.6 zinirnam V ll peruoluit O peruoluit G. - 7 Capuam PasseratiusAduam Voss. — 9, 10 judged by Statius to be a fragment of another poem .-9 sodalis omitted in V , restored by Aldus 1 laboris w poetae Guarinus Philetae Bergk Phanoclis Rossbach Phalaeci Munro sint Cinnae cordimonumenta Bachrens. 10 populus uel tu timido O || eutimacho V.96. No interval in V. - l mutis et V muteis Schwabe. - 3 que oquei Baehrens quom Guarinus || reuocamus Peiper. -4 amissas w Orcomissas Haupt scissas Schwabe obitu scissas Pleitner et quei discissas Bachrens et quo dimissas Kiessling. — 5 dolor est Vdolorist Haupt doloreistEllis. 6 quintile o quintilie (corrected from quintile) G.97. No interval in V. - 1 quicquid O quicquid G. 2 utrum osanculu ol facerem O utrum os an culum olfacerem G utrumne Avantiusutrum culum anne os Peiper. -3 nil omundius O nilommundius G ||nihiloque o nobisque G || inmundior ille Lachmann And many othercritics have emended the verse in various ways. —5 hic O hic G os Froch .lich dentibus hic: os dentis Rossbach || seseque dedalis ( dedalis G) V.---260 CRITICAL APPENDIX.. 6 ploxnio o ploxonio G. – 7 deffessus O defessus G diffissus Statius!estum O estum G. 8 megentis V || mulle G || commis O connus Ellis.- 9-12 judged by Lachmann to form a separate poem . — 9 haec Oll fecit G. - 10 pristrino 0 Baehrens. -98. No interval in V. - 1 inte si inquam quam V ll pote omitted inO ll uicti V perhaps falsely Vetti Statius Vitti Haupt ( and so in v . 5) . –4 carpantinas 0 . 5 uos O nos G | Victi] cf. v. 1 n. 6 discas Vhiscas Voss.-N m99. No interval in V. - 1 sâmpuit ( surripuit G || uiuenti O iuuenti G. — 2 suauiolum V || ambrosio O amrosio G. — 7 id ] ad G. - 8 ab stersti O astersi G abstersisti Avantius abstersti guttis Aldus. -9 nec vnei Baehrens || manaret 0. –10 comitte 0 || saliuia 0 saliua ( corrected from saliue) G. 13 ) o (cf. 14. 10 n. ) michi G || ambrosio V. -15 penam V.100. No interval in V , but in G paragraph mark and marginal title Id. Celium et Quintium. —1 ellius 0 ( but with minute G in margin to guide illuminator, and with the letters ellius written close to the capital G;cf. 92. 1 n. ) || Aufilenam et Quintius Aufilenum Schoell. - 2 treronensum0 || deperent o depereret G. -3 hoc) haec 0. — 6 perfecta est igitur est unica o perfecta est exigitur est unica G perspecta exigit hoc w per facta exhibita est Lachmann perspecta egregie est Baehrens ( est igni tumPalmer eximie est Koch ). – 7 correret G || medullam 0..101. No interval in V , but in G paragraph mark and marginal titleFletus de morte fratris. -1 as o (but with minute M in extreme marginto guide illuminator, and with the letters ltas written close to the capital V;cf. 92. 1 n. ) . —2 adueni Avantius adueni, has, miser a frater, Baehrens has seras Markland. 3 mortis] amoris Maehly. – 6 hei misero AvantinsAfter this verse some critics have conjectured a lacuna; Haase insertedhere 65. 9-14. -7 hoc G in terra hac Rossbach. -8 tristis munera w.-10 ualle 0.--102. No interval in V. - 1 i 0 ( but with minute S in margin toguide illuminator ) || quoiquam tacitum and quidquid taciti Statius quoiquid Maehly quid quoi Baehrens tacite w taciti Heinsius || abantiquo O abantiquo G. –3 me aeque Voss. 4 putum Schwabe ar ( perhaps correctedfrom at or ac) pocratem O arpocratem G.103. No interval in V. - 1 sextercia O sextercia G. 2 est quamuis O est oquam uis G. -3 mimi O mimi G || delectauit O.CRITICAL APPENDIX . 261-104. No interval in V. -3 si omitted in 0 || perdita amare O per dite amare G. -4 cum caupone w.105. No interval in V , but paragraph mark in G. 1 pipileium 0pipileium G Pimpleum w || scindere O scindere G.106. No interval in V. - l obelio ( obellio ( corrected from obelio)G Obelli Ellis || esse) ipse w isse Meleager ire Schwabe uidet, ipsum Vulpius.107. No interval in V. -1 siquid quid 0 si quicquid G quicquamw quoi quid Ribbeck quid quoi Baehrens || optigit 0. - 2 insperati Heinsius ( cf. v. 5) || haec 0. —3 haec 0 || nobis quoque] nobisque hoc Statius nobis, hoc Froehlich nobisque est Haupt. — 5 inspiranti O inspe rati Heinsius ( cf. v. 2) . – 6 oluce V. -7,8 hac est | optandus uita O meest | optandus uita G hac res optanda uita Lachmann hace | optandamuita dicere Ribbeck ( degere Baehrens) horas optandas uita Schwabe abdis optandum in uita Ellis hac re optandam uitam Riese hac rem |optandam in uita Postgate.108. No interval in V.- 1 sic homini populari O sic homini populari G Comini Guarinus populi Statius. — 2 in puris 0. — 4 exercta Oexerta G.109. No interval in V. l amore V. - 2 hunc ( corrected fromhinc) G. - 6 eterne 0 alterum w || fedus V.110. No interval in V. -- 1 auffilena V. — 2 q2 O que G quod is perhaps right; cf. quae for quod in 51. 5; 66. 41. — 3 promisisti V.4 nec Vet Guarinus. - 5 promissa V.- 6 aut fillena 0 auffilena G.7 officium Marcilius officiis Bergk officio Riese est ficti Schwabe effectisEllis nimio Vahlen est furis Munro. — 8 tota Vtotam w.-111. No interval in V , but the initial A of v . 1 in 0 is embellished with flourishes, as if to mark the beginning of a new poem . -1 aut fille ..nam o auffilenam G || contemptam o contentas Scaliger. — 2 est O est Ge or ex Scaliger laus est laudibus ex nimiis Baehrens. 3 pars O parsG.– 4 parere omitted in V efficere ex patruo w (concipere Rossbach suscipere Heyse) Thefitness ofthe swift succession ofmatrem, fratres, patruoto indicate the jumble of relationship involved is an indication in favor of supplying the needed infinitive at the end of the verse rather than in themiddle, while a similar loss from the end of 112. 1 (which succeeds with out an interval) is decisive in favor of this position . This bit of the leaf in the archetype was either torn off, or defaced so as to make it illegible.262 CRITICAL APPENDIX .112. No interval in V. -1 neque] nam w || est qui omitted in Vhomost quin Schwabe. — 2 te escendit Meleager te scindit Haupt te scan dat Peiper te scindat Schwabe || es O est G ll et] at Schwabe.113. No interval in V. -1 molebant Maehly. - 2 mecilia Omoechi: illo Statius moechari Doering Maeciliam Lachmann MoecillamL. M ler Mucillamn Pleitner M illa Riese cum ſoecilla. Atque hocconsule Bachrens. - 3 mansuerunt (with dot under first u) 0. — 4 singulum O singulum G.114. No interval in V. -l saluis V Firmano or Formiano saltu wFirmanus saltu Palladius Formianus saltu Heyse || mensula V. -3 ancupiam o aucupiam G || aura G || ferasque (apparentiy corrected from feraque) 0. - 4 exuperas Scaliger. — 5 sis Froehlich . — 6 saltem G ||modo O modo domo Lachmann || egeas Avantius tu ipse egeas Froehlich te ipso egeat Baehrens eo ipse egeat L. Mueller.115. No interval in V. - 1 istar O instar G iuxta Scaliger Mentula,habes instar Lachmann noster Avantius uester Postgate iusti Statius habet,Caesar, Schwabe. - 2 paria Froehlich uaria Baehrens. 3 cresum Ocresum G || potuisset O potuisset G. -4 moda V bona Avantius || possiderat 0.- 5 plaudesque O altasque paludes w ( salsasque Bergk latasqueRossbach uastasque Pleitner ) tractusque paludesque Baehrens. —6 hiper .boreos 0. — 7 est] si V es w ipsest Froehlich || ultor V horum Avantiusalter Schwabe .116. No interval in V.- 1 studiose Guarinus || requires O requiresG.– 2 batriade O batriade G. - 3 quis w. —4 celis O telis G Il mihiomitted in V || mitteremusque O mitteremusque G tela infesta meum mittere in usque Muretus ( mihi Baehrens) telis infestis Froehlich icere mi usque w mi icere in usque Rossberg. — 6 hinc V huc Muretus. — 7 euitabimus amitha (amicta G) V euitabimus icta Rossberg. — 8 affixus Oaffixus G.In O the text ends three lines from the bottom of the page, and on the last line stands Finito libro referamus gracia xpo Am. In G the last page isfull, containing 34 lines instead of the usual 33, and on the next page stands the following subscription:Explicit Catulli Veronensis libellus.Versus domini Beneuenuti de Campexanis de Vicencia de resurectioneCatulli poete Veronensis.:Ad patriam uenio longis afinibus exulCausa mei reditus compatriota fuit.-CRITICAL APPENDIX . 263Scilicet acalamis tribuit cui francia nomenQuique notat turbe pretereuntis iter.Quo licet ingenio uestrum celebrate CatullumCuius sub modio clausa papirus erat.Tu lector quicumque ad cuius manus hic libellus ob uenerit Scriptori daueniam si tibi coruptus uidebitur . Quoniam a corruptissimo exemplari transcripsit , non enim quodpiam aliud extabat unde posset libelli huius habere copiam exemplandi Et ut exipso salebroso aliquid tantum suggeret decreuit pocius tamen coruptum habere quam omnino carere. Sperans adhuc ab alli quo alio fortuite emergente hunc posse corigere . Valebis si ei in precatus non fueris.. 1375. mense octobr. 19º. qñ casignorius laborabat in extremis . et c( = cetera):Lesbia damnose bibens interpretatur.:( This subscription is entirely wanting in 0, and in several of the better class of later and interpolated MSS. Many other of these MSS ., however,contain the epigram of Campesani, either with or without the title given to it here, though in some it stands at the beginning instead of the end of the book. The other concluding formulae of the later MSS. are of no criticai interest.)INDEX OF PROPER NAMES.( Note. —The references are to the poems by number and verse . Numerals in parentheses refer to verses where the same character or place is indicated, though not by name.Numerals following the abbreviation Intr . refer to sections of the Introduction .]Achilles: 64. 338; (64. 324 ff. ).Achiui: 64. 366.Acme: 45. I ff.Adoneus: 29. 8.Aeeteus: 64. 3.Aegeus: 64. 213.Aegyptus: 66. 36; cf. Nilus.Aemilius: 97. 2; Intr. 25.Aethiops: 66. 52.Aetna: ( 68. 53) .Africus: 61. 206 .Agamemnon: (64. 346 ) .Aganippe: 61. 30.Alfenus: 30 . Intr. 56.Allius: 68. 41 , 50, 66 , 150.Alpes: 11.9.Amastris: 4. 13; Intr. 35.Amathus: 36. 14.Amathusia: 68. 51; cf. Venus,Erycina.Ameana: 41. I; (43. 5); Intr. 15.Amor: 45. 8, 17; 99. 11 .Amphitrite: 64. II .Amphitryoniades: 68. 112; cf.Hercules.Ancon: 36. 13.Androgeoneus: 64. 77.Antimachus: 95. 10.Antius: 44. II.Aonius: 61. 28.Apeliotes: 26. 3.Aquinus: 14. 18.Arabs: 11. 5.Argiuus: 64. 4; 68. 87.Argo: (64. I ff.) .Ariadna: 64.54, 253; cf. Minois.Ariadneus: 66. 60 .Arrius: 84. 2, II .Arsinoe: 66. 54; cf. Zephyritis.Asia: ( n .) 46. 6; 66. 36; 68. 89;( adj.) 61. 22.Asinius: 12. I. Assyrius: 66. 12; 68. 144; cf. Syrius.Athenae: 64. 81; (64. 211 , 229 );cf. Cecropia.Atalanta: ( 2. 11 ) .Athos: 66. 46; (66. 43) .Attis: 63. 1, 27, 32, 42, 45,88.Aufilena: 100. I; 110. I , 6; III,1; Intr. 15.Aufilenus: 100. I. Aurelius: II . I; 15. 2; 16. 2; 21 1; ( 81. 4); Intr. 37, 41 .Aurora: 64. 271 .Aurunculeia: 61. 87; cf. Vinia .Auster: 26. I.Balbus: 67. 3.Battus: 7. 6.Battiades: 65. 16; 116. 2.Benacus: (4. 24; 31.13); Intr. 5.Berenice: (66. 9, 19 ff.).Bereniceus: 66. 8.Bithynia: 10. 7; (46. 4 ); Into 10 , 29 ff.; cf. Thynia.Bithynus: 31. 5 .Bononiensis: 59. 1 .Bootes: 66. 67.Boreas: 26. 3.264INDEX OF PROPER NAMES. 265Livepos)Conon: 66. 7.Cornelius: 1. 3; Intr. 12,15 , 47, 51 , 64; ( alii) 67. 35; 102. 4.Cornificius: 38. 1; Intr . 42, 56, 61 .Crannon: 64. 36.Cres: 586. 1 .Creta: 64. 82, 174; cf. Gortynius,Idacus.Croesus: 115. 3.Cupido: 3. I; 13. 12; 36. 3; 68.133.Cybele: 63. 12 , 68, 76; Cybelle 63. 9 , 20, 35, 84, 91; ( 35. 18);cf. Dindymenus, Dindymus.Cyclades: 4. 7.Cylleneus: 68. 109.Cyrenae: 7. 4.Cytorius: 4. II .Cytorus: 4. 13.Britannia: 29. 4 , 20; 45. 22; (29.14) .Britannus: 11. 12.Brixia: 67. 32, 34.Caecilius: ( poeta ) 35. 2, 18; ( Ve.ronensis) 67. 9.Caelius: 58. I; 100. 1 , 5, 8; Intr.25 , 26, 38, 41, 59; cf. Rufus.Caesius: 14. 18 .Caesar: 11. 10; 57. 2; 93. 1; (29.5, 9, 11 , 24; 54. 7); Intr. 7, 10 ,12, 26, 28 , 38 ff ., 47, 50, 51 .Callimachus: Intr. 22, 45; cf.Battiades.Callisto: 66. 66 .Caluus: 14. 2; 53. 3; 96. 2; Intr.7, 38, 60; cf. Licinius.Camerius: 55. 10; 586. 7.Canopius: 66. 58.Castor: 4. 27; 68. 65; (37. 2) .Cato: 56. 1 , 3; Intr. 62.Catullus: 6. 1; 7. 10; 8. 1 , 12,19; 10. 25; II . I; 13. 7; 14.13; 38. 1; 44. 3; 46. 4; 49. 4;51. 13; 52. I , 4; 56. 3; 58. 2;68. 27, 135; 72. 1; 76. 5; 79. 2 ,3; 82. I. Catulli frater: ( 65. 5, 10; 68, 19ff., 91 ff.; 101. 2 ff.); Intr. 9 ,22, 29, 31 .Cecropia: 64. 79, 83, 172.Celtiber: 39. 17.Celtiberia: ( n .) 37. 18; (adj.) 39.17.Ceres: 63. 36.Chalybs: 66. 48.Charybdis: 64. 156.fChineus: 67. 32.Chiron: 64. 279.Cicero: Intr. 47; cf. Tullius.Cieros: 64. 35 .Cinna: 10. 30; 95. 1; 113. I;Intr. 30 , 63.Cnidus: 36. 13.Colchi: 64. 5.Colonia: 17. 1 , 7.Coma Berenices (astrum ): 66.Dardanius: 64. 367.Daulias: 65. 14.Delius: 34. 7.Delphi: 64. 391 .Dia: 64. 52, 121 .Diana: 34. I , 3; (64. 300 ); cf. Triuia, Luna.Dindymenus: 63. 13.Dindymus: 35. 14; 63. 91 .Dione: 56. 6.Durrachium: 36. 15 .

Egnatius: 37. 19; 39. 1 , 9; Intr.25 .Emathius: 64. 324.Endymion: (66. 5) .Eous: 11. 3.Erechtheus: 64. 229.Erechthēus: 64. 211 .Erycina: 64.72; cf. Venus, Am athusia.Etruscus: 39. 11 .Eumenides: 64. 193.Europa: 68. 89.Eurotas: 64. 89.7 ff.Cominius: 108. 1; Intr. 25.Comum: 35. 4.Fabullus: 12. 15 , 17; 13. I , 14;28. 3; 47. 3; Intr. 68 f.Falernus: 27. 1 .Fauonius: 26. 2; 64. 282.266 INDEX OF PROPER NAMES .Fides: 30. II .Firmanus: 114. 1 .Flauius: 6. 1 .Formianus: 41. 4; 43. 5; 57. 4;cf. Mamurra .Fors: 64. 170, 366.Fuficius: 54. 5.Furius: 11. 1; 16. 2; 23. 1 , 24;26. 1; Intr. 37, 41 .Gaius: 10. 30; cf. Cinna.Gallae: 63. 12, 34 .Gallia: 29. 3, 20; Intr. II .Gallicanus: 42. 9.Gallicus: I1 , I. Gallus: 78. 1 , 3, 5 .Gellius: 74. 1; 80. 1; 88. 1 , 5;89. 1; 90. 1; 91. 1; 116. 6;Intr. 25, 72.Gnosius: 64. 172.Golgi: 36. 14; 64. 96.Gortynius: 64. 75.Graecus: 68. 102.Graius: 66. 58; 68. 109. 8Hadria: 36. 15.Hadriaticus: 4. 6.Hamadryas: 61. 23.Harpocrates: 74. 4; 102. 4 .Hebe: 68. 116 .Helena: 68. 87.Heliconius: 61. 1; cf. Thespius.Hellespontus: 64. 358.Hercules: 55. 13; cf. Amphitryoniades.Hesperus: 62. 20 , 26, 32, 35; 64.329.Hiberes: 9.Hiberus: 12. 14; 29. 20; 37. 20;64. 227.Hionius: 84. 12.Hortensius: 95. 3; Intr. 22, 25,65; cf. Ortalus.Hydrochocus: 66. 94.Hymen Hymenaeus: 61. 4 etsaepe.Hymenaeus: ( carmen nuptiale )62. 4; (nuptiae) 64. 20, 141;66. II.Hyperboreus: 115. 6.Hyrcanus: 11. 5.lacchus: 64. 251; cf. Liber.Ida: 63. 30 , 52, 70 .Idaeus: 64. 178.Idalium: 36. 12; 61. 17; 64. 96.Idrus: 64. 300 .Iliacus: 68. 86 .India: 45. 6.Indus: 11. 2; 64. 48.Ionius: 84. II , 12.Ipsithilla: 32. I. Italus: 1. 5.Itonus: 64. 228.Itylus: 65. 14 .luno: 34. 14; 68. 132; (64. 298).Iuppiter: 1. 7; 4. 20; 7. 5; 34 .6; 55. 5; 64. 26 , 171; 66. 30,48; 67. 2; 68. 140; 70. 2; 72.2; (64. 204 , 298, 387) .Iuuentius: 24. I; 48. 1; 81. I;99. I; Intr. 37Ladas: 586. 3.Lanuuinus: 39. 12.Lar: 31. 9.Larisaeus: 64. 36.Larius: 35. 4 .Latmius: 66. 5.Latonia: 34.5 .Laodamia: 68. 74, 80, 105.Leo ( astrum ): 66. 65 .Lesbia: 5. 1; 7. 2; 43. 7; 51. 7;58, 1, 2; 72. 2; 75. 1; 79. 1; 83.I; 86. 5; 87. 2, 5; 92. 1 , 2; 107.4; (2. I f; 3. 3 f; 8. 4f; I. 15; 37. 11; 70. 1; 76. 23; 109.1 ); Într. 16 ff., 41 .Lesbius: 79. I; Intr. 25, 28.Lethaeus: 65. 5.Liber: 64. 390; cf. lacchus.

  • Liber: 84. 5.

Libo: 54. 3.Libya: 45. 6.Libyssus: 7. 3.Libystinus: 60. 1 .Licinius: 50. 1 , 8; cf. Caluus.Ligus: 17. 19.Lucina: 34. 13.Luna: 34. 16; cf. Triuia , DianaLycaonius: 66. 66Maecilia: 113. 2.Maenas: 63. 23, 64INDEX OF PROPER NAMES . 267Magnus ( Pompeius, q.u.): 55. 6.Malius: 68. 54.Mamurra: 29. 3; 57. 2; Intr. 7,38 , 39, 73f.; cf. Formianus,Mentula.Manlius: 61. 16, 222; 68. 11 , 30;Intr. 22, 67; cf. Torquatus.Marcus: 49. 2.Marrucinus: 12. I.Mauors: 64. 394.Medus: 66. 45 .Mella: 67. 33 .Memmius: 28.9; ( 10. 13); Intr.10, 29 ff., 71.Memnon: 66. 52.Menenius: 59. 2.Mentula: 94. I; 105. I; 114. I;115. I; cf. Mamurra .Midas: 24. 4.Minois: 64. 60, 247; cf. Ariadne.Minos: 64. 85.Minotaurus: 64. 79.Musa: 35. 17; 65. 3; 68. 7, 10;( 1. 9; 68. 41 ) .Naias: 64. 287 .Naso: 112. I , 2.Nemesis: 50. 20; cf. Rhamnusia.Nepos: cf. Cornelius.Neptunius: 64. 367.Neptunus: 31. 3; 64. 2.Nereine: 64. 28.Nereis: 64. 15.Nicaea: 46. 5.Nilus: 11. 8.Nonius: 52. 2.Nouum ( Comum ): 35. 3 .Nympha: 64. 17; 88. 6 .Nysigena: 64. 252.Paris: 68. 103.Parnasus: 64. 390 .Parthus: II . 6.Pasithea: 63. 43.Pegaseus: 586. 2.Peleus: 64. 19 , 21, 26, 301, 336 ,381; (64. 323 ff.) .Peliacus: 64. I. Pelion: 64. 278.Pelops: 64. 346.Penates: 9. 3 .Penelopeus: 61. 230 .Penios: 64. 285 .Persa: 90. 4 .Perseus: 584. 3.Persicus: 90. 2.Phaethon: 64. 291.Pharsalius: 64. 37.Pharsalus: 64. 37.Phasis: 64. 3.Pheneus: 68. 109 .Phoebus: 64. 299.Phrygius: 46. 4; 61. 18; 63. 2,20; 64. 344.Phrygia: 63. 71 .Phryx: 63. 22. Phthioticus: 64. 35.Pipleus: 105. I. Piraeus: 64. 74; (64. 211 ) .Pisaurum: 81. 3 . Piso: 28. 1; 47. 2; Intr. 70.Pollio: 12. 6; Intr. 57 f .Pollux: 68. 65; (4.27); (37. 2) .Polyxenia: 64. 368.Pompeius: 113. 1; (29. 13, 24 );Intr. 38; cf. Magnus.Ponticus: 4. 9, 13; 29. 19.Porcius: 47. I. Postumia: 27. 3 .Postumius: 67. 35.Priapus: 47.4.Prometheus: 64. 294 .Propontis: 4. 9.Protesilaeus: 68. 74 .

Oarion: 66. 94 .Oceanus: 61. 89; 64. 30; 66.68; 88. 6; 115. 6 .Oetaeus: 62. 7; 68. 54.Olympus: 62. 1 .Orcus: 3. 14.Ortalus:65.2, 15; cf. Hortensius.Otho: 54. I.Quintia: 86. 1 .Quintilia: 96. 6; Intr. 60.Quintius: 82. I; 100. I; Intr . 25.Padua: 95. 7 .Parca: 64. 306, 382; 68. 85.Rauidus: 40. I. Remus: 28. 15; 58. 5.268 INDEX OF PROPER NAMES .Rhamnusia: 64. 395; 66. 71; 68.77; cf. Nemesis .Rhenus: 11. II .Rhesus: 586. 4 .Rhodus: 4. 8; Intr. 36.Rhoeteus: 65. 7.Roma: 68. 34.Romulus: 28. 15; 29. 5, 9; 34 .22; 49. I. Rufa: 59. I. Rufulus: 59. I.Rufus: 69. 2; 77. I; cf. Caelius.Sabinus: 39. 10; 44. I , 4 , 5;Intr. 10, 14.Saces: 11. 6.Saetabus: 12. 14; 25. 7.Salisubsilus: 17. 6.Sapphicus: 35. 16.Sarapis: 10. 26 .Satrachus: 95. 5.Saturnalia: 14. 15.Satyrus: 64. 252.Scamander: 64. 357.Scylla: 60. 2; 64. 156.Septimillus: 45. 13.Septimius: 45. I , 21 , 23.Sestianus: 44. 10.Sestius: 44. 19, 20 .Silenus: 64. 252.Silo: 103. 1 .Simonideus: 38. 8 .Sirmio: 31. 1, 12; Intr. 5, 10 , 14,36.Socration: 47. I. Sol: 63. 39; 64. 271 .Somnus: 63. 42.Sopor: 63. 37.Stymphalius: 68. 113.Suffenus: 14. 19; 22. I , 10 , 19.Sulla: 14. 9 .Syria: (n .) 45. 22; 84. 7; (adj. )6. 8; 66. 78; cf. Assyrius.Syrtis: 64. 156 .Tempe: 64. 35. 285, 286.Tethys: 64. 29; 66. 70; 88. 5 .Teucrus: 64. 344; cf. Troicus,Troia ( adj.).Thallus: 25. 1 , 4.Themis: 68. 153.Thermopylae: 68. 54.Theseus: 64. 53, 69, 73, 81 , 102,110, 120, 133, 200 , 207, 239, 245,247 Thespius: 61. 27.Thessalia: 64. 26, 33; cf. Ema thius.Thessalus: 64. 267, 280 .Thetis: 64. 19, 20, 21 , 28, 302,336; ( 64. 329) .Thia: 66. 44.Thracius: 4. 8.Thyias: 64. 391.Thynia: 31. 5; cf. Bithynia.Thynus: 25. 7.Thyonianus: 27. 7.Tiburs: 39. 10; 44. 1 , 3, 5.Torquatus: 61. 216; cf. Manlius.Transpadanus: 39. 13.Trinacrius: 68. 53.Triton: 64. 395.Triuia: 34. 15; 66. 5; cf. Diana,Luna.Troia: (n. ) 68. 88, 89, 90 , 99;( adj.) 65. 7; cf. Teucrus, Troi.Troicus: 64. 345; cf. Teucrus,Troia (adj.).Troiugena: 64. 355.Tullius: 49. 2.Tyrius: 61. 172.cus.Varus: 10. I; 22. 1; Intr . 66 .Vatinianus: 14. 3; 53. 2.Vatinius: 52. 3; Intr. 7 .Venus: 3. 1; 13. 12; 36. 3; 4526; 55. 20; 61. 18, 44, 61 , 198 202; 63. 17; 66. 15 , 56, 90; 68.5, 10; 86.6; ( 68. 17); cf. Ama.thusia, Erycina.Veraniolus: 12. 17; 47. 3.Veranius: 9. 1; 12. 16; 28. 3;Intr. 68 f.Verona: 35. 3; 67. 34; 68. 27;Intr. 5, 11 , 14, 15.

Tagus: 29. 19.Talasius: 61. 134.Talus: (586. 1 ) .Tappo: 104. 4 .Taurus: 64. 105.Telemachus: 61. 229.INDEX OF PROPER NAMES. 269Veronensis: 100. 2.Vesper ( astrum ): 62. 1 .Vibennius: 33. 2 .Vinia: 61. 16; cf. Aurunculeia.Victius: 98. 1 , 5; Intr. 25.Victor: 80. 7.Virgo ( astrum ): 66. 65.Vmber: 39. II .Volusius: 36. 1 , 20; 95. 7; Intr.75 .Vrania: 61. 2.Vrii: 36. 12.Zephyritis: 66. 57; cf. Arsinoe.Zephyrus: 46. 3; 64. 270.Zmyrna: 95. 1 , 5 , 6.289yniabi687INDEX TO THE NOTES.[ Consult also the Index to Proper Names.]

accusative: cognate, 7. 9 .ad quam: for in qua, 68. 69.adjective: for adverb , 64. 57 .adiurare: ' to swear by,' with direct object, 66. 40.adultery: punishment of, 15. 18.adverb: used adjectively , (post)4. 10; ( paene) 31. 1 .albus an ater: 93. 2.alid: 29. 15.aliquis: for quisquam , 73. 2.alis: 66. 28.ambulatio Magni ( Pompei): 55. 6.amores: plural for singular, 64. 27.animam agere: of breathlessness,63. 31 .anus: as adjective, 9. 4.apples: as gifts of lovers, 65. 19.aranea: in proverb , 13. 8.archaic forms: 34. 8.assis facere: 5. 3 .at: in imprecations, 3. 13.attraction: in case and gender, 4. 2.auctare: 67. 2.audibant: 84. 8.audire: for dici, with infinitive, 68.I12.aue atque uale: 101. 10 .aurae mulcent: 62. 41 .aut: ' or even, ' as second correlacampus minor: 55. 3.capiti: ablative, 68. 124.carpatina: 98. 4. catagraphi: 25. 7.cauere: constructions with, 50. 18.charta: 1. 6; regia, 22. 6.cinis: " funeral-pyre,' 68. 90 .cista: 64. 259.citarier: 61. 42.clarisonus: 64. 125.classis: of a single ship, 64. 212.cliens: 14. 6.coetu ( dative ): 66. 37.comata Gallia: 29. 3.compararier: 61. 42.componere: ' to bury ,' 68. 98.conditional wish: 17. 5 .conserere: ' beset, ' 64. 208.continuus: 14. 14.conubia: plural for singular, 64.141 .corollae plexae: 64. 283.crescere in: for increscere withdative, 113. 3.creui: for decreui, 64. 150.custodibant: 64. 319.cymbalum: 63. 21 .tive, 22. 4.barathrum: 68. 108.basium: 5. 7.books: ruled with lead, 22. 8.bride: lifted across threshold , 61.166 .dative: plural (Greek) in -sin, 64 .287.defectus: with ablative of means,65. 1 .deposiuit: 34. 8.descendere: with ellipsis of in cam pum , of candidacy for public office, 112. 1 .destinatus: for obstinatus, 8. 19.270INDEX TO THE NOTES. 271=horrificans: ' ruffling ,' 64. 270.hospes: = Févos, 68. 12.hymenaeus: 62. 4.hypallage: of adjective, 51. 11; 64.359; 64. 23 (?) .hyperbaton: 66. 18.diminutives doubled: 3. 18.discerpere: ' to revile,' 66. 73.diui parentes: 64. 404.dixerit aliquis: 67. 37.doctus: as epithet of poets, 35. 17.ecquisnam: 10. 8. ei (dative ): monosyllabic, 82. 3.elision: of final s, 116.8; succession of elisions in one verse, 73. 6.ellipsis: of fieri with posse, 42. 16;of imperative, 38. 7; of infinitive with solere, 113, 2.epanorthosis: 77. 2.epistolium: 68. 2.Eros: clad in yellow, 68. 134.esuritio: 21. " and therefore,' 83. 6.exsequi sectam: 63. 15.exsternare: 64. 71 .fac: constructions with , 63. 78.falsiparens: 68. 112.febricalosus: 6. 4.ferrugo: of a dye, 64. 227.fieri: for esse, 73. 2.finis: feminine, 64. 217.flammeum: 61. 8.floridulus: 61. 193.fuentisonus: 64. 52.fossa: 17. 19 .fraternum sodalicium: in proverb,100. 4.fulgěre: 66. 94.furcillis eicere: 105. 2.furtum: in erotic sense , 68. 136.ibi: ' thereupon ,' 63. 4 .iam dudum: forth with ,' 64. 374.ili: genitive, 63. 5 .ille: as definite article, 63. 25; re ferring to latter of two previously mentioned items, 97. 3.illius: quantity of penult, 3. 8.impalement: punishment by, 99. 4.indicative: in indirect questions,69. 10; present, with future meaning, 1. I; perfect, ending of third person plural, 62. 28.infelice: ablative, 68. 99.inferiae: 101. 2.inger ( imperative): 27. 2.inheritance: laws governing, 68.121 , 123.interea: with imperative, 101. 7.ipse: as if for dominus, 64. 43.iubere: with infinitive and dative,64. 140; with subjunctive, 32. 3.iuerint: 66. 18.iure bono: 71. I.labyrintheus: 64. 114 .lacteolus: 55. 17.lar: 31.'s fees: 14. 9.lectica: 10. 16.linquere: for relinquere, 64. 287.linteum: 12. 3.litters: 10. 15.lorum (of a book ): 22. 7.genus: accusative of specification with omne, 114. 3.gerundive: with direct object, 39. 9.gilded statues in Rome: 81. 4.grabatus: 10. 21 .habe tibi: 1. 8 .habere: as auxiliary, 17. 2.haec atque illa dies: ' to- day and to -morrow ,' 68. 152.Herculi: genitive, 55. 13.hic: referring to former of two pre viously mentioned items, 97. 3.hic: temporal, 68. 63.maenades: 63. 23.magistra uini: 27. 3 .male: 10. 33.manere: construction with, 8. 15.meditari: 62. 13.membrana: 22. 7.miseriter: 63. 49.mitra: 64. 63.mnemosynum: 12. 13.multiuolus: 68. 128 .272 INDEX TO THE NOTES.mundus ( = orbis terrarum ): 47. 2.myrtus: 61. 22.pronubae: 61. 186 .puer: of a young man, 12. 9 .pugnare: with dative, 62. 64.pumex: for finishing ms. rolls, 22. &puriter: 39. 14.namque: postpositive, 66. 65.-ne: with relatives, 64. for ne quidem, 66. 73.nemoriuagus: 63. 72 .nihil quicquam: 88. 7.nitier: 61. 42.non: for ne in prohibitions, 66. 91 .non si: following a negative, 69. 3.nuces: in marriage procession, 61 .128 .nullus: for non, 8. 14.nuntia:: ' news, ' 63. 75.nutrices: for papillae, 64. 18.

offirmare animo: 76. II .olera olla legit: in proverb, 94. 2.omnia: for quidlibet, 75. 4 .os oculosque: 9.9.oxymoron: 64. 83.palimpsestus: 22. 5 .pallium: 25. 6.parui putare: 23. 25.passer: as a pet, 2. 1 .patronus: of a lawyer, 14. 9.patruus: as a rigorcus relative, 74. 1 .perdepsere: 74. 3.periphrastic form with present par ticiple: 64. 317 perire: used absolutely, 45. 5 .perlucidulus: 69. 4.pes (of a ship): 4. 21 .pila: as sign -post, 37. 2.pili facere: 5. 3.pilleati fratres ( Castor and Pollux):quamuis: ' utterly,' 12. 5.quantity varying: 72. 6.qui ( ablative ): 2. 2. qui (ablative): for quibus, 116. 3.quicum: feminine, 69. 8.quisquam: not following negative,76. 7. quisquis: used absolutely, 68. 28.radicitus: ' roots and all,' 64. 288.rastrum: 64. 39.recepso: 44. 19.recrepare: 63. 29.relative: referring to proper adjec tive, 64. 369.retonare: 63. 82.reuisere: used absolutely, 64. 387.rusum: 63. 47.s: disregarded in scansion , 116. 8.saeuus: as substantive, 64. 110.salaputium: 53. 5 .saltus: of an estate, 114. I. scrinium: 14. 18 .seu: for uel si, 82. 4.silua: of a single tree, 4. 11 .siluicultrix: 63. 72.simul: with atque (ac) understood,singular: for plural of first person ,6. 16; 77. 4, 6.sneezing as good omen: 45.9.soccus: 61. 10.solea: of a draught-animal, 17. 26.sonipes: 63. 41 .spinning: process of, 64. 311 .strophium: 64. 65 .struma: 52. 2.subjunctive: of general statement,22. 9; with iubere, 32. 3; with quod, of untrue reason, 91. 3;present in protasis and imperfect in apodosis of condition contrary to fact, 6. 2; 586. 10; imperfect in protasis with imperfect indica

22. 15.37. 2.

pleonasm of uelle: 93. I. ploxenum: 97. oculis amare: 3. 5.pons: of a causeway , 17. I. postilla: 84. 9.postquam: constructions with , 50.14.pote: with est understood, 17. 24.praecerpere: ' clipping down ,' 64.353.praegestire: 64. 145.proferre: with ablative, 64. 196.6INDEX TO THE NOTES. 273tive in apodosis of general condi.tion, 84. I; imperfect in apodosis with suppressed protasis, 66. 94.suopte: 51. 10. super: for desuper, 61. 29.syncope: in perfect tense, second person singular, 14. 14.uae: construction with , 8. 15 .uagus sol: 64. 271.uehemens: dissyllabic, 50. 21.uiden ut: construction with , 61.77.uinea humilis: 64. 39.uiuere: in pregnant sense, 5. 1; in sense of esse , 10. 33.umbilicus: 22. 7.unanimus: 9. 4.unctus: with caput, 10. II .uni ( genitive) , 17. 17.unus: ' a mere,' 22. 10; for uter .que, 113. 3.uritur flamma: 61. 177.urtica: 44. 15.ut: locative, 11. 3.templum Iouis (Capitolini): 55. 5 .tempus: for caput, 61. 162.tenebricosum: 3. II .tenus: with genitive, 64. 18.tetuli: 63. 47, 52; 66. 35 .thyrsus: 64. 256.tibia: 63. 22.tigillum: 67. 39.turbo: attached to spindle, 64. 314.tuus: for objective genitive, 64. 253.typanum: 63. 8.white: as color of good fortune, 64.222.

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